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Full text of "Annual report of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario"

A. M. SMITH, 



President of the Fruit Growers' Association 



!)f Ontario for the year 1890. 



i \y 






TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



OF TlIK 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



OF ONTARIO. 



1890. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 




TORONTO: \'SZSS^ 

PRINTED„:BY WARWICK & SONS, 68 & 70 FRONT STREET WESj 

1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page. 

Letter of Transmittal v. 

Officers for 1891 vi. 

'Ihe Annual Meeting vi. 

Treasurer's Report vii. 

President's Annual Address vii. 

Committees appointed at Annual Meet- 
ing xiv. 

Report on New Fruits xv. 

The Winter Meeting 1 

Vine Culture and Wine making in Efsex. 12 

Experimental Farms: Wm. Saunders, 

Ottawa 13 

Fruit Rooms and Storage of Fruits : T. 
T. Lyon, President Michigan Hor- 
ticultural Society 22 

Peach Growing for Profit : J. F. Taylor, 

Douglas, IMichigan 25 

Experience in Pear Culture : J. K. Mc- 

Michael, Waterford 32 



Page. 

How to Prune a Commercial Orchard : 

A. McNeil, Windsor 37 

A simple Way to make pure Grape Wine 
for Home Use : E. Gerardot, 
Windsor 39 

Fruit as Food : L. Woolverton, Grimsby 46 

Peach Growing in the Niagara District : 

L. Woolverton, Grimsby 56 

Suitability of Ornamental Trees : D. 

Nichol, Cataraqui 60 

Humbugs in Horticulture : T. H. Race, 

Mitchell 63 

The Curculio : Mr. Billings, Niagara. . . 72 

Pear Blight : J. K. McMichael, Water- 
ford 75 

How to Make the best of Ten Acres of 
Land : E. Morden, Niagara Falls 
South 78 

The Ontario Fruit List 82 



INDEX 



Ammoniacal Carbonate of Copper 55 

Apple Packing 76 

Apple Scab 49, 54 

Apples, Carbonate of Soda for ... 54 

Apples for Stock 47 

Apples, New — 

Beresinskoe xvii. 

Golden White xvi. 

Haliburton xv. 

Russian varieties imported, 1890 . . xix. 
Apples. Seedling — 

Hentlerson's xvii. 

McMillan's xvi. 

Renaud's xvi. 

Wilson's XV. 

Ashes for Gooseberry Mildew 51 

Bassett's Amer'can plum 43 

Ben Davis apple 7 

Birch, Cut-leaved Weeping 61 

Bradshaw {)lum 41, 42 

Canadian Horticulturist, benefit of ... . ix. 



Carbonate of Copper for Apple Scab ... 54 

Carrying companies 71 

Cherry, Clarke's September xviii 

Coal ashes as a fertilizer 37 

Curculio 52, 72 

" Paris Green for 53 

Dry House 18 

Essex, apples for 9 

" Vine culture in 12 

" As a Fruit section 16 

Evaporated Fruit, galvanized trays for. 20 
" Growth and importance of the in- 
dustry 16 

" Zinc in 21 

Exhibitors, should they be owners 9 

Experimental Farm 14 

Experimental Grounds 1 

Fameuse apple 5 

Fertilizers for Orchards :}5 

Fruit as Food 46 



IV. 



Page. 

Fruit carriage xii. 

Fruit Growers' Association, History of. . viii. 

Fruit Growing in Michigan 11 

"• n Niagara Peninsula . . 59 

Fruit R;oms, o.nd Fruit Storage 22 

Fruit Varieties and Improvetnents xiii. 

Glass Seedling plum 42 

Golden Russet apple 5 

Gooseberrj' Mildew 49 

Gooseberry, Sutherland's xviii 

Grand Duke plum 43 

Grape Vine, pruning of 37 

Grape Wine for Home Use 39 

Greening apple ^ 

Grime's Golden apple 1 

Handl ng Fruit x. 

Hedges for Southern Onta-io 45 

Horticulture in Schools 13 

Hudson River Purple Egg plum 41 

Humbugs in Horticulture 63 

Hyposulphite of Soda 54 

Imperial Gage plum 42 

Japan Plums 43 

Judging Fruit at Fairs -2 

King apple 2 

Lombard i)lum 41, 43 

Mann apple .... 5 

Marketing Fruits 68 

Marketing Grapes 38 

Mice aod Rabbits, Prevention of 34 

Mildew and other Fungi 30 

McLaughlin plum v,. . . . 42 

New Fruits xv. 

Northern Spy apple 3 

Obituary Notices xix. 

John Croil xii. 

Charles Gibb xii. 

W. H. Mills xii. 

One-Judge System at Fairs 22 

Ontario Fruit List 1 , 82. 84 

Orn imental Trees, Suit ibility of 60 

Packages f r Fruit 70 

Parini? Machines 19 



Page. 

Peacli Growing for Profit 25 

Peach Growing in the Niagara District . . 56 

Peach Tree Borer 30 

Peaches, Ashes f(jr 29 

" New varieties of 26 

' ' Six best for Essex Co 30 

" Six best for Niagara District. ... 31 

" Yellows in 27 

Pear Blight 33, 75 

Pear Culture, Experience ia 32, 81 

Peter's Yellow Gage plum 41 

Pilfering Fruit . . 71 

Planting Ornamental Trees 60 

Planting unsuitable Trees 62 

Plants for Testing xi. 

Plums — 

" Culture of 41 

" Six best 41 

' ' Three best for Home Use 43 

Points in Peach Growing 56 

Princess Louise apple 4 

Prilning Grapes 37 

Pruning Norway Spru'-e 63 

Radway Freights 44 

Red Canada apple 7 

Reine Claude plum 42 

Russian Apricoc 44 

Salome Apple (i, 44 

Saunders. Wm. , Address of 13 

Seedling Fruits 44 

Selling Fruit by Auction 69 

Shiawassee Beauty apple 6 

Silver Poplar condemned 61 

Single Specimens of Ornamental Trees . 60 

Spitzenberg apple 5 

Spraying Trees in Bloom 34 

" Mixture for 50 

' ' Time for 35 

Stark apple 4 

Storage of Fruit 23 

Strawberry, The Williams xvii. 

Ten Acres in Fruit, to make tlie best of. 78 

Wild Black Cherry 61 

Williams' Strawberry 67 

Wine, pure 39 

Witch Hazel 26 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ONTARIO FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



To THE Hon. John Dkyden, Minister of Agriculture : 

Sir — I have the honor of submitting for j-our approval the twenty-second Annual 
Rejiort of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. 

In doing so, I beg that you will notice the efforts which are being made by our 
Association toward (1) the preparation of a complete list of fruits adapted to Canada 
with values of a perfect specimen of each variety attached, which it is hoped may form a 
basis for greater uniformity and fairness in judging fruits at fairs ; and (2) the prepara- 
tion of district fruit lists, which may serve as a useful guide to intending planters, by 
showing what varieties may be successfully grown in the various localities. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

LINUS WOOLVERTON, 

Secretary. 
Grimsby, October, 1890. 



OFFICERS FOR 1891. 



President : 

J. A. Morton Winghara 

Vice-President : 

A. H. Pettit Grimsby 

Secretary-Treasurer and Editor : 

Linus Woolverton, M. A Grimsby. 

Directors : 



Divis 
Divis 
Divis 
Divis 
Divis 
Divis 
Divis: 
Divis 
Divis 
Divis 
Divis: 
Divis 
Divis 



on No. 1 W. S. Turner, Cornwall. 

on No. 2 John Oraig, Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

on No. 3 D. Nichol, Cataraqui. 

on No. 4 P. C. Dempsey, Trenton. 

on No. 5 Thomas Beall, Lindsay. 

on No. G W. E. Wellington, Toronto. 

on No. 7 M. Pettit, Winona. 

on No. 8 A. M. Smith, St. Catharines. 

on No. 9 J. K. McMichael, Watei ford. 

on No. 10 A. McD. Allan, Goderich. 

on No. 1 1 T. H. Race, Mitchell. 

on No. 12 N. J. Clinton, Windsor. 

on No. 13 G. C. Oaston, Craighurst. 

Auditors : 



James Goldie Guelph. 

J. M. Denton London. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING 



The annual meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, was held in the 
City Hall, Hamilton, on Tuesday evening, the 16th December. 1890. 

The President, Mr. A. M. Smith, of St. Catharines, took the chair at 8 o'clock p.m., 
and introduced Mr. D. INfcLellan, mayor of the city, whose remarks are here reportep 
in brief, owing to the absence of the official reporter. 

The mayor said that when he received a letter from the secretary of the Associa 
tion, asking for the use of the council chamber for this meeting, he had at once placed it 
before the city council, and it had received the hearty sanction of that body. He 
regretted that there was not that evening a larger local attendance of the citizens of 
Hamilton to show the interest they take in the progress of horticulture and agriculture 
in our country. He thought that the Association had done a wise thing in choosing the 
city of Hamilton as their place of meeting, because this city was situated in the very 
heart of the best fruit region of Ontario, and near to the Niagara district, which is so 
well and so favorably known on account of its great adaptability to the culture of our 
finest varieties of fruits. By such meetings as these, aud through the interesting and valu- 
able reports of them which were scattered so widely by the Department of Agriculture, 
the Association was advertising the capabilities of this province throughout the whole 
world. The agricultural delegates of the British farmers who had recently visited this 
country, had carried away with them the most favorable impressions of the agricultural 
and horticultural resources of this province. He was aware that no very lengthened 
address was expected of him at this time, and he would therefore simply extend to the 
As.sociation a most hearty welcome on behalf of the citizens of Hamilton. 

The President replied on behalf of this Association, thankiug his worship the 
mayor, and through him the citizens of Hamilton generally, for the kind welcome, 
which had just been extended to them. On coming to this city the society felt that 
they were in a sense only coming home again, for it was its birthplace, and fo»- this 
reason, as well as because of the general interest always manifested here in their work, 
the members felt more at home than in any other city in the province. Thej president 
closed his remarks with some complimentary expressions regarding the ^beauty of the 
hall which the city had so freely placed at the disposal of the association. ' 



THE TREASURER'S REPORT. 



After the minutes of the last annual meeting were read the Treasurer's report was 
presented as follows : 



Receipts. 



Balance on hand last audit 

Membeis' fees 

Government grant 

Advertisements 

Back numbers and bound volumes of 

the Canadian Horticulturist 

Petty receipts 



231 86 
2,012 .S5 
1,800 00 

296 87 

43 18 
1 17 



4,385 43 




Plant distribstion 

Canadian Horticulturist 

Chromo lithographs 

Electrotypes 

Directors' expenses 

Express and duty 

Printing and stationery ... 

Postage and telegrams 

Commissions 

Care of rooms at meetings .... — . 

Stenographer 

Discounts 

Exchanges 

Advertising meetings 

Salary Secretary-Treasurer, Editor and 

office clerk 

Balance on hand 



$ c. 


291 86 


1,598 01 


233 00 


73 78 


464 36 


230 45 


76 38 


85 61 


85 08 


12 60 


128 15 


14 05 


4 60 


3 00 


1,000 00 


84 50 


4,385 43 



To the President and Directors of the Fruit Growers Astoc<atio7i : 

Gentlemen, — We, the undersigned, appointed to audit the receipts and disbursements of the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer for the year ending December, 1890, beg to present the following report : 

We have examined the vouchers, compared them with the items of expenditure, and find them 
correct, showing a balance deposited in the Canadian Bank of Commerce, Hamilton, of $84.50. 

Your auditors wish to bear testimony to the careful manner in which the books of the Association 
are kept. 

.J AS. GOLDTE, 1 »„h;,_„ 
J. M. DENTON, J" ^^"'^"^°'^^- 
Hamilton, December 16th, 1890. 

Upon motion the treasurer's statement and the audit thereof were duly adopted. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 

Gbntlemen, — In pursuance of a time-honored custom it becomes my duty to review 
the labors of another year, or in other words to give an account of our stewardship, and 
to present some thoughts upon horticultural topics that may be of interest. Although 
the origin and advancement of our association has frequently been alluded to in the 
annual addresses of my predecessors in office, I feel that it would not be out of place in 
again meeting here in the birthplace of our society, to glance a little farther back than 
over the year which has just passed, to the time when our existence began and note 
the progress and advancement we have made. 

Nearly thirty-two years ago, or, on the 19th of January, 1859, in the board room of 
the Mechanic's Hall in this f^ity, was organized what was then called the Fru t Growers' 
Association for Upper Canada ; which name was afterwards changed to the Fruit 
Growers' Association of Ontario. The late Judge Campbell of Niagara was its first 
President He died within a year and there was no re-election of officers till the 16th of 



January, 1861. though thore was a meeting for show of fruit and discussion of fruit 
topics in October previous, at which time ray connection with tliis association began. I 
tliink I have only been absent from two of its annual and five or six of its other meet- 
ings since that time. There were seventeen members at this meeting, quite a show of 
fiuit, and a good display of enthusiasm, besides some ramV)ling discussion, and it was 
decided to hold a meeting for the election of officers on the 16th of January following, 
which was accordingly held. At this meeting the late Judge Logie, of Hamilton, was 
elected president, which office he held till the year 1867, when he was succeeded by the 
late Wm. H. i\lills, of this city. During this period meetings were held two or three 
times a year, at various places, for show of fruits and discussions upon topics connected 
with fruit culture, which brought out a great amount of useful information and no doubt 
helped to lay the foundation of success in fruit culture which followed, though the meet- 
ings were often but poorly attended, and the membonship of the society had only in- 
creased to thirty members. Fruit growing for profit was little thought of in Canada at 
that time, except by a few persons in the Niagara district, and a few other favored 
localities. In fact it was a question in many parts of the country, where fruit is now 
grown largely for market, whether it could be grown at all or not. Many had planted 
different varieties in many localities on the recommendation of traveling agents which 
were not adapted to the country and their failure had discouraged them and others from 
planting. During the year 1SG8, through the efforts of Mr. Mills and his co-laborers, 
the society was incorporated under the Society and Arts Act, and became entitled to 
receive from the public funds a yearly grant of $350. This enabled us to collate, pub- 
lish and distribute the information gathered in our society and also adopt a system of 
sending out plants and trees to the different members in various parts of the province 
for trial, and this has been productive of a vast amount of good in showing what varieties 
are-and what are not adapted to dilTerent localities. From that time forward, our labors 
have been a continual success. We have held our meetings in nearly every part of the 
province, thus arousing local interest in the work, and encouraging farmers and others 
to plant fruit. The Government, seeing our good works, have from time to time 
increased our grant to enable us to carry out special plans for the advancement of this 
interest ; notably our exhibits of fruit at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia and 
the Colonial in England, which did more to attract attention to Canadian fruits aud 
place them in the position they now occupy, in the front rank of the best markets of the 
world, than all other causes combined. In thus attracting attention to Canada as a fruit 
country it would naturally be suggested that a climate adapted to fruit growing would brf 
a desirable one to live in and thus I have not the least doubt that we have been instru- 
mental in bringing many settlers from other countries to Canada. 

Another scheme, which our Government grant has enabled us to carry out, has been 
the publishing of our Canadian Ilortindturist, a medium through which a vast fund of 
useful information is conveyed to our members and many of the general public besides , 
and under the management of its present efficient editor it is constantly growing better 
and its usefulness is extending. I need not say this to the members, who all receiye it, 
but to those here who are not members I would say join our association, if for no other 
reason than in order that you may have the Canadian IlorticuUurist. 



X. 



Our membership has increased from the little group of 30, in 1868, to over 2,000, 
and we have the proud satisfaction of being the largest horticultural society in America, 
if not in the whole world ; while the culture of fruit throughout the country has made 
corresponding ad%'ancement. Our towns and cities which were formerly largely supplied 
from the neighboring republic are now abundantly stocked with fruits of our own grow- 
ing, and many Siections of our country to which apples were sent from the States and 
Niagara district thirty years ago, are now exporting thousands of barrels annually to the 
old country, and even to the United States, and that of a quality, too, which can not be 
excelled or even equalled in the whole world. And by careful hybridizing and judicious 
selections, varieties have been found that will succeed in many sections where it was 
thought fruit could not be grown, and, if experiments and plans which are now under 
way succeed, and I have every confidence that they will, the day is nob far distant when 
every inhabitant of Ontario, if not of the Dominion, who has land capable of being tilled, 
if he cannot sit " under his own vine and fig tree " may at least, if he choose, raise enough 
of some kinds of fruit to supply his own table. 

Great improvements have been made also in the methods of handling fruits and in 
packages. Thirty years ago, when I used to attend the Hamilton market, berries of all 
kinds were brought in in pans and pails, and dipped out with the hand or with ladles 
into measures, often in a condition ready for jam. Apples, pears and sometimes peaches 
if not too soft were marketed in grain or meal bags, which had frequently not been very 
well shaken — the bags I mean — the fruit had plenty in being got oti' the trees and over 
the rough roads in lumber wagons — there were no express offices between St. Catharines 
and Hamilton, or that place and Toronto, I think ; but now we have attractive baskets 
and packages for every kind of fruit and it is carefully conveyed in spring wagons to 
the railway station where express agents are ready to receive and forward it to its desti- 
nation. But, notwithstanding the progress of fruit culture there have been many -dis- 
ouragements and hindrances to contend with. Blight, fungus, mildew, yellows, black- 
knot, frost and insects of various kinds, often step in and cut off our crops and blast the 
hopes of fruit growers, and they have to be ever on the alert to protect themselves from 
these enemies. The methods and experiments in combatting these evils, brought out in 
discussions at our various meetings and communicated to the public and others, through 
our IL.rticulturist and Annual Eeport, have been of incalculable benefit. There has not 
only been a great advance in fruit growing during the last thirty years but also a great 
advance along all other horticultural lines, particularly in the rural districts. There is 
more taste displayed in laying out and beautifying grounds, in planting trees, shrubs and 
flowers ; in making homes attractive, than previously, and we believe that the Fruit 
Growers' Association of Ontario has done much in the development of this taste and in 
bringing about these excellent results. The year that has just passed, has been a very 
discouraging one to many of us, particularlj' to growers of apples. Although the spring 
opened with an abundance of bloom and there was every indication of a bountiful crop, 
there came a cold east storm which blasted the fruit and entirely destroyed it through 
the middle and southern portions of Ontario, except in a few sheltered and favored loca- 
tions. The counties of Huron, Bruce, Grey and a portion of Simcoe were the only ones 
which had any apples of any account to export. The same storm nearly destroyed the 



XI. 



peach crop also, ami in many sections the plum and cherry. Pears have been a medium 
crop, and the grape crop simply enormous, yielding five to six tons to the acre and some 
varieties even as high as eight to ten tons. Small fruits liave been a fair crop and all 
kinds of fruit have brought good prices. On the whole, fruit growers have been as suc- 
cessful as any other class of agriculturists. I think, however, that this sea.son will 
demonstrate the fact that it is not wise for those whose only income is from fruit, to 
depend altogether upon one kind. " Don't put all of your eggs in one basket." Mauy 
an orjhardist, who has depended solely upon his apples or peaches this past year, finds 
himself in a bad position, while those who have had an assortment of fruits have had some- 
thing to fall back upon. 

Now a word about our labors for the past year. Besides the issuing of our liort'i- 
cullurist and annual report, we have arranged a list of the varieties of apples adapted 
to Ontario, showing their relative values, hardiness, productiveness, quality etc., estab- 
lishing a scale of points for judging fruit at fairs, which we think will be of great value ; 
we have held two meetings for the show of fruits and discussions a full account 
of which will appear in our next annual report. These meetings have been well attended 
by our own members and their friends, besides we have had several prominent horticul- 
turists from the United States to give us the benefit of their experience, so that, alto- 
gether, the report of 1890 may be looked for as one of great value. We have distributed 
over 2,000 trees, vines, and plants to our members for trial, and let me here emphasize 
that word trial, for I fear too many of our members think these trees and plants are given 
just as an inducement for them to become members, or as a gift, and as they cost them 
nothing they do not give them the care and attention they should. This is not the 
object for which they are given ; they are given you for trial. They are generally new 
and untried varieties and we wish to have them tested in different sections of the country 
and upon difterent soils and locations and careful reports made upon thepi for the good 
of the country at large. So, if they are valuable, others can plant them and if they are 
not suited to one section, let it be known, so that others in that section will avoid plant- 
ing them. We consider that you get your dollar's worth from the Horticulturist and 
report and that you should do this testing for the good of others. 

Another work which many of the prominent members of the association have been 
engaged in and which 1 think will be productive of much good, has been the visiting of 
farmers' institutes throughout the province and taking part in the discussions upon 
horticultural subjects, imparting what information they couM in relation to fruit grow- 
ing. During the year we have had a Dominion convention of I'ruit growers which many 
of our members attended, and at which many questions of interest were discussed. 

Perhaps the most important was that of shipping and marketing. Agents of differ- 
ent transportation companies met us and listened to our grievances and suggestions, 
and they manifested a desire to furnish us better facilities and greater dispatch in ship- 
ping our fruits. I believe, as a result, there has been an improvement in this respect 
during the year, though I think we have just cause to complain yet of the way our fruit 
is handled by some of the express companies, and their want of proper accommodation 
in their ca-s, which are generally destitute of shelves for storing fruit. Slight baskets 



xn. 



are piled one upon the other in such a way that frequently when it comes off the car it 
is in better condition for pigs than for placinij upon the market. There is another griev- 
ance in connection with the express companies which I think it the duty of thts Asso- 
ciation to look into and try to have remedied. I refer to the petty pilfering of fruit 
from baskets and packages while in transit. I presume there is not a shipper who does 
not receive complaints every year from his customers of weight or measure beiug short, 
or baskets being broken open and fruit abstracted. The loss is generally so small that if 
he is very busy he does not take the trouble to report it, and if he does he seldom gets 
any satisfaction. The large shippers do not often notice it, but it comes especially severe 
on the small dealers in country towns and private individuals who are getting a few 
baskets for their own consumption. As a case in point, I was stopping a few weeks in 
the little town of Brussels last fall during the grape .season, and a widow woma/iVivin^ 
there who made her living by selling fruit and confectionery wanted me to order her up 
some grapes for retailing, 100 pounds or so at a time. I did so and when the first lot 
came up she reported them five or six pounds short. Thinking there might possibly be 
a mistake on the part of my shippers I deducted it from her bill and let it pass. On the 
arrival of the next shipment I happened to be in her store when they were delivered and 
noticed that some of the baskets had been broken open. I took one and weighed it and 
found that there had been stolen over three pounds by actual weight. I showed it to the 
agent and he reported it to the superintendent of the company, and that is the last I have 
heard about it. There was from 20 to 30 cents' worth on each shipment taken from 
this poor woman's hard earnings which would in two or three weeks amount to several 
dollars and she had no means of redress. If there had been that amount taken from a 
money or from any other package of value there would have been an investigation and 
restitution, and the guilty parties punished. Why should not property in fruit be 
respected as well as in any other commodity ? I trust there will be a committ( e 
appointed to look into and remedy this evil. 

While we congratulate ourselves upon the achievements of the past we must not 
forget the duties of the present. There are many evils to remedy, wrongs to be righted, 
errors to be corrected, in the horticultural line as well as in others, and while we have 
made advancement in the past we must not forget that we are far from what we ought 
to be considering our advantages. There is not a country in the civilised world that has 
a better .soil and climate for growing apples, pears, plums, cherries and many varieties of 
grapes in perfection than we have, to say nothing of small fruits, yet there is not one 
farmer in ten, take Ontario through, that grows half of these fruits required for his own 
use even. I have travelled through some of the best fruit sections of the province during 
the past year, been upon the farms of some of our most prosperous farmers antl enjoyed 
the hospitality of their homes, and I was surprised at their want of horticultural taste 
and knowledge. Even where every other surrounding was all that could be desired, as 
good buildings and fences, good horses and cattle, good roots and grain, well tilled fields, 
yet when you looked tor the orchard, the fruit or the fiower garden or the lawn, they 
were either wanting or in a very neglected condition ; and while their tables were well 
supiilied with the substantial and luxuries of other kinds, there was a noticeable absence 



Xlll. 



of what, to nie, is an indispensahle diet — fruit. I may be wrong in my ideas about food 
but I have often thought that if farmers would eat less fat pork and more fruit they 
would be healthier and happier if not better looking than they are. This would certainly 
be the case if there is truth in the adage that " like begets like." But about the health- 
fulness of fruit, there can be no doubt about the elevating influence of horticultural pur- 
suits, and I believe it to be the duty of every member of this Association to do all he can 
to interest and instruct his neighbors in these pursuits both by precept and example. 
Show them your own well-kept grounds stocked with the best trees, shrubs and plants 
that your means will atibrd, give them a taste of your best fruits, ask them to attend our 
meetings, show them The Canadian Horticulturist and annual report, and persuade them 
to become members of our Association. I believe if our farmers could be induced to 
take more interest in these things, and surround their homes with these attractions we 
should hear less complaints about their sons and daughters leaving the farm to engage in 
other pursuits. Perhaps I am taxing your patience, still I would .'ike to say a word in 
regard to varieties of fruits and their improvement. 

If we look over the thirty years of the past we can recollect a great many varieties 
particularly of grapes and small fruits, that have been introduced to us with a " <^reat 
flourish of trumpets" by their friends or persons interested in the sale of the plants, 
which have been received and cared for at great exj^ense, and we have found that a ma- 
jority of them, like some of the human species, have not improved on acquaintance and 
we have been obliged to discard them, while a comparative few have come to stay, and 
are_^an improvement on the older varieties. These have amply repaid us for the time 
and money bestowed upon them, still we can but feel that this continual testincr of new 
varieties is a constant strain upon our time and purse, and as testing new fruits is a work 
that benefits the whole country I do not see why our government should not assist us in 
this work. But it may be said by some that we have agricultural and experimental 
farms already for doing this work, at Guelph and Ottawa. I would ask what can be 
done at either of these places in testing tender varieties of apples, pears, plums or 
cherries, much less grapes, peaches, apricots, nectrines, etc. 1 I know that Professor 
Saunders and his staft are doing a great work in bringing out varieties adapted to the 
colder parts of the province, and his experiments in hybridizing strawberries, raspberries 
gooseberries, currants, etc., will undoubtedly be of great benefit to us here. I had the 
pleasure, during the raspberry season, of visiting the experimental farm at Ottawa and 
seeing some of the marvellous results of his labors and testing. Of the kundreds of 
varieties of this delicious fruit which he has produced by hybridizing and the careful 
selection of varieties, and I have no hesitation in saying that many will prove superior 
in many respects to anything that we now have in cultivation, and I think the .same will 
prove true in many other of his fruits. I sincerely believe that the results he has already 
achieved will more than pay the country for all the expenses incurred in the horticultural 
department of the experimental farm, and his work has but just began. I believe if we 
had an experimental ground carefully conducted somewhere in Southern Ontario, where 
our tender fruit trees, shrubs and plants could be grown and tested, and where only 
vaiieties that were worthy of cultivation would be recommended, it would be a great 



XIV. 



boon to the country, and in 30 years more we would make much more rapid advances in 
the improvement of varieties than we have in the past. I hope that a committee will be 
appointed by this Association to interview the Government upon this subject. 

It wives me much pleasure to meet my co-laborers here in the city of Hamilton 
attain, and although I do not see many faces that I met here thirty years ago, it reminds 
me of them and of the many pleasant meetings we have had here. It reminds me too 
that many of them have passed away. Only a few of the original founders of this 
society are left ; their places have been filled by other workers, and some of them have 
been called also. During the past year we have lost one from our board of Directors 
whose f^enial, kindly face will be missed by all ; ever active in the discharge of duty, 
cheerful, jovial and true as a friend, the name of John Croil will ever be revered by the 
members of this Association. We have sustained another sreat loss in the death of Wm. 
H. Mills of this city. It was largely through his efforts that we became incorporated 
and received the Government grant, and although since his retirement from office he has 
not taken an active part in our meetings, he has had a deep interest in our success, labors 
and welfare as evinced in his generous donation of his entire stock of his hybrid grape, 
the Mills, which will be distributed to the members of the Association next spring. Not 
only this Association but the horticultural world has met with a great loss in the death 
of Charles Gibb, of Abbotsford, Quebec, whose whole life was devoted to this'pursuit, and 
whose labors and researches have done more to secure fruits adapted to the colder parts 
of our country than those of any other man. Another prominent horticulturist across 
the line to whom we are much indebted and whom many of us knew, and whom to know 
was to respect and love, and who has done as much probably for this cause as any man 
in the United States, has gone. I refer to Patrick Barry of Rochester, X.Y., who has 
long been the honored president of the Western New York Horticultural Society. We 
mourn with them his loss. Thus one after another of our workers pass away, but the 
fruits of their labors live after them — more enduring monuments than those of marble 
or granite — to perpetuate their memory. May their mantle fall on us, and when our 
work here is finished may those who are left behind point to some rich results of our 
labors. 



On motion it was resolved that this Association hereby express its appreciation of 
the excellent address just given by the President, and refer the points touched upon to 
the consideration of a committee hereafter to be appointed. 



COMMITTEES, 



A nominating committee was appointed to nominate the officers for the coming year, 
consisting of Messrs. M. Pettit and D. Nichol appointed by the chair, and Messrs. P. C. 
Dempsey, W. E. Wellington and J. K. Leslie appointed by the meeting. This com- 
mittee reported as follows : — 

President— J. A. Morton. Vice-Prc»ident—A. H. Pettit. Directors— \, W. S.Turner; 2, John Craig ; 
3 D Nichol ; 4, P. C. Uempcey ; 5, Thos. Beall ; G, W. E. Wellington ; 7, M. Pettit : 8, A. M. Smith ; 
9, J. K. McMichael : 10, A. McD Allan; 11, T. H. Race ; 12, N. J. Clinton ; 13, G. C. Caston. Auditors - 
j'as. Goldie and J. M. Denton. After these names had been voted upon seriatim the report was adopted. 



XV. 



At a meeting of the directors held subsequent to the election, L. Woolverton, of 
Grimsby, was re-appointed secretary-treasurer and editor of the Canadian Hortic u t 

The following committees were appointed by the chair, viz : 

Fruit Exhibit.— A. McD Allan, John Craig: anil A. Alexander. Legislation,— T. Beall, P. E. Bucke 
and G. C. Caston. New Fruits.-W. K. Wellington, M. Pettit and A. M. Smith. Special. — P. C. 
Dempsey, Jas. tJoldie and the secretary. 

Communications were read from Prof. Saunders, regretting that he could not arrange 
to be present, from the Hon. J. M. Gibson and the Mini.ster of Agriculture and others 
e.vpressing their intention of being present. 

The Secretary stated that he had received a letter also from the Department of 
Agriculture, to the etlect that it was the intention of the department to bind in cloth a 
sutiicient number of copies of the report to supply all actual members of the association, 
This statement was received with great satisfaction. 



KEPORT ON NEW FRUITS. 

The following paper on new fruits, that have been brought under his notice was" 
read by the Secretary : 

It will be gratifying to the board of directors, and others interested, to know that 
some work is being done each year by our association in recording the origination of new 
and promising varieties of Canadian fruits, as well as in testing the suitability of highly 
commended varieties of foreign origin. 

In apples particularly, there have been quite a number of very promising varieties 
sent in to me for my opinion, some of which I have forwarded on to the other raenjbers 
of the Committee, and others I have noticed in the Cayiadian Ilorticulltirist without 
that precaution. I will now give you a list of these, in order that a record of them may 
be kept in our report, pending farther test of their merits. 

Wilson's Seedling. — A magnificent fall apple of very large size and fine color 
found growing by the kitchen door in .Mr. B. Willson's yard in Wingham, and sent in 
by Mr. J. A. ]\Iorton. The tree grows vigorously, and has a rather compact, bushy 
head. 

Description.— Size, very large; form, conical; skin, yellowish, spattered and shaded 
with very bright red on the sunny side ; stem, set in a moderately deep, even basin • 
flesh, yellowish white, somewhat inclined to water core, tender and of a pleasant flavor.' 
A good cooking apple. Season, October. 

The Haliburton. — This apple was sent me by Messrs. Cavers Bros., of Gait, for 
an opinion. It appears to be a local apple grown for some years in the township of 
Haliburton, under that name, and possesses sufficient beauty of appearance to merit 
notice. The description of the apple given below was prepared by Prof. Saunders. 

Grown north of Peterboro', size medium or under, 2^ x 2^, form oblate, color pale 
yellow, nearly oKscurtd on the side exposed to the sun by carmine red, marked with 
splashes and streaks of a deeper hue. Stalk short and moderately stout, set in a small 
but rather deep cavity, calyx open with a very shallow smooth basin. Flesh fine "rained 
creamy white and more or less tinged with pink, rather soft in texture, austere and with' 
an acid taste, with very little flavor, a pretty apple, but of poor quality. Ripe latter end 
of September. 

Green Fameuse. — An apple sent me by Mr. R. W. Shepherd, jr., of Montreal. He 
says the original tree is some twenty-live years of age, and is growing on bi.s farm at 
Oomo. The fruit i.s larger than the Fameuse proper, and he describes it as being a heavy 
bearer, and very little, if, any given to spotting. In other respects it seems to have all 
the qualities of the Fameuse as generally known, with the exception of color. This 
seems to be its chief lack to make it very desirable. 



Renaud's Seedling. — A winter apple of gi-eat promise, sent in by Mr. Robert 
Hamilton, of Grenville, P.Q. [t is a chance seedling, found growing on the farm of 
Mrs. Reiiaud, Grenville, and is now about eighteen or twenty years old, a fact which 
points out its undeniable hardiness, for Grenville is about north latitude idh, on a line 
with the Parry Sound district. We have for this latitude plenty of good fall apples, 
but a real tir.st-class winter apple is the disideratum. Possibly in this seedling the wtint 
may be supplied. The apple appeared to me to possess four important points of excel- 
lence, viz : — size, beauty, productiveness and hardiness. 1 have therefore made a draw- 
ing of a section of it to give some idea of its exjict .size and shape. 




Section of Renaud's Skkdling. 

Description. — Size, large ; form, rounilish, with three or four more or less prominent 
ribs ; skin, green, almost completely striped and S['.lashed with bright red ; stem, medium, 
in a small snug cavity ; calyx clo.sed, in a smooth regular basin of moderate size ; flesh 
creamy white, firm, of a pleasant vinous flavor ; quality, good ; season, March to July. 

McMillan's Seedling. — This apple, sent me by Mr. J. P. Cockburn, Gravenhurst, 
originated in the county of Stormont, latitude nearly 46, and is the product of a seedling 
tree twenty years planted. It evidently has the merit of hardiness, and it is for a list of 
hardy apples that we can commend that we are at present looking. It is a fine looking 
fall apple, and would be an ornament to any table for the dessert dish. One great point 
itL its favor, for these days, is that it does not appear to have the least tendency to spot, 
a grievous fault with many of our otherwise excellent dessert apples. 

Dascyiption. — Size, medium ; form, oblong ; skin, yellowish white, almost completely 
blotched and dashed with bright red, much deeper on the sunny side ; stem, slender, thren- 
quarters of an inch in length, set in a deep, narrow cavity ; calyx closed in a very small 
wrinkled basin ; core open and seeds free; flesh, white tinged with pink, prominently 
marked toward the apex, tender, mellow, tine grained, not very juicy, with a good flavor, 
somewhat of the Faiieuse character ; season, October. Promising. 

TuE Golden White. — I have received from R. Brodie, Moritreal, two tine samples 
of the Golden White, one of the most promising Russian apples. It compares favorably 
in beauty with the Duchess of Oldenburgh, ripens later in the season, about the tirst of 
October, is rather large in size and would sell at top prices in our markets. Surely if our 
friends in the northern sections can grow such apples as Yellow Transparent, Duch ss 
of Oldenburgh, (jolden White, La Rue, Wealthy and Renaud's Seedling they have as 
good prospects for success in apple culture as we who live in more favored sections. 



XVll. 



Professor Saunders, director of the Experimental Farm, Ottawa, describes this apple 8S 
follows : — Golden White, from Montreal, said to l)e of Eusfiian origin. Size largo. 3| x 
3^, form nearly round, unevenly ribbed, color reddish yellow but almost concealed by pale 
red with numerous splashes and streaks of deeper red in which are many pale dots, stalks 
short and fairly robust, cavity small but deep, calyx of medium size, ])artly open in a 
rather strongly ribbed basin ; highly perfumed ; fresh creamy white with a slight tinge 
of pink, rather soft and a little coarse in the grain, crisp and moderately juicy, mildly 
acid and highly flavored ; quality good ; core of medium size. A pleasant apple to eat 
and would no doubt cook well. Ripe latter end of September. 

Hendersok's Seedling. — Mr. G. G. Henderson, of Hamilton, sent in to me a Tery 
pretty apple, which he says is a splendid keeper. It certainly is an apple possessed of 
excellent flavor and if it averages on the tree anything like the sample sent in to me it 
is worthy of a place among our winter dessert apples. I have drawn a section of it to 
accompany this paper. 




Section of Henderson's Seedling. 

Description. — Size medium, form oblate, regular, except that it is obscurely ribbed 
skin a beautiful creamy white, ground striped and splashed with pink, shading into a deep 
red on the sunny half ; calyx closed, setina medium sized, somewhat rugged basin ; stem 
very short, in a broad shallow cavity; flesh snow white, tender, juicy, with delicate aromatic 
flavor ; quality very good. A winter apple, exact season not determined. A sample of 
this apple shown at our winter meeting was much inferior to the one first sent me 
from which the above description was prepared. 

Russian Apple Beresinskoe. — Distributed in 1885. Mr. F. W. Coate, of Cape 
Elizabeth, Rosseau, sent me this apple saying with the following note: — "In 1885 I 
selected from the Fruit Growers' Associations's list of premium plants a Rui^sian apple 
tree, Beresinskoe. I received and planted the little tree on the 13tli May. This year i* 
has borne for the first time 17 apples. I send you by mail six of them that you may 
judge if the beauty and quality of the fruit is worth notice in Tlte HortimUnrist. This 
apple is described by Prof. Saunders as follows : — Beresinskoe (?) probably Berezinskoe= 
Beresina. Size medium, 2i x 2^, form nearly oblong, color pale greenish yellow, with a 
bright red shading on tha part exposed to the sun, and a few dots and streaks of deeper 
red. Stem long and rather slender and set in a moderately deep cavity, calyx nearly 
closed, in a shallow, strongly ribV>ed basin. Flesh yellowish white, more or less water- 
cored, of moderately fine texture, a mild, nearly sweet character, with an agreeable but 

2* (F.G.) 



XVlll. 



not hich flavor. Oore large. The specimens are too ripe to admit of accurate judgment 
as to quality, but it would probably be entitled to rank as good. A pretty apple, would 
make a nice dessert fruit and would probably cook well. 

Clark's September Cherry. — Mr. E. D. Arnaud, of Annapolis, N. S., sent me a 
box containing some samples of this singular cherry in excellent condition, considering 
their long jouniey. There is but a single tree and it is growing at Lower Granville, near 
Annapolis. The fruit is about the size and shape of the Kentish and when fully ripe of 
a dark red color. The flesh is Arm and of a sweet and very agreeable flavor. It might 
be a very valuable shipping cherry. 

The William's Strawberry. — In small fruits there is little to report. One 
strawberry of considerable apparent merit has come to the front under the name of the 
Williams. Samples of this berry were sent me by Mr. David Grey, of Canesville, and 
afterwards some were shown at our meeting at Niagara by Mr, Lee, of Virgil. It was 
raised by a Mr, Williams, of Burford and among strawberry growers in Brant county it 
has by all accounts become very popular. It is said to have been raised from the Crescent 
seedling, fertilized with Sharpless. It is said to be an enormous bearer of very large 
berries which must be allowed to ripen well before gathering or it will sho w some traces 
of the white tips of its male parent. Compared with Sharpless it is claimed that it will 
bear four times as heavily ; it is also stated by Brantford growers that the berries are as 
large as those of the Jessie, and that the plant is much hardier. Certainly from the 
samples sent me and those shown at our meeting this berry has considerable merit, and, 
in order that it may be further tested it has been placed on our list for distribution in the 
spring of 1891, 

Sutherland's Seedling Gooseberry, — Samples of this gooseberry were sent me by 
the originator, Mr. George Sutherland, of Meaford, It is a seedling probably of the 
Downing. It has borne four crops and so far has proved itself to be an enormous cropper 
and free from any sign of mildew. The bush is a strong, upright grower and the berries 
are large and light green in color. I was not very favorably impressed with its quality, 
still it might be a profitable berry to grow for market where fruits so often sell more by 
appearance than by quality. 

Our Russian Importation, — Not the least important of our labors during the past 
year in the introduction of promising new fruits is our Russian exchange. Through our 
Russian friend and correspondent Mr. Jaroslav Nieraetz, of Rovno, Wolinia, Russia, who, 
I may add, has himself become a member of our association, I have succeeded in obtain- 
ing a large box of scions of the best varieties of Russian apples, pears, apricots, etc. In 
order that we may make an independent test of their value the greater part of these 
importations I have placed in charge of the Central Experiment Farm for propagation 
and testing on condition of our receiving a reasonable share for distribution. 

I am just in receipt of a communication from Mr, John Craig, horticulturist of that 
farm, in which he gives a full list of the varieties I have sent him and the number of 
grafts of each kind he has succeeded in raising. I subjoin this list in full from which it 
will be seen that there are some three hundred and sixty young apple trees growing, sixty 
eight pear and fifteen plum trees. 

Among the apples Mr. Niemetz has especially called our attention in the Canadian 
Horticulturist to the Antonovkas and the Synaps, H^ also sends an apricot which he 
regards as the most hardy that is known in Russia. It is called the Anjustin's apricot 
and has been fully treated of in our journal, where he shows that more hardiness may be 
expected to characterize it than does the Russian varieties that were brought over by the 
Mennonites. There were also a lot of 50 small cherry trees of a variety called Ko^lov 
Moreleo, which have also been described in our journal. Forty of these also have been 
passed over to the Central Experimental Farm for propagation and testing. Should they 
prove valualjle for nortliern Ontario steps will be taken to .secure a sufficient number in 
the course of time for distribution to our members. 



XIX. 



List of one year old grafts from scions imported from Russia V)y the Fruit Growers' 
Association of Ontario, spring of 18U0 and propagated by Mr. John Oraig, of the Central 
Experimental farm, Ottawa. — 

Stone Antonovka Gov't Tchernigov 36 

" " Koslov 1 

White '• *' 7 

Antonovka (irell 2 

" Ansjustin 10 

" 15 A ■ 4 

" 15B ;; 9 

Aport Solovieff 7 

." Grell 20 

Arkad " 50 

" Solovietf 17 

Bieloi naliv Grell 25 

' • " Solovieff 21 

Naliv An.sjustin 10 

Korobov Solovietf 16 

Skrisch apple Grell 14 

Miron " 17 

Skrut " 18 

Lebedka 62 

Koritchnevoe 89 

Miron Solovieff 43 

Gill pembe Niemetz 20 

Golden Stone " 25 

Borodovka " 18 

Dvinnoe Solovieff 23 

Putim 37 B ffov't of Tchernigov 12 

" 36A " " ;;;; 6 

Putim Koslov . . 2 

Xiapouche " 15 

Pana Niemetz 3 

Paperovka" H 

Russian Tyrol 36 

Stekhanka 13 

Zolotoreff 12 

Chelibi Niemetz 15 

Sommitelnoe Grell 45 

Plodovitka Koslov 95 

Plodovitka Solovieff 19 

Anis Grell 

Naliv Ansjustin 10 

Gruschevka Solovieff 16 

Kara— Synap A Niemetz 32 

Kara — Synap B " ' 63 

Sari — Synap " 92 

Skrosnina Grell » g 

Sklanka 24 

Vargulek 3 

Plikanoff 81 

Tito vka Koslov 99 

Titovka Solovieff 9 

Without name " 19 

Name lost 6 

•Gremuck Niemetz I7 

Borovinka ^ g 

Pear. — Ukraine Bergamotte 8 

Hamburg " and Ogust excell (mixed) 6 

Krasorka ; . . . . : 6 

Ilinka 1 

Gleck 23 

Salviate Ansjustin 24 

Plum. — Niemetz 15 



REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE. 
The following report was handed in by the Special Committee : 

Whereas, during the past year, the horticultural interests of our country have sustained a serious loss 
in the deith of three prominent Canadian horticulturists, namely, Mr. Charles Gibb, of Abbot^sford, Que., 
a scientific stsdent and ex))erimenter, who by his travels and researches has already very much enriched 
our Canadian literature .and whose death in the {)rime of life occurred at Cairo, in Kgypt last March ; 
Mr. W. H. Mills of Hamilton, a former president of our Association, whose labors, as a hybridist have 



XX 



rendered his name widely known ; and Mr. John Croil, of Aultsville, who has been a true and faithful 
director of our Association for many years ; also of one of the leading American horticulturists, Mr. P. 
Barry, of Rochester, president of the Western New York Horticultural Society. He has been long a 
member of our Association and has ever shown himself ready to give us the benefit of his extended know- 
ledge of pomology. 

Therefore, resolved that we, the members of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, desire to 
record the high esteem in which these gentlemen have been held by us, the deep and unfeigned sorrow 
with which we received the sad news of their removal from our midst and the great disappointment with 
which we regard tlie loss which our favorite industry has thereby sustained. 



THE WINTER MEETING. 



The Winter Meeting was held in the Music Hall, Windsor, on Wednesday and Thurs- 
day, Denember 11th and 12th, 1889. 

The President, A. M. Smith, Esq., took the chair at 2 p.m., and opened the meet 
ing by a few remarks expressive of his pleasure at seeing such a large audience, and 
especially at seeing among them a number of friends from the American side, among 
whom he noticed with much satisfaction President Lyon, of the Michigan Horticultural 
Society. 



THE ONTARIO FRUIT LIST. 

There being no questions awaiting answers, the discussion of the Ontario Fruit List, 
presented by a Committee of the Association was proceeded with.* 

Mr. BiiALL (representing the Committee). — The Fruit List which is about to be 
discussed is a matter that has been under consideration to some extent for a number of 
years, but it is only of late that it has assumed a practical form. The Committee has 
been at a great deal of pains in getting at tlie matter, and have spent much time upon 
it, but up to the present they have only .succeeded in classifying apples alone, so that 
the report this Committee proposes presenting may be looked upon as a report of 
progress rather than a full report. It is hardly to be expected that the list we are 
about to present will meet with the approval of everyone, as great differences of opinion 
exist in regard to the relative value of apples for different purposes, but those present 
will have an opportunity of making changes if desired. We have done away with many 
of the old style headings. We have only four, the first of which is the season, in regard 
to which there has been in the past great difference of opinion. The second heading is 
the quality of the apple, which is subdivided into dessert and cooking, which we believe 
will embody all that is necessary to b(; known respecting the quality of an apple. The 
other two headings are value for home market and value for foreign market. I do not 
think it is necessary for me to read over the whole list, but as it is arranged alphabeti- 
cally I will take the first, the Alexander apple. You will understand that the numeri- 
cal values, which range from to 10, are under four heads, dessert, cooking, home 
market and foreign market. We consider the Alexander wholly worthless as a dessert 
apple, .so that if it were exhibited with a lot of fruit for dessert purposes it would count 
0. For cooking purposes we have rated it at 9. For the home market we call it 9. It 
is the business of this Association to endearor to show which is the most profitable for 



*For tUe Koport see Appendix, pp. 82-6. 
1 (F.G.) 



a man to grow. Now, here is one of the lowest, the Cornish Gilly-flower. The Gilly- 
flower for dessert purposes is rated 1. If it were put in as a dessert apple it would be 
worth more than the Alexander, but for cooking purposes it is worth 0, for the home 
market 1, and for the foreign market 2 ; so its total value is only 4. If we take the Nor- 
thern Spy we give it 10 under each head ; so it would be worth 40. You would need 
to have a great many apples on the table of the Cornish Gilly-flower's qualities to compete 
with one only of the Northern Spy. 

KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — How have you rated the King of Tompkins County ? 

llr. Beall. — The rating is under the four headings respectively, 8, 8, 10 and 10. 

The Secretary. — I should be almost inclined to place that at 10 for. cooking ; it is 
one of the best. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — T have always thought the King of Tompkins County one of the 
best tliat could be raised. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Some feel like putting it at 10 for dessert. For my part I think 8 
is high enough ; when you compare the King of Tompkins with the Pomme Grise or 
Cox's Orange Pippin the King of Tompkins is very imperfect, and if you are going to 
give it 10 for cooking purposes I think it should be reduced in some other way, so that 
it will not count any more in the aggregate than it does now. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — I think the King of Tompkins is rather inferior as a dessert 
apple. 

The Secretary. — I move that the King of Tompkins be raised to 10 for cooking 
purposes. 

The President. — It is moved and seconded that the King of Tompkins be raised 
to 10 for cooking purposes. Carried. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I move that the King of Tompkins County be given 6 as a dessert 
apple. A perfect apple in every particular will only receive 40 points, and as it is left 
at present the King of Tompkins gets 38 points, and it is not worthy of it. We should 
reduce it as a dessert apple as much as we have raised it for cooking purposes. 

The Secretary. — I agree with Mr. Dempsey : it is too higli for a dessert apple 
at 8. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan. — We considered in making this list what was the popular 
opinion, to some extent. We know that the King of Tompkins County in a strict 
ruling is not a dessert apple, but I have some doubt whether the time has yet come 
when we should fix the rating by the strictest rules. We have followed the popular 
sentiment to some extent, and hence we have given this apple a rating higher than we 
could in strictness. 

Mr. Elliott. — I raise a good many King of Tompkins, but I know most of my 
boys when they go down the cellar for an apple bring up a Northern Spy. Now, the 
Northern Spy is only good as a dessert apple for a certain season of the year, whereas 
the King of Tom])kins is good as soon as it is ripe. 

Prof. Saunders. — I am enough of a boy myself to prefer the King of Tompkins to 
almost any other apple, and I hardly like to see it put as low as G for dessert purposes ; 
I would rather take off somewhere else. I believe something should be taken off on 
account of its tendency to blow off" the trees in stormy weather, but I do not like the 
idea of taking that much off it as a dessert apple because it would show unfairly when 
comi)ared with other apples of perhaps inferior quality from your standpoint. I think 
the King of Tompkins County is one of the best apples that one can get to eat — one 



of the highest flavors. I do not ohjoct to it on account of its size, for if I cannot eat 
the whole of one myself I have never any difliciilty in linding some person who is quite 
willing to take a share in it. 

Tlie Secretary. — It seems to me that a good way of getting rid of this difficulty 
would be. to have a column for productiveness, and in that way wo would put the King 
of Tompkins down 3 or 4, and out of 50, which would be the maxim, it would have 
only 40 or 42. 

Skvkral Members. — That is a good suggestion. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — I suppose the idea of this list is to guide those who wish to plant 
out an orchard, that they can refer to it and pick out those that have the liighest value 
attached. 

Mr. A. McD. All.vn. — That is not tlie idea of this list ; there is a separate list for 
that. In this list we have the particulars that judges at exhibitions want. The diffi- 
culty in having a column for productiveness is this, that a great many of these apples 
are local, and while an apple might be very productive in one neighborhood under a 
certain set of circumstances, in another and under different conditions it might not Vje 
productive at all. 

A Member. — I do not think we need be afraid to let the King of Tompkins stand 
at 40. 

^Ir. Rice. — It has no rival ; I do not think there is any danger in letting it stand 
10 all through. 

Mr. De.mpsev. — What is the object of our trying to produce new fruits if we have 
already arrived at perfection. 

The President. — The question is before you ; shall we reduce the King of Tomp- 
kins County to G points as a dessert apple 1 Lost. 



THE NORTHERN SPY, 

The Presidnet.— The Northern Spy is now before your consideration. 

Mr. Beall. — The Committee thought it better to put the Northern Spy at four 10s. 

Prof. Saunders. — I would move that it be not ranked higher than the King of 
Tompkins County. 

The Secretary. — I second that ; it is inclined to spot sometimes in localities, and 
to be imperfect. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — I think it is rated too high as a cooking apple ; it is very insipid. 

Mr. Wilson (Chatham). — It is not a good enough keeper to rank as high as 10. 

Mr. Allan. — There are several points you are forgetting. The list is constructed 
upon the understanding that we have perfect specimens ; and for the purpose of aiding 
judges when it is expected that perfect specimens are found on the exhibition table. In 
regard to a perfect Northern Spy, I am willing to stand by the rating given. I know 
that, even for the home market, the Northern Spy, for its own season, still stands at 
the top of the list, and in the foreign market it will do so every time. Of course we 
find many of them spotted, but that does not touch the question at all ; we do not want 
these spotted apples, but perfect fruit in every instance. 

The President. — The question is whether we shall reduce it, as has been moved 
and seconded. Lost. 

The Secretary. — I am inclined to attack it on another point, that is for the foreign 
market. It is placed as high as the King, and certainly the King sells for higher prices 
in the foreign market than the Northern Spy. 

Mr. A. McU. Allan. — There, again, as far as the market is concerned, the stand- 
ard is taken on the apple itself You will make more out of the Northern Spy than 
the King ; its productiveness does it. You will make more out of a perfect crop of 
Northern Spies than out of a perfect crop of Kings. I think you will make more out of 
the Baldwin than the King, but it does not rank with the King. 

Mr. Elliott. — If a man who is a grandfather plants the Northern Spy in our part 
of the country his boys may get some of the fruit, but I have had some that have been 
planted thirteen years, and I have never got a crop yet. 



Mr. ElCE. — My friend here (Mr. Allan) says he can sell Baldwins quicker than the 
King. I had a hundred Baldwins in a line location and I havo not yet got a good 
-i:rop. 

The President. — This apple has been passed upon, let us take something else. 



THE GREENING AND LOUISE. 

A Member. — Let us have the Greening. 

Mr. Beall. — We have rated that at 8 for dessert, 10 for cooking, 8 for liome market 
and 8 for foreign market. 

A Member. — What about the Princess Louise ? 

Mr. Beall. — We have it 8 for dessert, 7 for cooking, 7 for home market, 8 for 
foreign market. 

The Secretary. — I do not think it is ranked high enough as a dessert apple, neither 
is it ranked highly enough as a market apple for the home market, for at Christmas time 
it takes on such a beautiful color that I think perfect samples should stand higher than 
the figure given. I think it should be 10 for dessert purposes. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan. — The trouble is the Princess Louise is a new variety, not 
usually cultivated, and I have always gone on the principle of being very suspicious of 
anything new. I prefer to see it tested thoroughly first. I have a very high opinion 
of the Princess Louise, but upon that general principle I purposely rated it lower than 
I would otherwise have done on account of its newness, and its not being sufficiently 
tested. 

The President. — As it is an apple not very generally known I think it is best to 
leave it alone. 



THE GOLDEN RUSSET. 

The President. — A member calls for the Golden Russet. 

President Lyon. — Which Golden Russet 1 Is it the English Golden Russet ? 

The Member. — I mean the English Golden Russet. I claim there is an English 
and an American Golden Russet, The American is a deeper Pi,usset and a larger apple, 
and never gets the beautiful yellow color the English variety gets. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I think we know a little about Russet apples, and I may say I 
jiave never seen an American Russet yet. What is called the American Golden Russet 
was originated in England by Dr. Hogg, and he called it the Russett ; there is some 
other name he had for it, which does not matter however. There are more than twenty 
varieties of the English Russet and twenty sizes. 

President Lyon. — There is no such thing as the English Golden Russet described. 
The Golden Russet of western New York is the English Golden Russet, but the book 
does not recognise it as entitled io the name English, though there is an American 
■Golden Russet entirely distinct from it. The tree is an upright grower, and very 
unprofitable ; here it is sometimes called the Sheep-nose. It is quite distinct from the 
apple we have been talking about, and I think it is very desirable we should thoroughly 
understand the.se things and understand each other. 

Mr. Beall. — We may as well proceed to the question. Someone has asked the 
rating of the Golden Russet. The apple in question is the one that Downing simply 
calls the Golden Russet, but supposed to be of English origin ; we have no authority 
from Downing that it actually is, but he says it is supposed to be. We have it down at 
7 for dessert, 8 for cooking, 7 for home market and 9 for foreign market. [Hating not 
objected to.] 

THE STARK. 

Mr. Beall. — I want to say there are three apples here that we have not on the list 
.(referring to exhibit of apjjles). We have plenty of room, and shall Ije glad to put on 
flny apple you may name, provided you give us the ratings here. Someone has men- 
tioned the Stark ; we will insert that if he will give us its proper rating. 



Mr. Wilson. — I called for the Stark ; I found it here on the fruit table and I think 
it is remarkably good. It is .spoken highly of by those who grow it, but beyond that 1 
do not know anything about it. 

]Mr. Clifkoiu). — I have raised the Stark from nursery stock. i'he trees are bearing 
well, and it is fully as early as the Greening in this country, or the Baldwin, and a little 
larger than the hitter apple. One man put out an orchard from my nursery a few years 
ago, and he told me this fall that the packers put up tivc and a half barrels from one 
tree, and the tree had been out eleven years. The apples are not first class quality, 
being a little thick in the skin, but they bear handling and shipping well. They are not 
as high colored as the Baldwin. The tree is very thrifty to grow in the nursery. I 
would not rate it as a first rate dessert apple, and it is hardly sharp enough to be a 
really good cooking apple. For its keeping qualities and prolificness I think it would 
rate high. 

Mr. Beall. — Can you give us any authority that this is the true name of the apple. 

Mr. Clifford. — Only that it is mentioned in all nurserymen's catalogues as the 
Stark. I think it was originated in central New York. 

President Lyon. — The Stark apple originated in Ohio. It will be found described 
in the list of the Ohio Pomological Society, in their report. It ranks quite low, except 
as to its keeping qualities for the market. 

Mr. Beall. — What would you consider is the pi'oper season of the apple. 

Mr. Lyon. — It is a winter apple. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan. — My recollection of the Stark is that it was particularly 
coarse — a heavy, coarse grained apple, and almost flavorless. 

Mr. Clifford. — What time did you test it. 

Mr. Allan. — In the fall. 

Mr. Clifford. — About the 1st of April is the time it becomes eatable. 



THE FAMEUSE. 

The President. — The Snow apple is called for. 

Mr. Beall. — That is one of the disputed apples — its season is disputed, We have 
rated it as an autumn apple. For dessert we have marked it 8 with a good many qualms 
of conscience, for cooking 2, for home market 9, and for foreign market 8. 

A Member. — I think the rating for cooking is altogether too low ; it rrielts right 
down with a little sugar. 

Mr. Gaston. — I agree with that ; I think there is only oiiC better cooker than the 
Snow, and that is the Duchess. 

Mr. Wilson. — I move that it be raised to 9 points as a dessert apple. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — As a dessert apple I think it has no superior. As a cooker it is 
a little inferior, but for dessert purposes I think it is entitled to the maximum rating. 

Mr. Beall. — We do not recognize the name Snow at all ; we call it the Fameuse. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — Of course I referred to the Fameuse though I said the Snow. 

The President. — It is moved that the Fameuse be raised one point as a dessert 
apple. Carried. 

Prof. Saundeks. — I move that it be raised five points as a cooking apple. Carried. 



THi: MANN AND SPITZENBERG. 

A Me.mber. — Give us the rating of the Mann apple 1 

^Ir. Be.\ll. — 4 for dessert, 7 for cooking, 7 for home market and 8 for foreign 
market. Approved. 

A Member. — The Spitzenberg I 

Mr. Beall. — 9 for dessert, 9 for cooking, 9 for home market and 10 for foreign 
market. 

Mr. Elliott. — For cooking I think it is rated too high, unless it is put in the oven> 
early in the morning and cooked all day ; then we might give it 10. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — I suggest raising it for dessert to 10. 



Mr. A. McD. Allan. — T have no objection to agreeing with Mr. Wilkinson. As to 
its qualities as a dessert apple, it deserves to be hoisted up a point ; it is certainly a 
magnificent dessert apple. 

Prof. Saunders. — I think it should stand where it is. It is a tough apple to eat ; 
it is not a favorite with people who have not good teeth, and they have to be con- 
sidered. 

The President. — That is generally the fault of the grower or the i^erson using it. 
When kept in a proper temperature it is all right ; but it must not be kept in too dry a 
cellar or storage. 

Mr. Dempsey. — The Spitzenberg has been largely grown in our section, but I think 
the last tree is now dead, and I for one am not sorry. I am surprised at any one sug- 
gesting that it be raised for dessert purposes. 

The President. — Well, shall we raise it one point as a dessert apple 1 Lost. 



SHIAWASSEE BEAUTY. 

A Member. — Let us hear the rating of the Shiawassee Beauty 1 

Mr. Beall. — We have rated it 4 for dessert, 6 for cooking, 6 for home mai-ket and 
•9 for foreign market. 

Prof. Saunders. — I think that is too low for dessert. I move it be raised one point 
as a dessert apple. Carried. 

The President. — We are asked for the rating of the Yellow Transparent. 

Mr, Beall. — For dessert 5, for cooking 7, for home market 4 and for foreign 
market 0. 

Mr. Mitchell (Leamington). — I have had it three or four seasons. It is a splendid 
bearer and as a dessert apple cannot be beaten ; I would rank it higher than the Early 
Harvest. It does not spot, and is very even in size. 

Mr. Wilson (Chatham). — People have been misled as to the time of its ripening. I 
find throughout the country that it does not ripen nearly so early as is represented, and 
it is not a very early apple at all. 

Mr. Mitchell (Leamington). — It will stay much longer on the tree than any other. 

The Secretary. — How soon can you use it 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — Much the same as the Early Harvest, perhaps a few days later, 
but it gets better in quality as it remains on the tree. So far as I am acquainted with 
it it is superior to the Summer Harvest. It does not spot, and it is very uniform in size. 

The President. — It has been moved and seconded that this apple be raised to 6 for 
-dessert purposes ? Carried. 

SALOME. 

The President. — Can you give a rating for the Salome 1 

Mr. Caston. — I think it is new in this Province. 

President Lyon. — In 1884, at the meeting of the Mississippi Valley Society at New 
•Orleans, it was shown for the first time by a gentleman who originated it, or at least was 
introducing it in westrn Illinois. It was specially hardy and very promising for that 
reason, but only third or fourth rate in quality, und not particularly attractive either in 
appearance or size. It is a little below medium size. I do not think it has taken very 
strong hold upon the west. It does not reach into northern Iowa or Wisconsin at all, 
.and I do not think that for Michigan or Ontario it would be well adapted. 

Mr. Wilson. — I know it would not stand the northern climate at all. 



GRIMES' GOLDEN. 

The President. — The rating for Grimes' Golden is called for. 

Mr. Beall. — For dessert 9, for cooking 2, for home market 5, and for foreign 
fnarket 7. 



Prof. Saunders. — I would like to see it raised a little for the homo market as I 
think it is one of the finest apples for dessert. I move that it be raised at least one 
point for the home market, and I shall be very glad if anyone will tell me just now 
where I can get some. 

Mr. A. INlcD. Allan.— I am willing to ac(iuiesce in that, but it is difficult under 
other than exceptional circumstances to get a demand for it. There is no demand for it 
in the home or foreign marked. I have tried it both here, in Britain and in the States. 
I got the best prices for it in Xew York, but it had been pretty well written up there at 
the time. I afterwards shipped some there and got very little for them. 

Mr. Dempsey. — It is an apple that looks so much like a young seedling in every 
way that unless a person knows it he will not buy ; but anyone who knows the apple will 
pay the highest price for it as a dessert apple, 1 think we have no better, but for the 
home market or foreign market it is certainly not sulHciently attractive to the eye. 

Prof. Saunders. — I think that is a reason why the committee sliould adopt my sug- 
gestion ; it is our duty to show that we appreciate a really good apple, despite its ill 
looks. 

Mr. BucKE. — The reason it is so low is that its color is very much against it. You 
cannot tell Grimes' Golden in a barrel until it gets ripe, and gets its color. 

President LvoN. — It is one of those very rare varieties that grow down as far as 
Virginia, and yet it seems to hold its full quality with us, and even farther north 
than here. 

Mr. Elliott. — Here it colors up nicely on the tree — it does with me— a rich, golden 
yellow. 1 have shown it under two or three heads, and it has almost always taken 
a prize. 



RED CANADA. 



A IVIember. — Give us the rating of Red Canada 1 

Mr. Beall. — It is 2 for dessert, 6 for cooking, 7 for home market, and 8 for foreign 
market. 

Mr. Elliott. — It is superior to Ben Davis and I would recommend that it be raised 
to 6 for a dessert apple. Motion carried. 

President Lyon. — The Bed Canada often passes for a Baldwin, but among buyers it 
is sometimes rated much higher as a dessert apple than as a culinary fruit. It is con- 
siderably sought after, and sold in the same market for much higher prices than the 
Baldwin, which is our next popular apple. 

]Mr. Wigle (Kingsville). — We find it far ahead of the Baldwin. 

Mr. Wilson. — I find the exporters are snapping at all the red apples they do not 
know the name of, and any apple they do not know the name of and which is red in 
color, they name "Canada Red." I do not think we can judge by the way it sells in the 
aiarket whether it is a good apple or not. 



BEX DAVIS. 

A Member.— What is the rating of Ben Davis 1 

Mr. Beall. — 3 for dessert, 1 for cooking, 8 for home market and 9 for foreign 
market. 

The Secretary. — 1 is enough for dessert, is it not ? 

Mr. Wilson. — I move that Ben Davis be rated for dessert, 1 for cooking, and 9 
for foreign market. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Anything tliat is worth growing at all is worth growing well, and 
when we talk about the home market or the foreign market we mean. What is going to 
give us the most money ? Now, I can make more money out of one tree of Ben Davis 
than I can ofl' fifty trees of King of Tompkins County. We have a lot of trees of King 
of Tompkins County twelve years planted, and we have never realised twelve barrels 
ofl"them, and we have got as much as twelve barrels ofi' a single tree of Ben Davis, 
When we look at the quotations in the English market we find that Ben Davis is sold as 
high as 32 shillings per barrel. 



Mr. Elliott. — No doubt Ben Davis selLs well, but I think a man who charges his 
neighbor two dollars for a barrel of them robs him of 81-75. It is a good apple for hotel 
keepers ; a barrel of Ben Davis will last a first class hotel as a dessert apple about three 
months, whereas a really good variety would not last a week. If you send a boy into the 
cellar to get an apple to eat he never brings up a Ben Davis, and if your wife goes down 
for the purpose of putting you in a good humor by making an apple dumpling she does 
not take Ben Davis. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan. — I quite agree with all that has been said. Although good 
prices are now paid in England for Ben Davis, the consumers in England when 
better acquainted with it will not pay the prices that have been realised for it ; it is going 
to come down in value, and that, too, before very long. The fact of the matter is that 
they are seeing into the qualities of apples quicker in that market than are the consumers 
in our own markets. The Baldwin, for instance, is coming down, and at the same time 
the Rhode Island Greening is coming up to its proper place. Ben Davis is bound to 
go down. 

A Member. — I think it should be lowered for the home market. We cast a 
reflection upon the judgment of the consumers when we say this apple is worth only 1 for 
dessert, 1 for cooking, and yet that it is worth 8 for the home market, the consumers of 
this country, I think you must lower it for the home market. 

Mr. Allan. — Why should we, as long as the consumers are willing to pay the price ? 

Mr. Caston (Craighurst). — I think it ought to go up a point for cooking ; in our 
section it is not as bad as some people here make it out to be. 

The Secretary. — Do you flavor it with lemons 1 (Laughter). 

Mr. Castox. — No, nothing but sugar. 

No change made for home market ; motion carried. 



BEST SELECTION OF APPLES FOR THE COUNTY OF ESSEX. 

The President announced that Mr. Alaxsox Elliott, President of the South Essex 
Farmers' Institute, would read a paper on the subject of the best selection of apples for 
the county of Essex — three summer, three fall, and six winter varieties. 

Mr. Elliott. — There seems to be some misunderstanding ; I have no paper to read 
on this subject, though in a meeting of this description I do like to do a little skirmishings 
You are now, gentlemen, in one of the most wonderful counties of the Dominion, and 
anything that would not suit us here would surely not suit people in distant parts. I 
would not form any judgment as to tlie three best summer apples, because I do not think 
we have any good summer apple at all. Take the Early Harvest, for instance. It used 
to be a good apple, but it is now a failure : it is very rarely you see a good specimen of 
the Early Harvest nowadays. Then as to the Red Astrachan ; I have never bought any 
of them myself, but judging by what I hear from those who have had experience with it, 
it is not valuable. As to the Duchess of Oldenburg, I take no stock in it. We have 
never had a market for summer apples. I do not know anything of the (Iravenstein or 
Benoni ; in fact I do not know anything about summer or fall apples. 

The President. — What about winter ap|)les ? 

Mr. Elliott. — I know the Baldwin is a good apple after our trees come into bearing, 
and we can better afford to raise the Baldwin for a dollar a barrel than we can the King 
for two dollars a barrel. Then I put the Greening as another. 

The President. — What is the tliiid! 

Mr. Elliott. — Well, I left home with the impression that I liked the Mann apple. 

The President. — Would you put that as one of the six best 1 

Mr. Elliott. — Yes, if you make it six I will. Then I think a good deal of the 
Stark ; I think it is the coming apple. I would put that as one of the six. I cannot 
speak from experience of the Spy, neither would I advise anyone to raise the King ; 
there is not much money in it, it is not a good yielder, but the great trouble with it is 
that the apples fall. The Canada Red is a good apple and a good yielder, and I put it as 
one of my six. There is another apple that I have not heard mentioned here to-day> 



Peck's Pleasant, which is a good bearer and a good apple. I think there is more money 
in Baldwins and (ireenings than in any other apples we raise. We have a 
dozen different kinds of Russets ; but I would not advise anyone here to 
grow Russetts, as they become deformed. The Spitzenberg used to be a good 
apple some years ago, but this fall a gentleman asked me to get him a barrel, and I could 
not get a barrel of good ones in the whole county of Essex. The Tulman Sweet is a good 
apple ; it is not an extra line dessert apple, but I never saw its equal as a baking apple. 
The Northern ISpy is a good apple, but 1 think it is leps suited to our light soil than to a 
heavier land. I am a great admirer of ^.he Fall Pippin, but there is not much nioney 
made in growing it. Seek-no-further bears very well with us. St. Lawrence is a good 
apple when it is ripe, but you want to get there the night before or it will be rotten next 
morning. Tlie Ribston Pippin, though a good ajiplc, is not an extra bearer with us, and 
the Fall Pippin is a shy bearer. Tlio Duchess is I think a kind of iiist cousin to the 
St. Lawrence. It is a good cooking apple before it gets ripe. Another very good fall 
apple, that will stand shipping, is the Sherwood ; it is a long striped apple, and is an 
extra apple to yield with us. Then there is the Maiden's Blu.sh, we get about a.s perfect 
apples oil it as from any tree that grows. 



THE QUESTION DRAWER. 
The following questions were discussed from the Question Drawer : 

SHOULD EXHIBITORS OF FRUIT BE THE OWNERS OF IT ? 

Q. — Should fruit exhibited be the bona fide property of the exhibitor ? 

The President. — I do not think anyone here will say otherwise. 

President Lyox. — We have for several years in Michigan given premiums for 
collections of fruit which may be gathered within a certain district, not exacting rigidly 
that they shall be of the exhibitor's own growth, but it is only in the case of those col- 
lections that exhibitors are allowed to cull from othei-s. I think this plan has added 
greatly to tiie interest of the exhibition, because it shows the capabilities of the district 
from within which the fruit is drawn. , 

The PuESiDENT. — Are your peo[)le in ]\Iichigan all perfectly honest ? We hjive a 
similar plan here in some of our fairs, and I have heard it more than hinted that when 
these people are making their collections of fruit they, at the same time, get a little to 
be exhibited as of their own growth. 

President Lyon. — We endeavor to draw the line very rigidly, and if any complaint 
is made it is always examined closely by the proper authorities. 

The PuEriiDEST — J have heitrd it said that the mau who won the medal at the last 
Toronto Exhibition collected almost all his exhibit, and raised only a very small propor- 
tion. I know that it is done in local fairs right along, and I think it is a very unfair 
thing aud one with which this Society ought to deal if possiljle. 

Sir. Wilkinson. — I have been connected with fairs in this district for thirty or 
forty years, and liave tilled almost every oHico, and I do not think it is fair to allow any 
but bona fide producers. There have actually been cases where a bona fide exhibitor 
has been beaten by fruit of his own growth exhibited by some one who has collected 
fruit to show. The only excuse is that a tiner display may be made by getting together a 
tine collection. 

The Secretary. — The only thing that can be done to remedy it that I can see is to 
pass a resolution in this way, that in the opinion of this Association eveiy exhibitor of 
fruits at any fairs should be required to sign a written certificate that the fruit he 
exhibits is of his own growth, and that there should be some forfeit in case it is shown 
that such exhibit is not as represented. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — That he should forfeit all prizes, and be debarred from again 
exhibiting for two years. 



10 



Mr. Dempsey. — I tliink the best and only way to meet <hat difficulty, which is a 
very serious one, is for all honest exhibitors to keep their fruit at home. I gave notice 
to a couple of our Associations this year that, though I won piizes liberally, I would not 
take the trouble to pick my fruit and place it on exhibition against persons whom I 
know did not grow the fruit shown by them. 

j\Ir. MouTON (Wingham). — Our rule is that fruit shall be the property of the 
exhibitor, grown upon his farm or holding ; and I think we have a rule that any 
exhibitor may be required to make a statutory declaration to that effect. Of course if a 
man comes along and makes a false declai-atiou we cannot stop him, though he would, of 
course, make himself liable to the penalty for perjury. I think we have only had 
occasion to demand that declaration two or three times. Twice we stopped the man, and 
in the third case the declaration was taken, and I do not doubt the man's claim was 
bona fide, and that our suspicions were unfounded. 

Mr. Wilkinson. — I quite agree with that ; our rules are somewhat similar. 

The Secretary. — Mr, President, I have a motion to make with reference to tkis 
matter. It appears to me that it would be better that all exhibitors should sign a 
declaration or certificate, because if you only ask one whom you suspect, you feel rather 
delicate about it, it being as much as to say that you suspect him of being dishonest. 
But if you require all to sign such a declaration it becomes a matter of course, and I 
think if the rule were generally known that very few exhibitors would seek to evade it. 
I, therefore, move this resolution, which is seconded by Professor Saunders : 

Tliat in the opinion of this Association exhibitors of fruit at fairs should be required to sign a certifi- 
cate that the fruit shown is of their own growth, and that in case of any trickery being proved, forfeiture of 
prizes is to follow. 

Mr. Mdrtox. — The dithculty is that you cannot make a certificate of that kind that 
will hold water, because, if he makes a false declaration, it is only punishable if false 
with regard to the facts, and the declaration must be made after the exhibit is made. 

Professor Saunders. — 1 think in the usual form of certificate the exhibitor declares 
that the article shown is of his own production, growth or manufacture, and it seems to 
me that it is not sufficiently definite for fruit exhibitors. I think the certificate for fruit 
exhibitors should be so worded that there would be no evading it. Let the forfeiture be 
clearly shown that would follow any infraction of the rule, and I think it would have 
some effect. People get behind that general certificate and say they did not understand 
it. It should be made so clear that there can be no misunderstanding it, and if the 
directors then do their duty and withhold the prizes in any case where complaint is made 
or sufe'picion exists, until full inquiry is made and sufficient evidence brought forward, I 
think it would help very much in regulating the matter. 

Mr. A. McD. Allan. — I have often judged fruit at fairs when I knew that the 
fruit of certain exhibitors was not of their own growth, but then I had nothing to do 
with that. As has been said here, one thing that is to a great extent responsible for 
this trouble is the practice of offering prizes for large collections. It does not pay any 
one grower to grow thirty or forty varieties, and I think ten or a dozen would be quite 
sufficient for almost any section where apples are grown. Where it is desired to have 
large collections shown at fairs, I think they should be collected by the Society, but I 
would not allow any individual to exhibit them or receive a prize for such a collection. 
The fact of the matter is that the offer of such a prize is a strong inducement for some 
man to go and steal the fruit. 

Mr. BucKE. — This may be all very well at local fairs, but how can you find out who 
grew the fruit at Toronto Exhibition, or some of the other larger exhibitions 1 You can- 
not follow it up — it is impossible. 

Mr. Gaston. — I think any man who is perfectly honest in making his exhibit need 
not be backward in making the required aflidavit, and will not object to it at all. There 
is one difficulty in regard to fairs at which it is a rule, if you suspect a man of not being 
honest in his exhibit that you must protest, depositing a dollar at the time of making 
the protest. Then, if you fail to prove the allegation you forfeit the dollar. It is not 
exactly the loss of the dollar, but you get into bad odor if you make a complaint which 



11 



turns out to bo unfoundeil, though there may havo boon suspicious circumstances 
justifying the i)rotest. 1 havo known very bad fooling to lie engendered in some cases of 
this kind. Now, if everyone was ro([uirod to make the allidavit, it would get over that 
ditHculty hotter than anything else, I tliink. 

Mr. Eli.iutt. — None of those certiticates or declarations will do any good unless the 
persons who are aware that crooked practices are going on will make that fact known, 
and they will not do it. At a fair at which 1 was a judge recently a man said to rae, *' I 
want to see which of the lien Davis' got the pri/o." 1 showed him the ones, and he 
said, " Why, he (meaning the exhibitor) got that out of my orchard." Now, if men like 
that would tell the secretary and put in a protest, that kind o' thing would soon dis- 
appear. If people will stand by silently and see prizes carriod oil" l)y fruit which they 
know well the exhibitor has never grown, all the declarations and atUdavits will not do 
any good. 

The Sk( UKTAUV. — J think we could have a printed form of alliilavit to be taken by 
every exhibitor, as Mr. Ca.ston says, and, in case of any trickery being shown, forfeiture 
of the prize.s won at the exhibition should follow. 

The motion was then put and carriod. 



ADDRESSES AT THE EVENING SESSION. 

At the opening of the evening session the President announced that there were a 
number of local gentlemen, and gentlemen from the American side in the hall, upon 
■whom he would call for short addresses. He then called upon the Mayor of Windsor. 

WELCOME TO WINDSOR. 

Mayor Twomey, who was received with applause, expressed the great satisfaction he 
felt in seeing the officers and so many members of the Association in the town of 
Windsor, and he was also much gratified by the presence of the gentlemen from 
Michigan. To all of them, on behalf of the citizens of Windsor, he had much pleasure in 
extending a most hearty welcome to that town and the county of Kssex, where the 
importance of the aims and work of the Fruit Growers' Association were well known 
and appreciated. He had always regarded the county of Essex as the garden of the 
Dominion, and he felt sure the chairman knew well the many advantages that county 
enjoyed as a centre of fruit cultivation. Still, he believed the fruit industry was but in 
its infancy at present, and had no doubt that a great stimulus would bo imparted to it 
by the visit of the Association, which he hoped to see repeated at no very distant date. 

The President replied fittingly to the Mayor's remarks, and then called upon 
President Lyon, of the Michigan Horticultural Society, for a few remarks. 



FRUIT GROWING IN MICHIGAN. 

Mr. Ltok said, speaking for the Michigan Horticultural Society, that they were 
trying to do their part in elevating horticultural and pomological interests in the State of 
Michigan. Pomology was occupying the attention of a great ma«y in that state, in the 
eastern part more especially, while in western Michigan peach growing was becoming a 
leading industry. Thoir .society had existed since 1870, and they felt that its existence 
had been the cause of improvement and ailvancemont in fruit culture generally, and that 
they had been instrumental in bringing' order out of confusion. He then described the 
manner in which it had become necessary to have local societies to ascertain the fruits 
suitable to be grown within limited districts, instead of having a general list of American 
fruits, some of which, though grown successfully in one part, were (^uite unsuitable for 
others. This dividing up into smaller districts had been going on since 1848, when an 



12 



assembly of fruit growers had met in Buffalo to jirepare a fruit list for the United States, 
Although this was a Canadian Association, he felt that the members of all Fruit 
Growers' Associations were brothers in a great and good work, and he hoped they M'ould 
always work together harmoniously for the promotion of the common weal. 

Mr. Taylor, of Michigan, was then called upon by the President. He said that 
the predominating interest among the fruit growers of western Michigan at the present 
time was peach culture, though grapes, pears and small fruit were grown to some extent. 
The district from which he came was about six miles wide and forty miles long. In 
every part of the state, where the prospect seemed at all hopeful, peach orchards were 
being planted, but, in the district he had referred to, peach culture was almost the staple 
occupation, the peach orchards being almost continuous from farm to farm for long 
stretches. When the trees were in bloom the sight was a most beautiful and inspiring 
one. The crop during the summer of 1889 had been the smallest they had had since 
1875, but some years the crop was larger than they had railway facilities for getting to a 
market in time to realise upon them. At the nearest lake port to this district, where 
steamers for Chicago and Milwaukee called, it had been the regular thing a year ago to 
load three boats each evening for those markets, each boat carrying from five to fifteen 
thousand baskets. Two miles south two other vessels were loaded, and ten miles east 
ten or fifteen cars per day. On one day, when the wind was so boisterous as to prevent 
the boats sailing, he had driven to the railway at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and before 
reaching it he found teams strung out for half a mile on the highway, waiting their turn 
to load fruit on the cars. These facts would give some idea of the quantity of fruit 
grown in that district. Their earliest peaches ripened about the middle of July, and 
shipments began about that time, increasing until about the middle of August, when, 
shipments became very heavy, and continuing so until about the 15th of October. The 
speaker concluded his remarks by expressing his pleasure at meeting with his Canadian 
brethren, and his conviction that by united eilorts much would be accomplished for fruit 
culture both here and in his own country. 



VINE CULTURE AND WINE MAKING IN ESSEX. 

After the audience had been favored with a piano solo by Miss Werrett, the Presi- 
dent called upon Mr. Solomon White, of Windsor. 

Mr. White said he desired to endorse everything that had been said by the worthy 
Mayor of Windsor in welcoming the members of thft Association to the town of Windsor 
and county of Essex ; he only regretted that their visit had not been made at a time 
when they could have had ocular demonstration by a visit to some of their orchards, full 
of trees loaded down with delicious fruit, of the capacity of Eseex as a fruit producing: 
county. He himself had done something in fruit growing, principally in vine culture and 
wine making, and he might say that he had to-day in his cellar wines made almost 
twenty years ago, and yet sound and good. The great secret of making wine that would 
keep was to bring the fruit to what would be called its normal condition. The grapes- 
grown in the county of Essex were to a large extent normal ; but where he had had 
experience elsewhere, near Toronto, they were not, and required the addition of a little 
sugar and water to bring them to that condition. These were facts he had learned long, 
ago, and since then he had succeeded pretty well. Some ministers were very anxious 
for a non-fermented wine, but he really did not know where they would find it, for it 
must ferment until the alcohol was all converted and all foreign matter thrown out and 
done away with. When the normal condition of which he had spoken of was reached, 
the wine, if strong enough, would keep. Vine culture and wine making was a great 
industry in the county, and though the number engaged in it was constantly increasing,, 
the demand was greater than they were able to meet. He would recommend them to go 
and see his old friend Major Wagstaff, who had some as fine wine in his cellar as could 
be found, and who could show them what was to be made in the county. Ooming to 
apples, he claimed for the county of Essex that in it could be raised the finest apples 
to be found anywhere, and especially along the lake shore. He felt great pleasure in. 



i:^. 



Ijcing present at these meetings, where so much could be learned useful to the fruit 
5;rower, and he trusted the present visit of the Association to the town of Windsor would 
not be its last, but that they might on some future occasion return at a time when they 
could be shown to more advantage the beauties of the county. 



HORTICULTURE IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Mr. C. W. Garfiicld, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, was then called upon, and after 
making a few remarks on the similarity of fruit growing conditions in Micliigan and 
western Ontario, and of the feeling of brotherly love which should exist between the 
Michigan horticulturists and those of Ontario, expressed his desire to say a few words on 
the subject of horticulture in the public schools, for if he felt more earnestly on any one 
subject than another it was upon the question how the younger portion of the community 
should be instructed and encouraged in horticulture. The only way he could see of 
doing this was by enlisting the sympathies of the teachers. It was not often that 
children could be got together in such a meeting as the present one, but it was possible 
to form little coteries in which a number of neighbors, their wives and children, might 
get together and discuss such questions, and thus instil an interest in the subject into 
them. They wanted to bring to this some of the enthusiasm which carried them along 
in their horticultural life. He felt great pleasure in joining in discussions on horti- 
cultural subjects, not only those connected with the question of how much mone}' could 
be got out of it, but those which related to horticulture in its highest and best form. 

Mr. A. McNeill, science master of the Windsor high school, followed. He said 
he was heartily in accord with the previous speaker, who had said very truly that it was 
not possible for a public school teacher who himself knew nothing of horticulture to 
impart an interest in it to the children under his charge. He had been a senior teacher 
for some years, and he was sorry to have to say that he knew very few of his fellow 
teachers who were at all interested in that line. In his own botany classes he had found 
110 difhculty in getting up an interest in the subject ; he found that he could interest his 
pupils from one end of the session to the other ; the interest they showed was really sur- 
prising. He referred to the difficulty of getting young people now-a-days to stick to the 
farm, and said he had no doubt that as soon as intelligence could be brought to bear 
upon farm life there would be no more difficulty in that respect ; the you,ng i)eople 
flocked to other callings because more intelligence was apparently called for in them, and 
so, when by the application of intelligence agricultural and horticultural pursuits assumed 
their proper dignity, young people would (lock to them, instead of deserting them for 
other occupations. 

After a duet by Messrs. Pepper and McLaughlin had been sung, Mr. Edwin Reid, 
Secretary of the Michigan Horticultural Society, was called upon. 

Mr. Reid, while acknowledging the honor of being asked to address the meeting, 
said he did not think it necessary for him to add anything to what had been .said by his 
fellow-countrymen. President Lyon and Mr. Garfield. 



PROF. SAUNDERS ON HORTICULTURE. 

The President then called upon Prof. Saunders, of the Dominion Experimental 
Farm, Ottawa. 

Prof. Saunders. — I am highly delighted this evening to meet with our friends from 
the other side, and I am sure their visit will do both them and us good. I have had 
personal experience of the very hospitable manner in which they are in the habit of 
treating Canadians, and I trust they will carry away as favorable impressions of us as T 
and others, who have been fortunate enough to spend a short time among them, did of 
their kindness. I must next congratulate the people of this district and the county of 
Essex on the splendid country they possess, of which I believe the half has not yet been 
told. About fifteen years ago, when a director of the Fruit Growers' Association, I with 



14- 



three others was deputed to inspect and report upon the character of the lake shore 
district frcm St. Thomas to Aniherstburg. We started out with the expectation that we 
would be able to complete the task in two or three days, and we had vehicles to take us- 
along, but we found so much to interest us that our time was consumed before we- 
reached Chatham. "We found so many evidences of the advantages of the district for 
the growth not only of apples, pears and plums, but also of peaches, that the committee 
were quite astonished and reported most favorably of the district, hoping the next year 
to take up the remainder of the district, including this, your favorite county. I believe, 
however, that this was not done, and the work has never l)een completed. I make the 
suggestion, and think it would not be a bad idea, for the Association to send a deputa- 
tion up here, to report upon the advantages possessed by this district for the growth of 
the finer fruits, I am sure they can be produced here in great abundance. In connec- 
tion with my duties as director of the Experimental Farm, it is my business to travel 
from Halifax to Vancouver, and I try to find out all I can about that little stretch of 
country — only about four thousand miles I liut it takes some time to get over it and 
get acquainted with it and the diiTerences of climate, soil and other characteristics con- 
nected with it. I have seen and examined the most favored districts of British Colum- 
bia, and some of them are certainly very promising for fruit growing ; but I am free to 
say that I am not acquainted with any part of the Dominion in which fruit-growing can 
be carried on with greater promise of success than in the county of Essex. The display 
we have upon the table before us, most of which, I understand, comes from this vicinity, 
and has been produced here, should be sufhcient to satisfy anyone that it is indeed a, 
great fruit district which can grow such apples as these, keeping until this time in such 
condition as we see them. I would advise you, one and all, to cultivate more fruit ; and- 
I may say here that I believe in the aesthetic aspect of the question which has been 
advanced by my friend Mr. Garfield. You will seldom find a man actively and enthu- 
siastically engaged in any department of horticulture who is a bad man. I suppose I 
ought to say something to you about the present and future of experimental farm work, 
as it bears upon fruit culture in Canada. In the organization of the work of the Experi- 
mental Farm, as the name implie.'!, all departments of agriculture are expected to be- 
covered ; everything, in fact, with which a farmer is concerned — corn growing, stock 
raising and all the other important features of farm work. Such experimental work, 
taken up from time to time, will be most beneficial to the provinces in which these farms- 
are situated. That is all I propose saying about the farm work generally. But in the 
department of horticulture I must say a few words more, as there are many very import- 
ant aspects of this work to be considered, when we take into account the population of 
the Dominion and its needs. I firmly believe that it is the best policy and the only 
practical solution of some existing difficulties, that in districts like this, which are very 
favorably situated for fruit growing, it should be gone into on a large scale. I am 
equally as strong in my belief of the importance of having fruit at every man's door if it 
is possible to have it, in every part of this Dominion, but while there are few sections of 
the country where small fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries and cur- 
rants cannot be grown, there are very many indeed where a beautiful apple, pear, plum, 
or peach, such as you can grow in Essex, cannot be grown at all ; where the trees will 
not endure the severity of the climate. Either the cold of winter or the drouth of sum- 
mer is sure to destroy them. The work of the Experimental Farm is to introduce from 
other countries having similar climates, and to originate in our own country varieties 
specially adapted to those districts not so favorably situated as yours is, so that we may 
eventually be able to produce apples, pears and plums which will prove hardy even in 
the most rigorous climates. We have in the Dominion to furnish to the settler the 
varieties he can grow to advantage, and if they are not up to the first quality, I know 
they will appreciate in the districts I have spoken of even second and third class, if they 
can "row them. In connection with the Experimental Farm work, a farm has been- 
selected in Nova Scotia, at a village called Napan, where, though there are good facili- 
ties for fruit growing, the people have not paid much attention to it ; partly, as they 
will tell you it you ask them, that they can buy apples grown in the famous Annapolis 
Valley cheaper than they can grow them. They are beginning, however, to realise that- 



15 



it is better to grow fruit themselvrs, a.iul orchards are being planted by them now, owing* 
more or less, to the advice and example given them by us, which served as an interesting 
object lesson to them, I have no doubt that fruit growing will become very general 
there within the next ten or twelve years. In the North-west one farm is located in one 
of the great wheat belts of Manitoba, and the other on the verge of the prairie district 
in the territory, where the climate is a continuation of the great American desert, and 
the rainfall is lacking which they get further east, in Manitoba. In those districts we 
are endeavoring to test such varieties as can be obtained in llussia, Silesia and different 
other European countries — the apples, pears and plums that are found to grow in similar 
districts there. We are also trying to get from our neighbors in Minnesota such fruits 
as they liave adapted to the North-west. I have no doubt that in a few years we shall 
be able to establish a degree of reciprocity with them in that line, M'hether a reciprocity 
treaty be negotiated or not. I made an attempt in that direction recently, when in 
Washington, and succeeded so well that the Secretary there has placed us on the list of 
Experimental Stations which receive samples of the seeds and products the United 
States receives from abroad, and we shall send them any we may introduce as soon as we 
possibly can. I think this reciprocal interchange among our fruit growers and those of 
the United States will do good, and our neighbors across the line are so good-natured 
that it is pleasaut to get among them to negotiate with them these little trifles of bar- 
gains. Of course we generally try to get a little the better of them ; it would not do for 
us to lose the reputation we have gained in that respect. The United States have done 
a great deal in this direction, in the introduction of new trees from llussia for testing in 
the colder climates of this continent, and none of them so much as Iowa. Professor 
Budd has been associated with our own Mr. Gibb, of Abbotsford, P.Q. They travelled 
together through Russia, and secured and introduced into this country many new varie- 
ties of fruits, giving promise of being adapted to the requirements and climate of the 
country. A few weeks ago, while at Indian Head, I went very carefully over the 
Piussian apples sent up a year ago last spring, which have stood two summers and one 
winter, and I must say the success attending their growth was very gratifying, although 
the season has been unusually trying, the rainfall being little more than five inches 
between April and September, and the trees manifested a degree of hardihood and vigor 
that I think augurs well for the future. Not only apples, but some cherries also, pro- 
mised very well ; and through the energy of our excellent secretary, we are now on the 
eve of getting from another part of Ptussia a consignment of trees of a very promising 
sort, which I trust will prove another very valuable addition to the list we are trying to 
grow at the present time. Apart from these introductions we are trying to originate 
new fruit. I will give you one experiment now in progress, from which you will have 
an idea of the work we are trying to do in this respect. The town of Riga, in Russia, 
is, I .suppose, about a thousand miles north of the latitude of Winnipeg, and around that 
district a great many varieties of fruit are grown, and even north of that in Russia, 
where the climate is very cold, and they have dry winds something like those in our 
own prairie district. Through the kindness of a seedsman in that town I have been able 
to secure a considerable quantity of seed of apples, pears and cherries which have been 
ripened and sold in the markets in towns north of that place. From these seeds — I 
think I am within the mark — fifteen hundred trees have been grown ; seedling trees, 
which will be planted out in orchards in Ottawa and at the North-west farm, and it is 
expected that by thus multiplying the chances of success almost ad libitum, we shall, in 
a very short time, get some varieties to manifest that degree of hardiness to make them 
meet the great want of our people all over the country. In addition to growing seed- 
lings in the way I have outlined, we are endeavoring, by cross-fertilization with the 
hardiest fruits we have, to produce new varieties. You must not think all our labors 
are devoted to the interests of the North-west, or the colder sections of the country 
however. We are endeavoring to help the dwellers in such situations a.s yours in Essex, 
and other favored parts of the country, by introducing and testing new varieties as they 
come out. We hope by testing these new varieties, some of which are so highly lauded 
and little deserving of it, to be able to save many a farmer a very large ex]jenditure, to 
■which he has been hitherto subject, in having to test these thicga for himself. These 



IG 



new varieties will be tested once for all in an authoritative manner, and their value 
determined in such a way as to inspire confidence among the fruit growers of this 
country. And a great saving of both time and money may be thus effected, while actu- 
ally useful varieties will be placed before the fruit growers in a way which could not be 
done under any other system. I am very glad to be present with you here, and to have 
had an opportunity of making these few remarks, with which I hope I have not occupied 
too much of your time. 



ESSEX AS A FRUIT-GROWING COUNTY. 

After the audience had been favored by a solo given by Mr. Patterson, of Windsor, 
the Chairman called upon Mr. Cleary, of Windsor. 

Mr. Cleary expressed his thanks for the compliment paid him in being asked to 
speak at the meeting, and said it afforded him great satisfaction that the meeting of the 
Fruit Growers' Association should have been held in Essex, as he felt it would be of 
great benefit to the county, by drawing attention to its advantages as a fruit-growing 
and agricultural section of the Dominion. It was situated, he said, very similarly to the 
State of Michigan, and the climate was most favorable for the cultivation of fruit. The 
county was situated in about the same latitude as Spain, and it would perhaps surprise 
some of his hearers to learn that in it could be grown fruit which could not be grown else- 
where in Canada. He had seen Catawba grapes growing on Pelee Island on the loth of 
October, and in some parts of the county sweet potatoes could be grown. If this meeting 
of the fruit growers resulted in drawing attention to the county, it would be productive 
of mucli benefit, for although the area of the county of Essex was about 430,000 acres, 
only about one-third of it was cleared and in cultivation, and of that area about one- 
quarter was devoted to the cultivation of corn, which, in Essex and Kent, could be grown 
with as much success as in the Western States. He was happy to be able to bear testi- 
mony to the truth of what Mr. Solomon White had said regarding the wine in his cellar. 
Longfellow had said of Catawba wine : 

For richest and best 

Is the wine of the West 
That grows by the iieautiful River, 

Whose sweet perfume 

Fills all the room 
With a benison on the giver. 



EVArORATED FRUIT— GROWTH AND IMPORTANCE OF THE 

INDUSTRY. 

Mr. L. B. Rice, of Port Huron, Mich., read the following paper on this subject : 
In presenting the subject in question to this society to-night, I would refer briefly to 
the history, growth and importance of this enter})rise, for, like all other great enter- 
prises, it has had its small beginning and its infant days. It is ti'ue that the ancient 
inhabitants of the desert regions of Asia and Africa dried and pressed the farinaceous 
fruits of the date, palm and the prune, and that these formed largely the food used on 
their long journeys across the arid sands. But I have not gone back to their means of 
dryint^ and pressing the fruit ; nor have I traced the method by which the aborigines of 
this country prepared their berries, so that they would keep even when buried under the 
ground. I have commenced with my personal recollections of fruit evaporating in my 
own home. My recollections commence in the typical log house of western New York, 
with its broad fireplace and stick chimney, .situated on the old Ridge road in the town of 
Sodus. Every evening during the autumn, father, mother, brothers and the hired help 
<Tathered in a wide circle around the great fireplace, to pare apples or peaches for drying, 
with which to assist in buying our winter's clothing. The apples were pared by hand, 
cut into quarters and the core cut out in the most artistic style. The quarters were then 



17 



put on strings. Some of the neighbors bought wrapping twine from the store, but my 
mother would take the tow tliat was left when she spun her llax for our summer clothing, 
recanl it and spin it into nice strong twine lor that purpose. I remember well that a 
great wooden l>owl was placed on the table and the quarters thrown into it as they were 
prepared. Around this bowl two or three of us were gathered, with our needles and 
strings, to string the apples. These strings of appli s were hung on racks on either side 
of the fireplace and on the edge of the mantel-shelf ; I hey were also susjjended from the 
chamber lloor joist on the sunny side of the house outdoors, and in every place where 
they could be dried. The tirst improvement came in using scaflTold boards to spread 
them on. We got out some logs in tlie winter and took them to the saw-mill, had them 
cut on shenes, and used the boards to build and cover the scaliuldiiig. P2verything was 
extemporized for use — even the more tlat roofs of houses, sheds, barns, etc. — wherever 
the fruit could get the sun. But if there should come on a few days of wet weather, 
there was trouble and loss. "We had to go back to the use of strings. Kacks were made 
of strips of lath and put over the stove, under it and all around. From this the transi- 
tion was easy to a small room set apart for the purpose. A stove was placed in it and 
racks covered with apples placed above, below and on all side.=;. But there was the 
danger of having a hot fire maintained in the house, and seveial buildings were burned. 
To avoid this trouble a small house was put up away from the farm buildings, and a 
stove placed in it, and it was christened a " dry-hou.se. ' 

While all of these improvements were being made in the art of drying the fruit 
the spirit of invention was advancing in other lines as well. Some ingenious person 
conceived the idea of paring the apples with a machine. We could not see how it could 
be done, but he accomplished the task. It was in this manner : A fork with two prongs 
was forged in one end of a small rod of iron, and the other end was bent into a crank. 
Two upright standards were placed at one end of a board 2^ to 3 feet long, and this was 
fastened to the top of them by means of staples driven in, thus forming the bearings on 
which it was to turn. To use this machine the operator would place the free end of the 
board on a chair or bench, then, sitting on it, he would turn the crank with his right 
hand, holding the knife in his left. The knife was made of a thin piece of steel, bent at 
the ends and driven into a piece of wood, being raised just enough to represent the 
thickness of the paring. With this a good, spry young rnan could pare a bushel of good- 
sized smooth apples in an hour. These were the glorious days of " paring bees." The 
lucky young man who owned one of these machines was sure of an invitation to all of 
the bees in the neighborhood ; more than that, he was sure of two of the smartest girls to 
slice his apples, and a Ing piece of pumpkin pie at 10 o'clock, and in some instances, a 
half hour's frolic. But the restless Yankee spirit could not stop at this. His invent- 
itive genius, so thoroughly aroused, and starting out under such favorable auspices in the 
great fruit belt of western New York, has never slumbered. There soon appeared a 
paring machine with large and small wooden wheels and a belt, so that increased speed 
<;ould be given to the motion of the apple, and this was followed by the tirst cast iron 
geared machines. 

Some time in 1857, I think it was, one Mr. .Mason brought out a little jjortable 
dry house. I say " dry house," for we had not yet risen to the dignity of the name 
" evaporator." Mason's dry house met the wants of the small producer better than 
4inything else ever given to the public, and thousands of them are still in use, giving good 
satisfaction. The building was 4 feet inches by 7 feet on the ground and 7 feet high to 
the eaves. The heater was a sheet iron cylinder about <> feet long, with cast iron heads, in 
one of which was a door and draft, while the other was solid. The door was flush with one 
end of the building, so that the wood was put in from the outside. The stovepipe came out 
on each side near the back end, and returned to the front, where it was joined into one and 
came out Just above the door. This accommodated 10 or llJ trays, ."i feet by 4 feet, and 
would dry a-s many bushels in a day. Its capacity is increased by building larger and 
increasing the diameter and length of the cylinder heater. All of the principles of the 
tower and liot air draft were and are used in this, as it depends for success on free 
admittance of air at the bottom, and good ventilation at the top. The patent has 
^'xpired long ago, and any person can usf it freely. With wooden slats for trays, the 

2 {F. o.) 



18 



cost complete is about $20. While speaking of small evaporators, there is another very 
much in favor among the next class of produces. It consists of two brick walls about 
.'3 feet 6 inches or -i feet apart, and sheet iron so placed in as to carry the draft back- 
wards and forwards from one end to the other, and trays put in between. A $75 Canton, 
furnace is used, the whole costing about $200 aside from the building, which is large 
enough to have the work done in it. 

The first to build on a large scale was Alden. He used a tower 4 feet square ou 
the inside, and running from the basement through and out of the top of a two story 
house. Steam radiators were used, being placed at the bottom of the tower ; but those 
failed to give satisfaction, and were replaced by hot air furnaces. The apples were put 
on 30 to iO trays, one above the other, the fresh being introduced at the top and 
gradually lowered to the iloor of the first story, where the dry ones were taken out. 
This seemed to be the most philosophical method, but it was found that the fruit was 
scorched when brought near to the fire, and the process was reversed. The green fruit 
was put in nearest the furnace and gradually raised, the dry ones being taken out at the 
top. As often as a new one was introduced the others were raised. This was a gTeat 
convenience, as the first story could be used as a workshop, the apples going directly into 
the tower, while the upper fioor was used to store the dried fruit. This style of evapora- 
tor has come out with a great many variations, and with as many different inventions 
for hoisting the trays during the process of drying. Alden raised his trays with four 
endless chains. Williams used two towers, with a device so that the trays were lowered 
in one and passed up through the other, being taken out and put in at the same place. 
Now most of them build a tower of brick like a great chimueyj 4 feet square on the 
inside, with a furnace in the bottom and a draft-hood on the top, above the building. 
These are practically fire-proof. Alden tried to sustain a claim against all others for 
infringement, on the ground that his patent covered the use of hot air currents to carry 
ofi" the moisture, no matter in what form it is used. The evaporating people combined to 
contest the claim, and the struggle lasted several years. Proof was obtained that hot 
air currents for drying purposes had been in use in various parts of the country for years. 
The process was described by writers, notable among whom was Patrick Barry, the 
venerable president of the Western New York Horticultural Society. 

In the first evaporators wood was used for trays, then common iron wire, but the 
wire had to be renewed every few years, as it would get rusty however well cared for. 
Then came galvanized wire, as at present used, of which I will speak further on. 

Horizontal evaporators have been in use with natural or forced currents of heated 
air. They were brought into favor during the war of the rebellion, to prepare dessicated 
vegetables for the soldiers, to keep otf the scurvy. If any of you ever enjoyi d a supper 
of soup made of these " desecrated vegetables," as we used to call them, and hard tack, 
while on allowance, you will hold them in fragrant remembrance as long as life lasts. 

As I stated before, steam was used in the first Alden towers, and it has since been 
tried in a small way in towers ; but its success was not satisfactory. Of late it has been 
used in a large way where the heat is distributed among the apples by a system of steam 
pipes, and it has produced very satisfactory results ; in fact, it seems as though the hot 
air tower would soon be a thing of the past. After the steam is used in the evaporator 
it can be conducted through pipes in the working room, thereby doing all with one fire ; 
also a cheaper class of fuel can be used. In the use of steam there are already many 
claimants for public favor, some of a good deal of merit, while others have their 
peculiar faults. 

It makes but little difference what evaporator you use ; the work is the same to 
prepare the apples. I have reports from men who own evaporators in many different 
places, and I lind that fifty bushels is the average work for a single paring machine in 
ten hours. Where reasonably fair apples are raised some report as high as sixty bushels, 
and some even more. Two trimmers, one allowed to each parer ; or it might be stated 
that to run an evoporator of 200 bushels capacity would take four parers, eight trim- 
mers, two sitreaders, two sorters, one bleacher, 5 tenders, one foreman and two night 
workers or about twenty-five hands in all. Of course this will vary a little according to 



19 



quality of fruit and skill of work hands. The product will he from 1,200 to 1,400 tb^ 
white A|)ples, and you would use with the most approved steam evaporator about 
1,200 lb soft coal, and from 20 to 25 lb of brimstone. 

Great impetus was <:;iven to the business of ovaporatin;jj fruits by the introduction 
•f the method of bleaching the apples after being pared with the fumes of burning 
sulphur. It had been applied to hops, and in Europe to fruit to some extent, but it was 
introduced in the evaporator in this country about 187G. As it evaporates, so it 
bleaches. There are many styles but all accomplish the same work by burning sulphur. 

In paring machines there has been great improvement since the one 1 used at parin" 
bees. 8omo have even tried driving them by steam powei-, but we have yet to see any 
greater average per day than by hand power. I see it stated in the Canadian llorticul- 
turisl, of November, that apples pared faster than 25 bushel in ten hours will fly to 
pieces and waste. There are none of our boys that average less than 50 bushels, unless 
of poor apples, and some even as high as 75 ; yet we are not troubled in that way. 

The importance of the enterprise to a community is shown, in a measure, Vjy the 
amount of money that it puts into circulation, and not so much by the per cent, profit 
to the man or company who buy their apples and hire help to do the work. It is an 
industry that gives employment to every man, woman and child in the community, and 
that of the most active and energetic kind. Girls and women who at other times are drivino- 
in their carriages, as soon as the season appears, may be found in the dry house all day. 
It is not uncommon for the farmer to .^ive to his girls the proceeds of the evaporation if 
they will run it, and some of them take in a good deal of money, even up to .^1,000 or 
more. As an example of the money brought into a place I will give you the sum 
paid out by one lirm for dried fruit in the little village of Sodus, given to me by 
Mr. A. B. Williams, book-keeper for the year 1887 : 

.^,500,000 lb. wliitu .apples at 7\c $262,500 

300,000 tb. chops at 3c ' 9,000 

GOO.OOO lb. skins and cores at 2.'ic 15,000 

125,000 lb. berries at 22c 27,500 

(5,000 lb. plum.s at 10c (iOO 

•1,000 tb. peaches at 12c 480 

$315,080 

Other buyers would easily have carried the sum total to half a million dollars. 
This buyer employed in his packing house the following persons from September '1st to 
April 1st, inclusive, seven months : one superintendent, one weigh-man, five packers, four 
facers and six ring pickers ; seventeen persons in all. In packing the white applr s they 
used 70,000 fifty-pound boxes, which loaded 140 cars, and it would require 30 car loads 
of half inch ]»ine lumber to make the boxes. One box-making firm at that place write 
me that in the same year they made 75,000 boxes, using 32 car loads of half inch lumber, 
or 800,000 feet ; 600 Hj. glue, 2,500 lb. nails, and employed seven men and two boys. 
You will see by the number of persons required in an evaporator of 200 bushels capacity 
that it would require 1,200 persons for three months in the evaporators, to produce the 
white apples alone that this firm bought. Now I think I have shown something of the 
value of such an enterprisi; to a community. 

Mr. J. Dayl, of Rochester, in an article read before the Western New York Horti- 
cultural Society last January, pla«es the entire production of evaporated fruit for the year 
1887 as follows: 

Evaporated apples, 2.5,000,000 tb .$1,125,000 

Chops, 8,000,000 1b 150,000 

Cores and pjirings, 4,000,000 lb 00,000 

Raspberries, 750,000 1b 150,000 

Total, 37,750,000 It.. $1,495,000 

Giving employment to 80,000 persons at good wages. 

The question naturally arises : where do all these apples 6nd a market ? Dealers 
in New York write me that Germany and Holland are their lar.'est purchasers, while 
those in Chicago say the great north-west and west. Parties in San Francisco say that 



2U 



they ship to the distant islands of the Pacific, particularly to Australia. They say that 
just now they are having a large demand from Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and even 
Texas. Prices quoted in San Francisco on the 28th of November are : Evaporated apples, 
9 to 9ic.; sun-dried quarters, 3 to 4c., and sun-dried slices, 4 to 5c. You will see by this 
that sun-dried apples cannot successfully compete with evaporated, and I doubt if 
expense of manufacturing is very much less. Perhaps I ought to say that there is an 
exception to tlii.s in what are known as " heavy cut quarters," sun-driei, from the north- 
ern reserve of Ohio. They are in demand in New York, and have the highest reputation 
for export. 

It was said by writers and others last year, in a consoling way, that a result of 
the low prices would Vte to open new markets, and consumers in these new markets once 
having tasted the delicious fruit, would never again be able to resist. But careful 
inquiry among dealers fails to furnish proof of any such happy state of affairs, or to reveal 
any new markets opened. The consumption last year was enormous everywhere, but the 
general feeling is that there will be a great falling ofi" this year. Western New Y''oi k, the 
cradle of the evaporating industry, continues to lead the world, not only in the quality but 
in the quantity of it.s productions of evaporated apples and of raspberries. Delaware, 
North Carolina and Georgia are the leading producers of dried peaches, Virginia of 
cherries. Blackberries come from North Carolina, and apricots from California. 

At the opening of the season this year there was a new disturbing element. It was 
reported that Germany had refused American evaporated apples cured on galvanized wire 
trays, and that buyers would pay one cent per pound more to those who used wood. As a 
consequence many producers put light ribs of wood over the wire, and the trade in 
•wire cloth was completely paralyzed. But the price of apples was constantly advancing; 
buyers were excited and driving about the country night and day, buying everywhere and 
everything that they could find. It was soon rumored that those who had said the most 
were putting all into one pile, whether dried on wood or wire. It was found to make it 
much more expensive to dry on the wood. All of this caused a general feeling of distrust, 
and many took the wood off; very few are using it now, and I fail to find that any of 
the buyers are doing as they promised about paying more. The general feeling seems 
to be that it was all a hoax on a ruling b}' the German government against American 
food products in general. But in making a thorough investigation, I find that the 
complaint is well founded in certain cases at least. I will quote from thoss who seem 
to know. 

Mr. P. A. Pincoffs, a member of the firm of Manran, Pincoffs & Co., Chicago, 
returned from Europe a few days ago. He spent some time in Germany, and was thei-e 
when the question involving the healthfulness of American evaporated apples was raised 
in Hamburg, and says : 

The action of the (ierniaii iiuthorities in tliis ciucstion is not due to jealous}' oi- enmity shown by the 
German government in regaixl to food products from Amrricii. Tiie measure against evaiioratcd apples, in 
the first i>lace, is not a governiental one ; but is taken l)y the Hamburg local authorities, who certainly 
would and could have no possible object in discriminating against American evai)orated apples for the 
protection of a home industry that does not exist. The facts in the case are simply these : A few months 
ago a case of sickness occurred in Hamburg, which was ascribed to the use of evai)orated apples. The 
board of health, whose duty it is to examine all articles of food, thereu|)on took the matter in hand and 
examined over fifty tons of evaporated apples in the possession of various retailers. The result was that, 
on careful chemical analysis, a certain amount of zinc oxide wa^ found in almost every lot. In most the 
percentage was very small, 0.004 per cent, and even 0.002 per cent., but in some it amounted to 0.43 per 
cent. The decision was then promulgated bj- the city goviTument that all evaporated apples found to 
contain zinc or zinc oxide woidd be liable to confiscation, an<i the dealers handling them subject to ])eniten- 
tiary imprisonment, for selling articles harmful to the health of consumers. This measure might be con- 
sidered an exaggerated om-, as the percentage of zinc oxide in '.tO lots out of 100 is infinitesimally small and 
cannot harm anybody ; but the fact that some zinc oxide has been found in almost all lots examined stands 
nncontroverted,"and i.s beyond any doubt -there a foundation exists for the action taken; it was not a 
feeling against American products, but primarily a fe<-lingof I'ltirnal and somewhat exaggerated anxiety 
for the stomacli of G<rman consumers. 

A similar case occurred in Amsterdam four or five years ago, since whitfh time the 
use of evaporated apples in Holland has been falling oil. Mr. E. Myers, a member of the 
firm of Myers iV Co, produce exchange, New York city, writes me : 

The use of galvanized wire trays has uncjuebtionably, in iii.-.tance8, left trac<-s of zinc poison in a|)ple.s, 
and may easily do so ; but we do not think sufficiently so to affect the consumer's health, unless, perhaps, 



21 




From these (|uotatioiis you will plainly see that the complaint is not one of national 
prejudice or of retaliation, but one of fact that has got to be met and remedied in some 
manner. Mr. ^fyers states that the return to " the use of wooden trays in evajtorators, 
if general, would re.store the business to its former proportions. Any extra cost in evapora- 
ting by this method would be readily compensated by the additional price that the goods 
would bring. Unless we can find a wire cloth so galvanized that the acid of the fruit 
will not atleit it, it is clear that its use must be abandoned sooner or later. The 
fruit acid seems to have a close attinity for either lead, tin or zinc, and as one or all of 
these are used in covering the wire, it is clear that there imist be a resultant trouble. 
The manufacturers of a certain grade of wire cloth claim that their silver finish high 
grade cloth is proof against the action of the acid. Of course, if it is well covered 
with silver, their claim can be sustained ; but it strikes me that such cloth would be 
very expensive. The only metals in use that are proof against fruit acid are gold, silver 
and platinum. The new metal, alluminum, when it becomes cheap, as prophesied, will 
also meet the case. I think I should prefer to use iron wire cloth, as the iron rust 
cannot lie called a poison, if I must use a wire cloth at all, unless the claims of the silver 
finish wire can be relied on, or return to wood altogether. Mr. Pincoffs further .says : 

As the m.atter now stands, evaporated apples cannot be sold i)i Hamburg unless tlie invoices are 
accompanied bj' a cheniist'.s certificate .•'tatinp: goods to be free from zinc, so that the trade in the article 
there can bt' retained if a change is made in the process of manufacturing. But it may well bi^ feared that 
if this change is not made, and further trouble is experienced in different parts of Germany, the German 
government will take tlie measure in hand, and having a solid argument against the article, will be onlj* 
too glad to prohiliit its importation into Germany unconditionally. 

The following report is made by M. De Lafontaine, a reputable chemist, who has 
examined several samples of apples evaporated on zinc trays : 

I have investigated the conditions undei' which zinc and zinc compounds find their way into evapor- 
ated apples, and find as follows : 

1. The acid of the apple juice combines with some of the zinc of the trays and forms salts of zinc( whicii 
remains on the slices. 

2. The wires of galvanized iron used to make the trays have received an extra coating of zinc, which 
easily peels off when the wire is bent and mixes with the fruit. 

This is a matter that cannot be passed lightly by. It certainly shows a very 
grave state of things. We cannot question the report of the chemists in Hamburg or 
Amsterdam, nor should we pass lightly by the report of M. De Lafontaine. If these 
apples are poisonous to the Germans of Hamburg or the Dutch of Amsterdam, can you 
tell me of any good reason why they should not have the same efl'ect on the good people 
of Canada and the United States? If the suggestions of M. De Lafontaine are true, that 
it may come from the peeling off of the coating caused by the bending of the wire 
in weaving the cloth, then higher finish on the surface will not prove a remedy. It 
must be found in some other way. 

I trust that manufacturers of evaporated apples will not blind their eyes to these 
facts, and that before another year the use of lead, tin or zinc cloth may be abandoned 
for something that will render the taint of poison an impossibility. 

After brief addresses by ex-President Allan and Vice-President Morton the meeting 
was adjourned until 10 o'clock Wednesday morning. 



2-2 



THE QUESTION DRAWER. 

On re-assembling at 10 o'clock on Thursday morning the proceedings were con- 
tinued by the discussion of the following questions from the Question Drawer : 

THE ONE JUDGE SYSTEM AT FAIRS. 

Q. — Is it better to have one judge than three judges at exhibitions 1 

Mr. A. McD. Allan. — I would say yes ; it is better to have one judge or two 
judges than three, for when there are three they stand in each other's way. Where 
there are three judges there is a strong temptation to shift responsibility of unsatisfac- 
tory decisions from one to the other, but no man will undertake the duties of a sole judge 
unless he feels himself fully competent to do the work. I prefer two judges to three, 
because, where there are only two, the judgment must be unanimou.s. In my own depart- 
ment 1 would far rather judge alone than with two assistants ; for my experience has 
been that they are anything but assistants. 

Mr. Elliott agreed with Mr. Allan that the one judge system was preferable, and 
had been tried with most satisfactory results by the Union Society of North and South 
Essex. He was not in favor of two judges. 

Mr. WiLLARD, of Geneva, N. Y., said that in his part of New York they had 
always adhered to the three-judge system, but he was free to admit that the one-judge 
system would have many advantages, provided the person could be found who was will- 
ing to accept the whole responsibility. 

President Lyon, of the Michigan Horticultural Society, said that with them the 
one-judge system practically prevailed, although it was the custom to appoint an 
assistant who had local knowledge to guide him on some necessary points. The real 
responsibility, however, rested with the one judge, the aim being to put the judging in 
the hands of a known expert. 

Mr. Wilson, of Chatbara, agreed with what had been said in favor of the one- 
judge system. Under the prevailing plan the only man competent to judge an exhibit 
might for local or other reasons be outvoted by the other two judges, who really were 
not competent, and this was a deterrent to really competent men when asked to act. 

Mr. Read, secretary of the Michigan Horticultural Society, said he had seen the 
one-judge system in operation at county fairs, and had heard no more complaints than 
when there were two or three judges. He coincidec in the view th.Lt one expert was 
much better than three non-experts, or one expert and two non-experts whose judgment 
might weigh the former down. He thought it a very good plan to have one expert 
judge assi.sted by some one of local experience to help him in some matters. 

Piesident Lyon stated that at the exhibition referred to by Mr. Read they had 
secured the services of three judges, thinking they would find an abundance of work 
each by himself, but there seemed to be «, tendency on the part of those gentlemen 
instead of dividing the work to go on and throw part of the responsibility on each other, 
although that was not at all the pur])Ose of the society. 



FRUIT ROOMS AND STORAGE OF FRUIT. 

The following paper was read by T. T. Lyon, of South Haven, Mich., President of 
the Michigan Horticultural Society : 

There are two, in some respects, distinct purposes for which fruit retarding arrange- 
ments are more or less employed. That to which we will first give attention is for the 
temporary holding of the earlier and more perishable fruits. These, owing to their very 
perishable character, can only be retarded for a comparatively short period ; and 
experience had developed the fact that even with the arrest of decay the flavor deterior- 
ates more or less rapidly, so that little or nothing is to be gained by more than a very 
temporary holding of such. 



23 



The process, whether with early or long keeping fruits, consists in keejnng them iu 
an equable, moderately dry condition, ;i i'ow degrees above the freezing point. This low 
tenipeiature may be produced by dirterent methods, although it is usually secuied l>y 
the use of ice, in a room with double walls, ceiling and lloor, packed between with dry 
sawdust or other cheap non-conducting substance, or by the use of what are known as 
dead air chambers. 

Since the warmer air is always found in tlie upper part of the room, the ice box is 
placed there ; and since the gaseous results of decay are heavier than atmospheric air, 
thef opening, if any, provided for their removal should be placed very near the door of 
the room. The ice box will necessarily be the coldest object in the room, for which 
reason any excess of moisture in the air of the room will be condensed upon it, and thi.s 
will the more readily occur if its surface is of metal. It must therefore be supplied 
with the means of collecting such condensed moisture, together with the drip from the 
ice, and carrying the same outside the building ; the discharge pipe .should be provided 
with a trap to prevent the admission of the warmer air from without. 

The fruits to be held should be in as perfect a condition as possilile ; rather under 
than over ripe ; and may be in moderate sized packages, or placed directly upon shelves. 
Bruised or decayed fruits should be rigorously excluded. Such arrangement will be 
found useful also for the preservation of perishable culinary and other articles. 

The arrangements for the preservation of the longer keeping fruits differ from the 
foregoing mainly in dispensing with the use of ice ; and, instead, securing the needful 
low temperature by employing a system of ventilation, b}' means of which the outer air 
may be admitted, when its temperature is low enough for the purpose, excluding it at 
other times. The fruit should be gathered with the utmost care, when not over ripe, 
all bruised or decayed specimens excluded, and the packages placed at once in the 
retarding house, the temperature of the same having been already reduced as low as 
practicable by opening the ventilators during cold nights and closing them before a rise 
of the outer temperature. The effect of this will be to avoid the continuance of the 
ripening proce.ss consequent upon the comparatively warm weather which so frequently 
occurs after fruits are gathered, bringing the fruit thus treated down to the tinal advent 
of winter, slightly if at all changed from its concMtion when gathered — an important 
point gained, especially in the more southerly portions of the apple growing regions of 
our country. 

A building for this purpose may be constructed of cheap material, if only the work 
of packing or insulating be so thoroughly done as to effectively avoid circulation of air, 
save when admitted through the system of ventilation. 

Admission to the room should be through double doors, and light should be 
admitted only when needful in conducting operations. 

Fresh air is admitted through a passage from beneath at some central point in the 
fruit room which should draw its supply from the free outside atmospiiere, and should 
be susceptible of being easily and tightly closed at pleasure. This passage should 
extend to near the ceiling, admitting the incoming air only at that point ; which will 
thus displace the warmer air which will have risen to that position. 

Carbonic acid and other products of decay will, if present, occupy the lower por- 
tions of the room. To insure the removal of these the pipe for the discharge of the 
outgoing air should start from near the fioor, passing up through the attic and above the 
roof, but with its principal opening at cr near the ceiling, to be used for the removal of 
the warmer air, when the temperature is to be reduced. These passages also should be 
kept tightly closed, except during the process of ventilation. 

If both air ducts are opened when the contained air is warmer than the outer 
atmosphere, the warmer air will pass freely upward and be as freely replaced by the 
cooler air from the lower duct. This proce.ss will continue till the temperatures within 
and without the room are equalised. 

It may, however, become desirable to change the air of the preservatory when the 
temperatures are such that a spontaneous movement of the air cannot occur. To 
provide for such necessity the upper ventilating duct should be of metal — ordinary sheet 



24 



iron will suffice — and in the attic a sheet iron jacket may be placed a''ound it, in which 
a light fire may be Vmilt, the he it of which will at once Oijoision the draft sought, and 
the air of the room below be rapidly changed as heretofore described. 

Fruit may be stored in such rooms in common barrels, which may l»e pilerl one upon 
another, when the vacant spaces will be ample for the circulation of air when needful 
tor the purpose of ventilation or change ; or it may be stored in open bins, in which case 
the bottoms should be of slats, with ventilating spaces between, and an open space left 
for the free passage of air between the bins and the floor, as well as between the bins. 
In the case of small lots, or of specimen fruits, they may be spread or placed in shallow 
piles, upon shelves or tables, so as to be open to convenient examination when desired. 

A large building of this character will be the more easily maintained at the proper 
temperature, since the greater bulk of air will vary in temperature more slowly in 
response to the changes without. 

In localities in which the winters are so steadily cold that there is liability of the 
temperature being reduced to the danger point without the opportunity to avoid it by 
renewal, the air may be introduced through an underground passage well below the frost 
line, and a change of air thus safely effected even in the coldest weather. 

Fruit exposed to a dry atmosphere is more or less inclined to shrivel and become 
tough and leathery, as well as to lose flavor. This is especially true of the Russets. 
For this reason a moist condition of the confined air is found preferable, since in such 
atmo.sphere fruit loses little if any of its moistuie. 

The Michigan fruit shown at the opening of the Centennial Exposition at Phila- 
delphia in May, 1876^ which at the time attracted unusual attention, had been largely 
kept in a building of this character. When placed upon the tables it had undergone so 
little change that even the stems in most cases were still fresh and green. 

The freezing of apples does not occur till the temperature has fallen several degrees 
below the freezing point of water, nevertheless it is claimed that the best results are 
realised in temperatures somewhat above that point. 

The more limited operations of farm orchardists, as well as the large class of smaller 
commercial growers, call for arrangements of less elaborate and expensive character than 
those already described. 

With the great majority of these the cellar is the chief reliance for the storage of 
long keeping fruits. This, however, can only be rendered satisfactory for the storage of 
winter fruits ly devoting it wholly to such purpose, to the total exclusion of vegetables 
and other articles liable to infect the confined air with foreign odors ; and by such 
ventilating arrangements as shall suffice for the maintenance of the needful low and 
constant temperature. If preferred a portion only of the cellar may be devoted to such 
purpose, and partitioned ofi" by a brick or stone wall, all the better if double. If located 
beneath rooms artificially warmed, precaution will be necessary against the transmission 
of warmth to the cellar below. 

The most convenient and effective device for the amateur or family to be devoted to 
the temporary storage of summer and autumn fruits, for ripening, testing and occasional 
retarding for short jjcriods, would be a room, either within or separate from the residence,, 
constructed upon the principles and (excepting the ice) with the fixtures already 
indicated, in which fruits can be placed either in packages or upon shelves, the latter 
being preferable, when the specimens are for testing, and which for that reason require 
frequent examination. 

To those, however, who provide for a supply of ice during the warm season, a 
simple, small room or cupboard built within the ice house, with admission from without, 
through double docr.s, will be found effective and satisfactory for the holding of summer 
fruits, the preservation of specimens for fairs, and other kindred purposes, as well as for 
the jneservation of various domestic products. 



Mr. A. McD. Allan — I do not know of any suV)ject that could more appropriately- 
be brought before fruit growers and shippers than that on which President Lyon's paper 
treats, and the points contained in the paper are those whieh it is absolutely essential 



25 



that eve!ry grower and shipper should have a knowledge of. The shipper is interested, 
because he wants to get that fruit in the very highest condition of perfection for ship- 
ping, and he cannot get it in that condition unless it is stored under the circumstances 
mentioned in the paper just read. I would therefore very much like that growers would 
carefully study and observe the principles laid down in it, because by doing so they will 
V)e improving their own interests as well as those of the shippers and the country at 
large. The subject is a most important one and should receive the attention of all fruit 
growers. 

Mr. Garfield — I would like to know if there is any means of getting rid of the 
surplus moisture in case we want to preserve products to be kept dry. In the case of 
apples, I understand it is bett(3r it' the atmosphere is a little moist, but if we were going 
to use the same storage room for squashes or onions we would desire the atmosphere kept 
continuously dry. How are we going to get rid of that moisture '. 

President Lyon — There is a great deal of matter that might have been introduced 
into the paper which was left out, partly because it was thought it would serve to excite 
discussion in which tho.>5e points would arise, and also that it might not be of too great 
length. In answer to ]Mr. Garfield, I may say there was an arrangement such as I have 
described for gathering the condensed moisture, and the room was kept dry by Just that 
simple process. The ice box was so arranged that -all the moisture as it dropped down 
was caught and carried away, and the air of the room certainly was very satisfactory. 

Mr. Gakfield — My question referred to that style of rooms where they do not use 
ice, where, when you let in air, you let in moisture, and when you keep the air there 
still, there are exhalations from the onions or squashes which fill the air. Is there some 
way of bringing that out ? 

President Lvox — I do not know whether there is anything better than the practice 
of having substances in the room that will absorb the excessive moisture. Of course 
that absorption can be carried to any extent that is desirable. I believe that the refuse 
of salt making is used for that purpose, and has the property of absorbing moisture with 
great rapidity. 



PEACH GROWING FOR PROFIT. 

The President then called upon Mr. Jiimes F. Taylor, of Douglas, Michigan, to read 
a paper on " Peach Growing for Profit." 

This subject may have reference to the great peach belts of our country, where the 
cultivation of this fruit forms the leading industry, or it may only include those smaller 
districts where a few hundred trees are grown in connection with the grain products of 
the farm. There are small peach belts, of a few acres in various localities, well adapted 
to the successful cultivation of this fruit. This is especially true where the surface of 
the country is broken by hills and ravines. Ridges of land that run well up above the 
rivers and plains and swamps are often exempt from the coldest extremes of winter and 
the severest frosts of spring. If these ridges and hills have a porous sub.soil they are all 
the better adapted to the growing of peach trees that will produce an abundance of fruit. 

In selecting a situation for a peach orchard it is desirable to avoid very frosty 
localities. The air currents which seem to keep up a constant motion in an undulating 
country, often afford protection from injury when all other <levices fail. Perhaps severe 
frosts, late in the spring, after the fruit buds begin to develop are more fatal to peach 
culture than the coldest days of winter. On this account localities should be selected 
where the fruit buds will not be too much influenced by the warm days of early spring 
time. Sheltered localities therefore like the south side of woodlands, are not often de- 
sirable. An open exposure is preferable, so that the cold winds of spring time may retard 
all tendency to growth until danger from frost is over. Special reference should also be 
had to character of the soil and its ])reparation for trees. A very strong soil is always to 
be avoided. Loam, sand and gravel mixtures are preferable to clay. Peach wood seems 
to be much more capable of resisting cold when it is brought to maturity by a slow 



26 



growth. This can only be secured by a soil that is moderately productive and somewhat 
porous in its nature. On such a soil clover sod plowed under in the autumn or early 
spring and well fitted for corn will be in good condition for planting peach trees. 

The trees may be planted 16, 18, or 20 ft. apart each way. If the land is strong 
20 ft. is not too far, as the trees become more spreading and do not grow so high. With 
peach trees corn should be planted for two years with good cultivation. After this rye 
or buckwheat may be sowed and plowed under to good advantage. Cultivation should 
continue year after year as thoroughly as for a crop of corn. Peach trees will not bear 
neglect and give good results. During every dry season cultivation should be continued 
until the middle or last of August. After the trees begin to bear fruit, fertilisers may 
be used to good advantage on any soil, and on all light or thin soils they are a necessity. 
The tree that bears good fruit must be fed or it can not feed others. The best varieties 
for these isolated orchards are doubtless the old standard sorts that have been tested in 
all parts of the country. With these some new ones are coming to the front to make the 
list about as follows for continuous ripening : — Lewis' Seedling, Crane's Yellow, Early 
Barnard, Jacque's Rare Ripe, Hill's Chili and Smock. Some other varieties we think 
equally good, but this li.st is long enough for a beginner. Before planting a peach tree 
it should be trimmed to a whip and out back to 3 or 4 feet in length. In trimming cut 
the limbs about one-half inch from the body of the tree so that buds hidden there may 
not be injured. During the summer after planting superfluous sprouts may be taken off 
or pinched back from time to time as they appear. In this way trees become shapely 
without severe pruning. The cultivation of a peach orchard is never complete, unless a 
thorough search for borers is made once or twice a year. 

When the fruit sets full it should be thinned out by hand picking. This work can 
begin on the early varieties, when the fruit is about like your finger ends, and continued 
on the later varieties until all have been gone over. When the fruit sets uniformly over 
the tree it should be thinned out to 3 or 4 inches apart on every limb. Good results can 
not otherwise be secured. 

When the crop is abundant great care must be exercised in marketing in order to 
secure good results. Peaches are always of better quality when ripened on the tree, and 
the nearer they can be brought to this condition before they are picked for market the 
more they will be appreciated by the purchaser. These small orchards, scattered over 
the country, as good locations offer, will commonly find their most remunerative market 
near at home. If the price is low in these markets at first it can be reached without 
middle men, and as the well ripened fruit is presented year after year it will be more 
and more desired by all who see it. For the home market peaches may remain on the 
tree until they are well ripened, but for long shipments no soft specimens should go into 
the package. Peaches should be handled about as carefully as you would handle eggs. 
Pouring them from one basket or box into another, as you would potatoes or even apples, 
is highly injurious, even if the injury is at first invisible. It is therefore desirable to 
pack them foi market where they are grown. Pecks, halves and bushels may be used to 
advantage in this traffic according to the kind of market and quality of fruit you wish to 
put upon it. 

With this brief outline we think no one will be at a loss to improve his oppor- 
tunities for peach <;ulture in a way that will be healthful to the digestive organs of his 
customers and remunerative to his own purse. 

The net results of peach culture in any locality are variable to an extent that can 
not easily be defined. The estimate may be made by the tree, or the acre, or the orchard, 
and in any case be misleading as to the results during a series of yeais. If a tree five 
years old produces one bushel of marketable fruit, which would be a reasonable estimate, 
we still have the wide variation of prices that come from an abundant or short crop. 
The actual results therefore are similar to other branches of horticulture and husbandry ; 
sometimes good and sometimes not so good, but where Nature serves the kindly turn of a 
congenial climate the careful and judicious cidtivator of jjcaches seldom fails of a suitable 
reward for his labor. The most favored localities are not richly rewarded every year, but 
wherever the trees and bud.s can endure the climate there is always great encouragement 
to plant the trees and gather the fruit. 



27 



At the ond of his paper INIr. T^iyhir continued spnakinrj as follows : When tliore is 
.1 surplus, if tho fruit is proptM'ly hmullotl, it is very s(;hlorn the ntit returns wouM not bo 
■r'tjual to one dollar a bushel — I am spftaking of a v(U'y abundant year. Peaches are now 
being used through the country wherever they can be produced to an extent th it justifies 
their production wherever there are facilities for their transportation. Rapid trans- 
portation is very desirable when the crop is large. When the crop is small of course 
"the prices run high, as has beon the case this year, two, three, four and five dollars per 
bushel according to quality and the condition in which the fruit was placed upon the 
market. But we do not regard §3 and !?r» as standard prices, because it is only occa- 
sional years that we have not a suiRciently abundant crop to enable us to reduce the 
price below those figures. I have not written anything in regard to the yellows, not 
knowing whether you would care to hear anything about it. 1 have been asked by 
•ditterent members whether we have the yellows, and I will just reply to that in a few 
words, and then I shall be very happy to answer any questions you may desire to ask. 
We have had the yellows. They commenced first in my place in 1877. I had two or 
three trees affected that year, and through not fully appreciating the disease at that 
time, and havmg my attention drawn away by other work, they were not cut until after 
the fruit had ripened. I had only about three hundred trees at that time, but the next 
year forty of them were affected. These trees were green and fresh in leaf as any orchard 
could posisibly be, showing no change of color in the leaf or growth of the tree, but when 
the time had nearly come for the fruit to ripen it showed that peculiar red that is 
familiar to everyone that has ever had any fruit affected by yellows. We cut out the 
forty trees, and the next year we had .six, and since that year we have not found the 
yellows in our orchard at all. A neighbor of mine, in the year in which we cut forty, 
cut three hundred trees, and for several years past he has not had more than an occa- 
sional tree. That is the history of the disease in my immediate vicinity, in a district of 
country several miles wide and loeg. In other localities where, instead of cutting the 
trees, they persisted in trying by various means to doctor them, hoping to cure them of 
the disease, it continued to exist, and spread. Now the growers are so thoroughly con- 
vinced of the necessity of taking out every tree that shows sign of the yellows that there 
is no objection to that course at all. We have commissioners whose duty it is to see 
that affected trees are cut out. I was one of the commissioners for my township for six 
years, beginning with 1878, and so I made myself familiar with the spread of the disease 
in that locality, and with its curtailment from that lime down to the present, and the 
young orchards in our vicinity for the last six or seven years do not show any symptoms 
of yellows at all. 

President Lyon. — What would you do in the case of a single peach on a tree show- 
ing .symptoms, while the rest were sound ; would you simply cut away the branch ? 

Mr. Taylor. — I have occasionally heard of cases where men saved the tree by cut- 
ting ofi" the limb, but I have never found any such instance myself, I had an Early- 
Crawford, one limb of which, about the size of a hoe handle, showed the disea.se, and I 
was not willing to risk it and we took the tree out. I think there are few who will 
contend that the disease has not already taken hold of a tree that shows it on one peach, 
this year sufficiently to develop it on a large part of the tree the next year. I have seen 
a man who had one limb or one side of a tree which forms principally in two branches 
affected by the disease, and it was cut off and the other side ripened healthy fruit, but 
next year the remaining side had the yellows just os badly as the first, and that experi- 
ence has been repeated so often within my personal knowledge that I would not risk one 
branch on a tree, even it it was not larger than a pipe-stem. Peach trees at the piesent 
liuie only cost a few cents, and it i.s lietter to put in a new tree than run any risk of tho 
disease spreading in the orchard. 

The Secret.vry. — Do you think it can be carried by pruning tools ? Is care neces- 
sary with regard to the use of the pruning knife ? 

Mr. Taylor. — That is one of the points that has been a great deal talked of, l)Ut 1 
\ia not in possession of any certain knowledge either way, as to whether it is carried by 



28 



the tools, or if it is necessary to use any acid or anything of that kind on th.eni. It 
might be necessary if the pruning were done when the tree was in How of sap, but our 
triniming is done early in the spring, if possible before the sap begins to flow. 

A Member. — Do you burn the trees as well as cut them out ? 

Mr. Taylor. — Our law ret^uires the burning of the tree. The year we cut so mauv 
trees we were particular to pick up the fruit and give it to the pigs, but my orchard was 
so thickly planted that it was impossible to carry out the trees without brushing the 
other trees, so I left them until the fruit was picked, and then we destroyed trees and 
all. We did not take out the root?, however, until our fall work was finished, and then 
we dug out all the stumps. Where that is done there is no trouble at all. We regard 
the burning of the trees, after cutting, as an essential part of the work. 

A ^Member. — Would you plant new trees in the places where the old ones came out ? 

Mr. Taylor. — We have done that with good success, as far as any yellows were 
concerned ; there has been no eftect as far as the yellows were concerned. You 
all know, however, that there is a difficulty in starting a young tree surrounded 
with old ones. If your trees are sixteen or eighteen feet apart the roots of the 
old trees so occupy the ground as to take the life out of the soil, and a young tree 
may fail the second year from causes entirely ajtart from the yellows ; that is the only 
difficulty we have had in that line. I know of perfectly healthy trees, bearing fruit, 
which were planted in places where other trees affected by yellows were taken out. 

Professor Pakton. — What has been your experience in planting the pits of diseased 
peaches 1 

Mr. Taylor. — I have cracked many of them to see if there was anything there to 
grow ; I think when the fruit is thorougely diseased there is no meat in the pit to grow. 
Where a tree is diseased on only one side the pits of the fruit from the other side might 
grow, and it is just possible that if those pits were already infected with the virus of the 
yellows it might be injurious. 

A Member. — At what season of the year do you plow in the buckwheat ? 

Mr. Taylor. — There is a two-fold object in plowing under buckwheat, one is to 
get the vegetable matter under to fertilise the soil, and the other to counteract the 
working of the cut-worm. Buckwheat seems to be one of the crops the moth of the cut- 
worm does not like, and the more we sow buckwheat that way the less trouble we have 
with the cut-worm. 

A Member. — Don't you find that your late cultivation is very apt to induce a late 
growth, leaving your trees and buds in a tender condition for the winter, and so liable 
to winter-kill ? 

Mr. Taylor. — The error in peach cultivation is the other way. My experience is 
that the cultivation of a peach orchard ought to be late enough in the season so that the 
fruit buds will not ripen before about the middle of September. Stop cultivating in 
July, and on ordinary dry soils the leaves will show ripening in August and turn yellow. 
As the leaves ripen the fruit buds for next year begin to develop and show. Suppose 
we have a warm September, these fruit buds will enlarge all through the fall if it is 
warm. Now if the growth is kept up on these trees until the 1st of September, if it is a 
dry season especially, cultivation is desirable, and if they have fruit more desirable still,, 
because the quantity of fruit and dryness of the soil will produce earlier ripening of the 
wood. After the wood is once ripened the nature of the peach, if the soil is warm 
enough, is to start again. A December like the present continued on through January 
would bring out peach buds on the lake shore altogether too early. We have had one 
such season since I have been on the shore in twenty years, when the peach blossomed 
on the 10th of April — the only season in the twenty years when the peach has blos- 
somed before the 10th of May. The trees did well enough, only the cold winds and 
rains of May stopped the growth of the tree and the fiuit for a week or ten days. Then 
it came warm again, and the new growth threw off not only leaves but fruit that year. 
The damage done in that way induced a number of men to go to extremes in cultivation. 
If up to the middle of July we get continuous wet weather, let the cultivation be cautioua 



29 



from time to time, but if cliy weather continues do not be afraid to continue until you 
are pretty sure the dry season is over. Wc must keep up moisture by cultivation if we 
cannot get it from the clouds. 

A Mkmiikk. — What implement do you use for cultivating ■ 

Mr. Taylor. — My own practice is to plow the orchard once every season ; near 
the tree we use a one horse plow, and back from the rows either a gang plow or a 
single plow set very shallow, not, niori; thin four iuches deep. 

The Secret.vry. — What style of package do you use in Michigan ? 

Mr. Taylor. — We have tried almost every style that ha.s licen on the market. For 
a number of years past the successful package is a round basket with what we call a 
railroad cover. Then in our immediate vicinity we have the Ibur-basket crate of slats, 
with a slat cover on top to hold the four together. During the last two years the long 
basket with a handle has become quite popular ; the commission men in Chicago are pre- 
ferring that one very much, and we may be obliged to adopt it. 

The Secretary. — I have just a word or two to say regarding the distance apart of 
peach trees. Mr. Taylor puts the distance at twenty feet. That was the distance at 
which we originally planted our old orchard, but of late I have been planting about 
twelve feet, and by careful pruning I keep the tree in a bushy form. I find this di.stance 
to be quite far enough apart, especially in view of the danger of losing the trees by 
yellows. It seems advisable to keep our ground more clo.sely occupied and the trees 
severely pruned. We have all noticed where we have neglected to prune the peach tree, 
that it runs out very long arms, with all the fruit on the straggling ends of long branches, 
and of course they occupy more ground than is necessary. I think the mode of pruning 
I speak of not only keeps the tree in belter health, but we get a greater number of fresh 
young shoots and more fruit. Then in regard to fertilisers, I have been using wood 
ashes altogether for my peach orchard, and I liave been exceedingly pleased with the 
result. I believe it affects the color and size, and perhaps the flavor of the fruit. So 
much is this the case that I daresay some of you have noticed that in Massachusetts it is 
claimed by Mr. Hale that muriate of potash is a specific cure for yellows, which, however, 
we have very great doubts about. 

A Member. — What time of the year do you prune 1 

The Secretary. — I prune in March or early in April, before the growth begins. 

Professor Paxton. — What quantity of ashes do you apply .' 

The Secretary. — At least half a bushel of unleached ashes to a tree pearly. The 
soil is sandy loam. 

A Member. — Do you keep ashes close up to the trees ? 

The Secretary. — No, decidedly not ; we scatter them on the ground under the tree, 
out nearly as far as the limbs extend. Then with regard to thinning the fruit. I 
believe, though I never can find time just at the period of the year, that judicious prun- 
ing and shortening of the ends of the bearing wood early in the spring, and thinning out 
all the sickly wood, will accomplish that object as well as any other way. 

A Member. — What is the best time of the year to look for the grubs of the Peach 
Borer .' 

Mr. Taylor. — As soon as the frost is out of the ground in spring, so that you can do 
it conveniently, and then during the summer just before the eggs are deposited again 
for the new crop. If whitewash is used with some carbolic acid it is likely to keep them 
away. 

A Member. — NVe have always looked for borers about the month of June. 

Mr. Taylor. — Well, I think t should take a little later time than that, because so 
long a.s the insects are flying aiound depositing eggs in the bark of the tree it is hardly 
worth while to go around and pick them out. But if gone over at that time with a 
bru.sh "reat good will be accoin{)lished in keeping them away. I would sooner go around a 
little later than that, before much damage is done. I think if you wait until late fall 
much damage is done. 

The Secretary. — It is simply an egg that is deposited in June, and you could not 
lind the egg at that season. 



30 



Mr. Taylor. — As soon as they begin to do damage the sap that oozes out will form 
a gum around the tree, and then you may be sure there is something wrong about it, and 
the more gum there is the greater the damage, because it shows the tree has been more 
severely injured — the tirst little indication shows that there is something wrong. If you 
find a little hole trace it right down with the point of a knife. 

The Secketary. — With regard to the borer, I think the best way is to keep him 
out altogether. It is a gieat deal of trouble to go over a peach orcha^-d and hunt out the 
borer after the breeding season. I think mo.st of the gentlemen present are aware that 
the moth deposits the eggs in the months of June, July and August, and that the egg is 
deposited about the surface of the ground, in order thao the grub may find its way into 
the root, which is the tender jiart, and where it most delights to live and woik its mis- 
chief, Now, if Ave can prevent the moth from reaching that part of the tree we shall 
save the tree and save ourselves considerable hunting for the grub, and even when we do> 
hunt they sometimes escape us. I have found ii, the simplest and easiest plan to put a 
bank of earth around the trees, Avhich can be done by a man with a spade very rapidly. 
By doing this about the first of June or earlier the moth is entirely beaten. If the egg 
is deposited in the dry bark of the peach tree higher up it will do little or no injury. I 
have had very little trouble with the burer since I adopted this method. 

Mr. F. W. Wilson. — Would that work all right with apple trees too? 

The Secretary. — No, because the borer can work anywhere in the apple tree. 

A Member. — Is not the effect of heaping the earth around the tree in the way you 
describe, to make the bark tender, and will not the grub be able to work on it there r' 

The Secretary. — I have never found it work in that way. 

Mr. Caston. — How would it do to wash the tree with some alkaline solution i I da 
not know how it \vould work with peach trees, but it is a very effective remedy with the 
borer in apple trees. 

Mr. McMichael. — I had a three-acre orchard of Northern Spy apples banked 
around, and in the spring the frost or rain had made a little trough, and I nearly lost 
some trees ; they turned black in spots. 

The Secretary. — If the mound of earth is put closely around the tree and packed 
close to the trunk I think it would shed the water. I do not think you could have had 
it packed closely. 

Mr. Taylor. — I would like to say something about that banking up, because we have 
practised it. You take a peach tree in its second or third year, it lias quite a top, with 
pretty heavy foliage, and a tree that is banked up will sway in the wind until at last it 
makes a little cavity around the trunk which forms a very nice place for water or any- 
thing of that kind to lodge in, and necessitates re-banking before the ground is frozen. 
We have had our trees barked at the bottom from swaying against the frozen ground. 
We have also had that cavity tilled up with water running down the tree, when ice 
would form there ; and many of our growers find there is considerable risk in banking 
peach trees if they allow the banking to stand during the fall and winter. If the borer;-' 
are looked after during the summer months, and kept out until the tree gets large and 
the bark hard, there is not much dithculty after that in keeping them out; they don't 
have much efl'ect on a tree eight or ten years old. It is while the tree is young that 
there is trouble in keeping them off. 

The President. — Mr. Woolverton's plan is to bank in the spring, and that obviates, 
the difficulty with frost in the winter. 



QUESTIONS ON PEACH CULTURE. 

(1) What list of si.x kinds pay best in the county of Essex? 
Mr. Mitchell (Leamington). — I may say the borer is one of the greatest troubles we 
have in this section of the country, and I have come to the conclusion- -though I have 
never tried it — to take a piece of stovepipe or sheet iron and put it around a hoe or 
rake handle until it is tight and then spring it and put it around the tree, and as the- 
tree grows the pipe will expand with its growth. 



31 



The Skcretauv. — I mij^ht mention here that a linn in Hamilton have prepared wire 
cloth especiiilly for that purpose, and 1 believe it would work very well. 

The PuKsiDKXT.- -What varieties are cultivated here? 

Mr. MiTciiKLL (Leamington). — Well, the Crawford is a very fine peach, but it does 
not yield enough returns. 1 think the Smock is one of the best, but Reeve's Favorite i.<5 
one of the rinest and most productive I have ever planted. Almost every variety succeeds 
where I live. Good cultivation is one of the principal objects in getting good peaches ; I 
do not believe in putting a crop in the ground, but in plowing it. 

The Skcretauv. -Why don't you grow the Old Mixon? 

Mr. MiTciJLLL — Because it is so unprofitable ; if we get a dozen ofl a tree it is the 
outside in a good year, and two years out of three we don't get any. 

The President. — Can you give us any idea of the extent of peach growing in your 
locality ? 

Mr. Mitchell. — I know one gentleman who has 18,000 trees. He must have 
picked this year in one week about 2,400 baskets of one variety. I think he averaged 
about 400 hundred baskets a day of one variety. It was originated, or he got it, near 
llidgetown. It is a yellow peach of very good flavor, and with a small pip ; medium 
early, ripening a little after the Early Crawford. It is called the Tyhursl Seeding. 

The President. — Would you advise anyone planting a peach orchard to plant it? 

Mr. jNIiTCiir.LL. — Most decidedly I would. 

Mr. Elliott. — Has anyone else got it ? 

Mr. Mitchell. — No, unless he has let them • no one has it in bearing. The gentle- 
man I speak of has shipped peaches from his place by the car load. 

Mr. B.\LDWiN (Essex). — I commenced by propagating seedlings from a tree. Some 
of my neighbors told rae I could not propagate the Crawford from the seed, but I can 
show as tine Crawfords in my orchard as can be seen anywhere propagated from that tree. 
I have the tree the last speaker tried to describe (Tyhur.st's Seeding). It is a very 
profitable tree to have in an orchard, and will produce itself from the seed. 1 find I can • 
derive more profit from my own trees tnan from those I buy from nurserymen. I have 
the Waterloo, the Early Canada, the Shomacker, Alexander and several other varieties. 



BE.ST VARIETIES OF PEACHES FOR NIAGARA DISTRICT. 

The President. — I see I am down on this subject, and I may say we grow there as 
a standard the Crawford. The question asked is, The best six varieties. We would take 
for early the Alexander, or it does not matter much if we take one of those others, the 
Schomacker or Early Canada. That is our first peach, and the Early Kivers is our 
second. Then after Crawford's Early I think a good deal of the Wager, which comes in 
immediately afterwards, and is a profitable peach. After that we have a local peach 
called the liowslaugh, a very fair peach, and one of the surest of any we have for a crop 
in that locality, I think. The Late Crawford is a good peach when we can fet it, but 
in a great many localities it is a poor bearer. I have been very favorably impressed 
during the last season with a peach about which I think our friend Mr. Willard, of 
Geneva, N. Y., can tell us something. It is called Steven's Rare Ripe ; it is the Old- 
mixon over again, but a week or ten days later, and, with me, a much better bearer. 
The Wheatland is considered first-class when we can get it. 

A Me-MUER. — What about the Foster? 

The President. — The Foster is similar to the Early Crawford : ii would puzzle some 
folks to tell the diflerence, though it has generally a little rounder form and higher 
color. 

A Memder. — Could you detect the difference between it and the Wheatland .' 

The President. — 1 think I could 

Mr. Will.vrd. — Steven's Rare Ripe is an old peach, and yet a comparatively new 
one. The results attained by a gentleman on the Hudson river in producing that peach 
were so wonderful that it attracted considerable attention. 1 think the peach was 
noticed twenty years ago, but, like many other good things, it has been lost sight of 



32 



until now. It is sufficient for me to say that the greatest returns I have ever read of 
were obtained from that peach on the Hudson river, and it has been growinj^j in favor 
very rapidly. It i.s a late peach, coming in just before the Smock — a large, line white- 
Heshed peach, usually red on one side and very productive, and the fruit-bud seems to be 
hardy. We had a very line crop of them this year, which we sold in Buffalo at 85 cents 
to §1 per peck basket. You can judge from that how it is received in the market. It 
is becoming with us, or has already become, one of the standard varieties. The i|uality 
is good and people want it ; it is a free-stone entirely. 

Rev. C. N. Mattjiews (Kingsville). — What about Hynes' Surprise? 

Mr. WiLLARD — I think I was the first in New York to grow it. All I have to say 
is that it is all that it is claimed to be. We have marketed two crops and sold them at 
very satisfactory prices. It is one of those early peaches following tbe Rivers that is 
absolutely a freestone — something it is difficult to get. Hynes' Surprise is absolutely a 
freestone. 

A Membkr. — Do you ripen the Catawba grape where you are ? 

Mr. WiLLARi). — Y''es ; we have ripened the Catawba grape at Geneva. 



EXPERIENCE IN PEAR CULTURE.. 

The President called on Mr. J. K. McMichaet, of Waterford, Ont., to give a paper 
on his Experience in Pear Culture. 

About twenty-five years ago, while we were planting a plot of three acres with 
Northern Spy apple trees, we set in one corner of the orchard a dozen pear trees. The 
soil is a sandy loam, slightly facing to the south. We had a variety of six or seven 
kinds in our group of pear trees. The best return we have had in profit from any one 
of the trees, has been from a seedling grafted with Bartletts about seventeen years ago. 
The Winter Nelis proved to be a shy bearer and an uncouth tree, but free from blight. 
A tine Howell tree blighted badly nine or ten years after being planted, and the whole 
top had to be taken off to the trunk ; some sprouts grew, however, and the tree now is 
one of the largest in the group, producing fine, saleable fruit. Two trees of the Early 
Harvest were fine growers, maturing heavy crops of fruit, but not giving satisfactory 
returns in cash ; they were, ten years ago, grafted with Bartletts, and are producing larg(; 
yields of first-class fruit. Clapp's Favorite has been a fine growing tree, giving a quan- 
tity of large No. 1 pears ; but the past season it was severely blighted. In this plot, by 
planting trees from the nursery, we have not been successful with either the Bartlett or 
Flemish Beauty, but the fruit has rarely been affected with a fungus. 

In Plot 2 the soil is limestone and sand, and gently slopes to the south. In 1871 
we planted in one corner of this orchard fifty pear trees. Two or three of the varieties 
were sadly disappointing when they gave a return in fruit. Instead of the order as sent 
to the nursery being filled and returned true to name, the nurserymen claimed and took 
the right to substitute other similar kinds to the ones in the order, when they did not 
have the varieties ordered in stock. The consequence was that some of the substituted 
varieties were worthless in the locality sent. The Bartlett trees planted in this soil 
made but a small growth. The fruit has been mostly free from blemish, and a fair- 
sized sample. The Flemish Beauty shows a fair growth of tree, but the fruit is consid- 
erably blotched, and in size and quality is No. 2. The Lawrence is a poor growing tree, 
and yields a small (juantity of fruit of medium sample. Clapp's Favorite is a large, fine 
growing tree, with heavy crops of first-class fruit, but is blighted badly. Beurre Bosc is 
a fair growing tree with very heavy crops of large No. 1 fruit. Beurre D'Anjou, a fine 
tree but a shy bearer. 

Plot 3 is located on the north side of a somewhat sharp-sloping ridge running east 
and west. The upper side of the field is a sandy loam, and the lower side clay. Formerly 
the land was V(Ty wet from spring water oozing out above the clay, but since under- 
draining the land has been very productive. In this plot we planted 100 Bartletts, 25 
Flemish Beauty and a few each of half-a-dozen other varieties, making a total of 154 



33 



pear trees. For a few yoars wo found it necessary to rut ofV a part of the year's growth, 
CO ket'p the trees in shape, anil tlie fruit, especially that i)f th':^ Hartletts, was reniarkablr 
line. At this time a part of the orchard was severely btricken with lire Might. In tho 
south-west corner of the orchard slcotl a large apple tree which was very badly diseased 
with twig blight, and to the north-east from the apple tree, across the pear orchard, 
nearly every tree was apparently almost ruinctl with blight. Wo removed tho apple 
tree and burned the diseased portion of it. From the pear tiee.s we sawed ofl' all the 
art't'cted limbs below the discoloring of the bark and burned them. The trunks and 
remaining limbs of the trees then received a coating of raw linseed oil. Similar treat- 
ment was applied to the trees for the succeeding two years, and that trouble disappeared 
until the past .<!easou. In this plot, eight years ai^o, the Jiartlett, Fiemi.'^h Beauty, and 
Konie of the other kinds were attacked with the Fusicladium, and for five years we ilid 
not tind a single specimen from the Flemi.sh Beauty that would be saleable. The Bart- 
lett pears were not quite so bad, but the trees suffered very much worse than the Flemish 
Beauty. The J5!lrtlett trees suffered so severely that the limbs were nearly black and 
wa.xy to tl»e touch from a gum like substance that oozed out of them. Three vears a"0 
last spring, before the pear trees were in loaf", we sprayed them with a solution of hypo- 
sulphite of soda and water, using one pound of the sulphite in ten gallons of water, and 
continuing the application every two weeks until the fruit was about half grown. The 
Flemish Beauty was remarkably fine and free from blemish, and the Bartlett trees 
rallied up wonderfully, but bore very little fruit. The other kinds in the plot were free 
from fungus. The following spring the trees received two applications of the sulphite, 
one before and the other soon after the tnos were iu leaf, and then we waited about five 
weeks, when the fungus was developing on part of the pears and some of the leaves. 
The pear trees forthwith received a spraying with the sulphite, and another in a few 
days. We could not discover any further development of the fungus. The Flemish 
Beauty pears were a fair crop of saleable fruit, while the Bartletts were an overloaded 
crop of fair fruit, very many of the trees requiring props all around them. The past 
season the sulphite was applied, and the pear trees were nearly free from fungus, but 
most of the fruit was destroyed with the May frost. 

Plot 4 contains ten acres of clay loam, and is located south of the ridge. It is 
shelterrd from the north by an orchard of large apple trees, and on the other three sides 
by a wind break of Northern 8py apple trees set one rod ariart. Eight years ago last 
spring in this fielil there were planted 1,000 Bartlett pear tree.s. About 600, of these 
trees are very promising, 160 are dead from several causes. Possibly 200 were black- 
hearted and had vigorous roots. Mo.st of them had sprouts to grow just above where 
they were grafted, but some only below, and from these sprouts, by cutting all of the 
diseased trunk off- we have tine, healthy trees. 

The pear trees are pruned lightly each year, and the bark slit down the trunk with 
a sharp knife. They receive a mulching every spring with coarse, barn-yard manure, 
and, in the fall, a liberal dressing with unleached ashes. The fruit is thinned out with a 
pair of sheep shears. The older orchards are summer fallowed, and the younger ones 
tilled for a hoed crop. The plowing around the trees is done with a one-hurse reversible 
beam ]>low. 

A ME.MBEH. — Are your orchards standards? 

Mr. McMiciiAKL. — These are all stanflards ; I have h ul no luck with dwarfs. 

A Member. — How far apart do you plant them ? 

Mr. McMiciiAEL. — Those in the plot of 154 trees were seventeen feet, and in the 
plot of 1,000 trees twenty feet apart each way. For iivo years we did not have any fine 
.specimens on the Flemish Beauty. 

Tlie Member. — Have you tried spraying with Pans green? 

Mr. McMichael. — This past season I mi.\ed hypo-sulphite of soda and Paris green, 
and it seemed to have a double effect upon the leaves. I would not recommend the use 
of the two together. Two or three years ago I had the sulphite mi.\ed up iu a large 
3 (F. G.) 



34 



kettle, but did not get it all thoroughly mixed. If it is a little strong it has the same^ 
eiiect upon the trees that Paris green has. 

Mr. Patterson (Grimsby). — I have used hypo-sulphite of soda and Paris green 
together on apple trees, and found no ill-eilects whatever from the mixture ; but 1 never 
use them on pear trees. With me the use of Paris green on pear trees seems to prevent 
the knotty, gjiarled specimens almost entirely. Of course Paris green has no ellect at 
all on the fungus. 



THE QUESTION DRAWER. 

When the As.sociation met in the afternoon 

The President said. — I have here a telegram from the Hon. Mr. Drury, stating that 
he is unable to leave Toronto to-day, to attend our meeting, and expressiijg his regret. 

The following topics were discussed from the questiou drawer : 

PEAR CULTURE AND UNDER-DRAINING. 

Q. On the heavy clay soils of Essex and Kent, which are covered with rich vege- 
table mould, will the cultivation of pears be successful without under-draining, and in 
such lands will under-draining pay 1 

The Prksident. — I should say emphatically yes ; underdraining will pay for any kind 
of fruit. 

Mr. WiLLARD. — My own experience has led me to believe that all lands on which 
pears are grown should be under-draiaed, unless it is naturally under-drained. We find 
that dwarf pears do better on certain kinds of lands, while .standards do better on other 
kinds, and, from the statement of the case here, I think the land would be admirably 
adapted for dwarf pear growing if it were suthciently under-drained. Dwarfs do not 
want to stand with their feet in water, and although they do not run down a deep root 
like standards, they like to have it reasonably dry. 



A PREVENTIVE FOR MICE AND RABBITS. 

Q. — What is the best preventive for mice and rabbits getting at trres ? 

The Secretary. — It seems to me that Mr. Wilson, who asks this question, could 
have very well answered it, as I heard him say he was the suggester of the wire screen 
protector for trees. 

Mr. Wilson. — In our part of the country (Chatham) we have a great deal of trouble 
with mice and rabbits, and I invented the screen which the secretary has referred to, and 
it is a good thing. It is just the ordinary wire screening rolled on a small broom-stick, 
and the spring keeps it in place so that it won't slip. It keeps the mice and rabbits 
away, and can be left on the tree until it is large enough to need no protection. We 
leave it on from one year to another until the tree grows up. I put out 2,000 apple 
trees two years ago and put it on them all, and they are all there yet. Buying the wire 
■wholesale it costs, if I remember right, about 2| or 3 cents per tree. 

Mr. Rice (Port Huron). — I tried one little experiment on mice. I had some trees 
set along a fence row and the mice troubled me ; so I got some tar paper and tied it 
around the tree with a light piece of string, putting it around three or lour times. I had 
doubts whether it would stay on all winter, and I was much surprised to find it became 
hard, the string came right olF, but the paper has remained intact around the trees thiee 
years, and they liave been perfectly piotected. The expense is almost nothing. The tar 
paper becomes hard and keeps its place and expands with the growth of the tree in the 
same way as the wire that has been described, and it has proved perfectly eff"ectual for 
the purposi! intended. I had one large tree, six inches in diameter, that was notched by 
mice. It had been in that condition one year and I tried the experiment on it. 1 bev- 



35 



elled off some sprouts that liail grown up from the bottom, shoved thorn under tlie bark 
above, and had a load of frtsh stable manure packed around tlin tree quite hi£;h. That 
was four years a,<,'o, anil this year the tree shows very good health, and has borne quite a 
crop of apples. 

Mr. I>K.\LL. — 'Ihe most effectual thing I know of is .simply this : do not allow a blade 
of grass or anytliing of the kind to grow in your orchard, and I will gmirantee there will 
be no mice. 

The Secret.\ry. — If you get a snowbank there, you will have mice, whether there 
is gniss or not. 

Mr. Deall. — If there were no grass there would be no mi. i- : miee do uui lire.-d in 
the snow. 

Mr. F. W. Wii.soN. — I find the trouble with the tar paper spoken of \>y our t'ri<iui 
Mr. Kice is that it excludes the air, which is very injurious to the tree. 

Mr. Caston (Craighurst). — Mr. Beall is right in saying that if you keep the orchard 
lean you will have no mice, but no matter how clean yon keep the orchard there is 
Iways grass around the fence. 

Mr. Rick. — In regard to the health of the trees, those I .speak of were veiy 
unhealthy looking, but they have improved in health each year, and this year they are 
tine and healthy, after having the paper around them for three years. 



SPRAYING TREES WHEN IN BLOOM. 

*-^ — What can we do to prevent people spraying trees while they are in blossom, and 
in so doing destroying the bees ? 

The Secretauy. — T should suppose that if the opinion of this Association is sent 
abroad that it is unwise to spray at that time, it would be sutiicient. 

Several IMembers. — Yes. I should think so. 

The Secretary. — Then I move this resolution : " Resolved, thit it is useless to 
spray our fruit trees while they are in blossom, and in the interest of bee-keepers this 
A.ssociation hereby unanimously condemns the practice." Carried. 



SEASON TO SPRINKLE WITH POISONS. 
Q. — What is the proper time to sprinkle fruit trees with poisons 1 
The Skcrktary. — The proper time is just after the petal of the blossom has fallen ; 
as soon as the fruit has formed. That is the proper time to make the Hrst application 
of arsenical mixture to the fruit trees. It should be repeated after a heavy rain, becau.se 
the rain will wash off all the poison. I may here remark, as something has been said 
about it, that in Grimsby our fruit growers have found that three ounces to fifty "allona 
of water is a sutJicient quantity to use. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF FERTILISERS FOR ORCHARDS. 
Q. — What is the comparative value of fertilisers for orchards? 

Prof. Panton. — I think this question might be better answered by a practical man 
than by me, who am only a teacher of science and its principh s, as far as applicable to 
plant life, I think, however, that on general principles the potash fertilisers seem to 
bring about the best results for horticultural ])urposes. There are certain elements very 
essential to plant life, and one of them is iron, which is very important to the pn-para- 
tion of the green coloring matter in plants. But there is generally sufHcient of that in 
the soil. This green coloring matter in plants is what ena!)l'S them to take the ga.ses 
from the atmosphere, and out of these the properties necessary for plant growth. Another 
element very essential for that purpose is jiotash. You may have the green colornif^ 
matter present in the plant, but l^efore it can do any work in the way of the preparation 



36 



of starch there must be light, and even in the jiresence of light it can do little or nothing 
without potash. It is just as if you had a fine factory with all the belts and pulleys 
and a grand engine in it ; but until you got a tire going and steam generated your 
apparatus would be of no use. So in plant life there is no element which has more 
influence in working the whole manure than the element of potash ; and I would there- 
fore say, on general principles, that potash fertilisers are likely to bring about the best 
resulls. 

F. W. WiLSOX. — I agree with the professor both practically and theoretically that 
ashes is one of the best fertilisers we can get. But just now there never was a business 
so entirely ruined as the potash business, owing to German mineral taking the place of 
potash. There is no demand for it, and we should take advantage of the oi)poitunity 
thus created. There was never a better opportunity for fruit growers than at present. 
I have engaged two of the largest mills around Chatham to supply it at four cents a 
bushel, and some of these are producing three or four large waggon loads per week. I 
would advise you all to try the same plan in your own neighborhoods. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I do not know of any manure better than bone dust, and if you can 
dissolve it in sulphuric acid it is all the better. I applied it in that way very liberally, 
and tiie result was that the next year I had one of the finest crops of Flemish Beauty I 
ever had in my life. 

Prof. Panton. — You should add a little super-phosphate. 



MILDEW AND OTHER FUNGI. 

Q. — Is the Industry gooseberry free from mildew ? 

The Secretary. — With me it has been ; with the President it has not. 

Mr. Beall. — There is only one kind that is worse with me. 

Q. — Please inform us what causes mildew on grapes, and what will cure the disease 
also what is the cause of the grape rot and what is the preventive 1 

The Secretary. — The mildew referred to and which is most common in Ontario is 
a fungus — really a plant. I cannot explain its causes except to say that it is i>ropagated 
as other plants are, by very minute spores, which can only be seen with the help of a 
microscope. As to the cause of the grape rot, it is also similar, a fungus. I believe 
that a copper sulphate is one of the best preventives for this, or the Bordeaux mixture, 
applied with a whisk broom in tlie absence of a proper .spraying apparatus. 

Q. — Is the statement made that mildew only attacks plants already affected by 
di.sease 1 

Prof. Panton. — I do not think the statement is made that they attack no other, but 
there is a tendency to attack that type more than any other class, just the same as a 
weakly person is more subject to disease such as typhoid fever than a person who is per- 
fectly healthy. That disease is caused by germs, as many diseases of a more or less 
epidemic nature are now admitted to be. So with fungi, weakness in the vigor of the 
plant renders it peculiarly liable to attack. I have no doubt it may attack strong plants 
from time to time, but the tendency is to attack tho.se weakened by disea.se. All these 
fundus diseasfs are caused by germs or spores getting into the plant structure in some 
way. If the plant is healthy and vigorous it very often goes no further, but if it is 
weakly it passes right on to its juices and begins to grow. There would therefore be a 
greater tendency in mildew to attack weakly plants than more vigorous ones. 

Q. — Is the statement true of fungi that they are mainly nitrogenous in substance? 

Prof. Panton. — I have never noticed that statement so much as this, that they live 
on nitiogenous substances — for parasites live on food already prepared. Fungi cannot 
take up the carbonic acid of the atmosphere and give off the cai-bon and oxygen ; that is 
the function of the green coloring matter, to elaborate out of it starch ultimately, and 
the fungi cannot do it. They are parasitic and must be put on the place where the food 



is ; conspquontly tlipy are always found in tliose situations. I^ut T do not think tlir 
question is clearly put. All organic matter is Juoi(; or less nitrogenous, not o.xcepliug 
sugar and starch. If the question was, "Do they live on nitrogenous .suhstances ? " I 
would answer that they invariahly do, as tar as my knowledge goes. 

Q. — Is the practice of manuring with nitrogenous substances good 1 
Prof. Panton. — You mean so as to avoid this! Well. I think there might be some 
specilic times when it would not probably be well, it has \u'mi ascertained that fields of 
wheat, where nilmgenous manures have been applied in excess, are more likely to be 
atlected by rust. Why 'i Because they have brought •>ut too luxuriant a growth, and 
consequently the cells are more or less in an abnormal condition, which renders them 
liable to the rust. Now, that is the case with rust. I am not just prepared to say it is 
the case with other forms, but where there is too luxuriant a growth I think a plant is 
placed in a position in which it is liable to attacks of i)arasites, and in that case a person 
requires to know the nature of the soil. If the soil is already in good heart and likely 
to bring about a fair condition of plant growth, I do not think it wise to overdose it with 
nitrogenous manure. I should say too much barnyard manure would not tlo if the land 
was in fine condition. 

VALUE OF COAL ASHES AS A FERTILISER, 

Q- — Has soft coal ashes any virtue, such as oxide of iron? 

Prof. Panton. — I am inclined to say not very much. You will be likely to have 
enough oxide of iron in your soil. I cannot say what the composition of soft coal ashee 
is, but as far as hard coal ashes are concerned there is nothing there ; all they can do 
is to open up the soil, and I would think pretty much the same in the case of suft 
coal. There may be tome suli)hide of iron, and that may supply some iron, but I do not 
think there is much in it. 



HOW TO BEST PRUNE A COMMERCIAL VINEYARD IN ONTARIO. 

The Prksident — We will now take up the subject of grape |)runing, on which Mr, 
A. McNeill, Science Master of the Windsor High School, who is also an extensive vine- 
yardist, will now address us. 

Mr. McNeill. — I expect that my remarks will have the eilect of eliciting consider- 
able criticism, and I hope to profit by it, as pruning the grape vine is a very serious 
question with me. I have invested some little cash in the enterprise, and it has now 
reached such proportions that it is a case of swim or die. I have been led to study the 
natiire of the grape, and to attempt to apply the principles learned to tiie 
pruning of it, and I have selected a number of points in grape growth that I think we 
can apply directly in the pruning. First, we notice that the growth tends to divide itself 
into many small branches. Allow a grape vine to grow unrestrained, and you will have a 
number of fine, small branches in the first, second and third year. These branches will 
not produce fruit for a number of years, and then only very small fruit. Secondly, it 
has a strong tendency to develop the higher buds ; in the natural course of things these 
higher buds would develop and the lower buds would go undeveloped, although now there 
is comparatively little difierence in their relative strength. Thirdly, other things being 
equal, the buds are developed neither at the base of the cane nor at the top of it, but 
mid-way — I am speaking now principally of tlie Concord. Fourthly, that a sharp bend 
in the cane has a tendency to develoi) the bud just above it. Fifthly, the construction 
of the terminal bud while in the green state has a tendency to hasten the maturity and 
development of the tissuf; and buds l)elow it. The eftect, however, varies with the 
distance from the terminal bud. That is to say, if I take this while in the green state 
there will be a tendency to develop the bud next to it, and a certain tendency to develop 
the next, with the effect of lessening as we get further from the bend. Sixthly, with 
a strong growth in one cane rests the growth and developments of the other canes. 
Now, I have selected out of a number of principles thes^e six, and propose founding, 
whatever system I may present you upon those six principles. (From this point onward 



38 



Mr. McXeiir.-^ a'ldress was so profusely interspersed by ilhistrations on a trellis on the 
platfonu as to render it ini|)ossible for the reporter from his notes to give a transcript 
which could be understood by a reader). 

Mr. Read. — The heaviest crop of grapes I ever saw was upon a lot of Niagara 
vines in the County of Kent, Michigan, and the man who had them pinched off the 
summer new growth at the second bud, or thereabouts, above tlie fruit, immediately 
upon its setting. He practised that throughout his whole vineyard, and the fruit 
developed largely, and the leaves giew to twice the size of those upon the vine left to 
grow tree. It seems lo me that with the Concord it would be equally good. 

Mr. McNeill. — It is a question of cost. 

Mr. Read. — This gentleman has probably got back all the co^^t in the increased crop 
of grapes. 

BEST MODE OF MARKETING GRAPES. 
The President. — Mr. M. Pettit, of Winona, will take up this subject. 

jVIr. Pettit. — The best mode of marketing grapes is a rather difficult question to 
deal with, when considered from the fruit-grower's standpoint, as much depends upon 
the distance from the market, the requirements of the market, and so on, which must 
be studied by the growers themselves. Samuel Miller, writing in Popular Gardening, 
says: "The man who shall devise a plan whereby a man shall get what he earns by 
growing fruit will deserve a monument." I am not a candidate for that monument, but 
there is a great deal in the remark worthy of consideration by the man who grows fruit for 
profit. As mo>^t of us know, carrying companies and commission men take about one- 
half the receipts, while the grower has to almost beg for the other half. In none of 
the products of our soil is the difference between what is paid by the consumer and the 
amount received by the producer so great as in the case of fruit. This may be partially 
accounted for by the perishable nature of fruit, and also the channels of trade through 
which it Hows. Care in picking is of great importance with grapes. Pickers who are 
too careless and lazy to lay grapt^s in a basket, but drop them in like potatoes, should 
not be allowed in a vineyard. As a rule women and girls make the best pickers ; they 
handle more carefully, and display more taste in making them look neat. You must 
please the eye of the buyers, who judge by appearances, and keep your packages neat 
and clean. For the commission market use the best baskets, and let the color of the 
leno correspond to that of the fruit. In shipping for dessert purposes, let nothing go in 
the basket but what you would eat yourself, or put on your own table for your friends. 
Shipping green grapes has co.st the grape growers of Ontario thousands of dollars, and 
hfis done more to glut the markets than any other cause. Growers, in haste to make 
money, have allowed tlipir vines to overload. This has caused the fruit to be poor in 
flavor and late in ripening. Then to secure the early high prices they ai'e picked as soon 
as fairl}' colored, which has done more to disgust people with using grapes than all other 
causes. [ venture to s*y that on^-half of the grapes grown in Ontario are picked and 
mirketed before they arrive at the state of perfection. Another cause of overstocked 
markets is changing from one market to another to try for high prices. Montreal and 
Toronto are our two largest distributing centres, and when Montreal reports high prices 
and good demand, shippers send to Montreal. The consequence is that the market there 
is overstocked, and Toronto being neglected the tide turns there and prices go up and 
the wame thing it repeated. If every grower would ship to his nearest and best market 
regularly certain quantities every day, they would would work off at higher prices and 
give better satisfaction to the consumers, who would receive daily good fresh fruit, and 
there would be better S:itisfaction throughout. Another mode of marketing grapes, not 
always profital>le, is consigning them to commission tirms or merchants who start business 
with the spring birds, who distribute large quantities of shipping tags throughout the 
fruit growing sections and quote better prices than the old established firms. 

Q. — What sized baskets are usually used 1 

]Mr. Pettit. — Ten and twenty pound l)xskets are used in our locality for the bulk 



:VJ 



of our grapes ; twenty pounds is a sixteen (juut haskct. It is too large, anil I think 
if that ba-sket were entirely ilone away with it would be much better. A basket such 
as peaehes and plums are shipped in. and whi'Mi holds sixteen pounds, is fully larrjo 
enough. The cheaper grajjos are usually shii)ped in the larger baskets. 

Q. — Don't you get better returns from small packages than large ones, when they 
are nicely put up 1 

Mr. Pkttit. — A few years ago, when the smaller baskets came into use, f think we 
did as a rule, but there is very little difference now. 

Q. — For early grapes or choice varieties, would not the small packages yield the 
best returns ? 

Mr. Pettit. —Yes, I think they would. 

Q. — What varieties do you find bring the best returns, in shipping? 

Mr. Pettit. — The Worden, Concord and Rogers No. 4 are what I would plant in 
our locality for black ; and tor red, Delaware, Lindley, Brighton, Agawam, and Catawba 
in some .sections. For white, Niagara stands the .season pretty well, and is such an 
enormous yielder that it is far moi^ profitable than any other white grape. 

Q. — Kow do you find Salem in your section ? 

Mr. Pet'iit. — It is more liable to mildew than most oi the red Rogers, besides, it we 
get a shower when ripe, they burst badly ; but for winter use I do not think we have a 
grape in Ontario to beat it. 

Q, — Have you tried Amber Queen ? 

Mr. Pettit. — Yes, but not to any extent. 



PUKE GRAPE WINE FOR HOME USE. 

The President announced that Mr. E. Girardot, secretary of the Vine Growers' Asso- 
ciation of Sandwich. wouM answer the (Question, " What is the simplest way to make a 
small quantity of pure grape wine for home use?" 

Mr. Girardot. — I believe I have undertaken quite a task in answering this ques 
tion, for it takes nearly as much time and knowledge to make a small quantity 
as to make a large quantit3^ I will explain, however, just as I would to some of my 
neighbors if they asked me, First, the person making it should know a little of the 
nature of the grape. Now the grape itself consists of the skin, which holds the coloring 
matter, and part of the tannin of the grape ; the juicy or watery part, which contains 
the sugary part of the grape ; and the pulpy part, the fleshy matter, which contains 
tartaric acid ; and the fourth part or element is the seed, which does not go into the 
making of wine. It contains a kind of volatile oil which you may call fusil oil, which 
would be a nuisance in wine if it were crushed when the grapes are crushed to make 
wine. In some parts of the country here the wine maker.s prefer to take the stems 
away from the grape.-*. This, in my opinion, is not right, because the stem of the grape 
oiintains a great amount of tannin, which is the preservative element in wine, ami has 
the effect of making it keep for years, which it would not otherwise do. Of course in 
order to make a small quantity of wine one should know what amount of grapes to buy. 
Well, it is generally recognized that from eighteen to twenty pounds of 'jjrapf^s is 
s\itficient to make one gallon of wine. The nexc thing is a vessel to ferment that wine 
in. and for this I would recommend a whiskey barrel. Take out the head, and in the 
l)Ottom put a bundle of straw, and over that straw put a brick well cleaned, and then 
make a hole and put in a faucet. Next comes the pressing of the grapes. You may 
take a small vessel and in it put a certain quantity of grapes and crush them enough to 
break the l)erry, and then put them in the barrel. Do nob fill the barrel completely, 
because the carbonic acid gas makes the wine rise, and if it is too full it will overtlow 
and you will looe the wine. Generally the vessel should not be tilled more than two- 
thirds ; one-third should 1)3 left for fermentation. Now, there is a great que.^tion la 



40 



making wine that is fit to drinL I believe our grapes here are grown in as great 
perfection as in any part of Ontario, the climate being very favorable to the maturing of 
the grape. Generally the juice of our grape contains from 20 to 22 per cent, of 
saccharine matter ; but this has been an exceptional year, and they have contained 25 
per cent,, which would make a wine very rich in spirit It is a recognised principle in 
chemistry that the saccharine part of the grape is converted by fermentation so that 
twenty parts of sugar would give 12 percent, of alcohol. We must allow something 
for the organic matters in wine which do not ferment, and it also loses by evaporation — 
wo cannot get all the alcohol from a given amount of sugar. Generally wc can make a 
natural wine here, if we do not add an}- sugar, containing not more than 10 per cent,, 
which we find is not (juite enough to tit it for shipping purposes. Such a wine would 
keep very well in a cellar, if not moved, but if it is to be shipped to any distance it 
will get turbid and is apt to turn sour, and the only corrective for that is to add sugar 
or spirit to it. It is not good to add spirits, because in this country we cannot obtain 
wine spirits. The wine spirit is what we call amylic alcohol, and that we cannot 
obtain here. We can buy grain spirits, but these do not assimilate with wine spirits, 
and for that reason any wine in which grain spirits have been put cannot be digested 
very well ; the least quantity will inebriate, instead«of cheering as wine ought. There- 
fore we use the sugar, which by fermentation is converted into alcohol, and by a 
chemical process converts itself into grape sugar, and of course results in the wine 
alcohol. Now, the question is. What quantity of sugar shall ^\e put in to obtain a 
given quantity of alcohol? Well, experiment has taught us that one-quarter pound of 
sugar added to one gallon of mash will give one degree of alcohol. The .'^ugar cannot 
be added directly, because we would lose a great deal that would get into the skin and 
the stems, and therefore we have to dissolve it in water. This raises the question of 
how much water? If we use too much we bhall weaken our wine, and therefore we 
only put just enough to dissolve it. We have found by experiment that one gallon of 
water to twelve and a half pounds of sugar is the quantity in order to have a wine 
having the same virtue and the same component parts as the natural grape contains- 
by itself. This water has also a beneficial effect on the wine. Our grapes contain an 
excess of tartaric acid, although they do not contain more sugar than the grapes in the 
same latitude in J^Vance or Germany, and this excess is corrected by adding water and 
makes the wine more palatable. The next operation is the fermentation, and the 
temperature that we should maintain or place the barrel in. It is a wise plan when we 
put the solution of sugar in it to heat that small quantity o£ water, so that when we 
add it to the wine it will not arrest the fermentation which may have already begun. 
The object, on the contrary, is to hasten fermentation ; the quicker the fermentation the 
better the wine. Long and slow fermentation only produces turbid wine, which is never 
palatable, whereas quick fermentation produces good wine, which is always clear. The 
temperature I should recommend in which to ferment wine is about 70". It is very 
essential after fermentation has coumienced to keep the temperature up. If you should 
put it in a place where cold air strikes, it will stop the fermentation, and that is injuiious- 
to the wine. It is a wise plan to cover the barrel or vessel in which the wine is made, 
because if that precaution is not taken it is covered with a kind of fungus which may 
afterwards cause the wine to turn sour, and therefore the wine must be watched from 
the beginning. Now as to the duration of the fermentation. This should generally last 
about eight days in our latitude. We know that the wine is fermented when we discover 
by the taste that it is not sweet any more. When putting the wine in the vessel to 
place in the cellar you must not bung it right away, because there is a slow fermentation 
going on for three months afterwards, and if the barrel is tightly bunged it may burst 
and you would lose the wine. Wine is generally made here in the month of October, and 
aVjout December we look at it to see how it is getting along. If it is clear you may 
draw it into another barrel. You must always use clean barrels. .Some people use 
spirit or beer barrels, and I may tell you that there is no liquid .so subject to l>eing: 
adected and taking on a taste from the vessel in which it is fiut as wine. One day a 
man ordered a gallon of wine from us, and in his jug there was a musty cork. I filled 
his jug from_]a barrel where the wine was perfectly good and palatable, but before he 



41 



got home the wine in the jug was in such a condition as not to be fit to drink, from the 
effect of the nuisty cork. Therefore either a musty barrel, or one that has biien in tlie 
shed a long time, cannot be used ; it is better to buy new V)arrelH. You caii never 
clean a barrel that has a bad taste well enough to make it tit to contain wine. Barrels 
that have contained whiskey, port wine or native wine are the best ; barrels that have 
contained gin or ginger wine are of no use for wine. I think that is all I have to tell 
you, and, if you will follow the directions I have given closely, you will be succe.ssful. 



PFATM CULTURE. 



The PuEsiDENT. — "We have tivo questions here regarding ))lum culture, which 
according to the programme will be answered by our friend, Mr. S. D. Willard, of 
Geneva, N. Y. 

^[r. Willard. — The tirst (|uestion of the two on the progiamme wliicli I have; 
been asked to answer is. What are the six most profitable varieties of plums for Southern 
Ojitario? I may say that I don't think I am the proper person to reply to that (juestion, 
as I am not a southern Ontario man, l>ut a New Yorker; and I think there are those 
in this room much better able to answer it. I will, however, answer it from my own 
standpoint. 

The Secretary. — I think the climate is very similar. 

Mr. Willard. — The question of plum culture ha.s lately been attracting a great 
deal of attention. ]My attention was fii'st drawn to it twenty years ago, when visiting 
the Hudson river country, which at that time was really producing more plums than all 
the rest of the United States put together, and those who were raising them were 
getting rich. The fruit was exceedingly large, and they liad splendid facilities in 
getting it on boats for the New York market, but their system of culture was wrong. 
They robbed the land ; they sold their hay and straw and put nothing back on the 
land, and the result was, before they knew it, that they could no longer raise fruit with 
profit ; and the plum business of the Hudson river is now a thing of the past. But 
seeing their work is what led me to take it up, and during the last twenty years I have 
done something in the way of raising plums. The plum has multiplied very rapidly ; 
new varieties have been springing up here and there to be tested and tried, and it is a 
very wide field in which to work. The list I am about to give does not include; some I 
could raise, because I am not sure they would suit you here. Foremost, as the earliest 
ripening plum, I would put the Bradshaw, which when young is a little tender, but when 
aged is one of the most hardy and productive market plums we have. I have trees of 
that variety from which I have netted as high as ^\'2 or 81 -t in a single season, and 
that is good enough for me. Following the Bradshaw is the Lombard, which is among 
plums what the Concord is among grapes or the Baldwin among apples. It is a plum 
which can be raised with less trouble than any other variety, always gives good »:rops 
and always has a market value, for it is known everywhere. Then we have another 
phim called the Gueii, which originated in Lansingliurg, X. Y. It is a very hardy and 
profitaltle market variety; it takes on a most beautiful blooom, and if only well known 
will sell well. I have found it one of the most profitable of plums, and it is very 
j)roductive. In time of ripening it follows the Lombard. 

President Lyon. — I think it is said to be curculio-proof, do you stand by that? 

Mr. Willard. — No ; I do not believe that of any plum. Then we have what 
is known as the Hudson River Purple Egg. That also had its origin on the Hudson 
river, and was introduced to me by a fruit man who asked me to test it. Y''ou will not find 
anything about it in ilr. Downing's work, for when I sent it to Mr. Downing he said it 
was a plum he did not recognise. But it is one of the best for market purposes. It is 
hardy and productive, ami sells well on the market. Then we have the plum known 
as Peter's Yellow Gage, luiroduced by Mr. Barry of Rochester. All things considered, 
it is in my opinion the best of all the light-colored class of plums, and yet it is scarcely 
known ; you will not find it in the catalogue of Ellwangei A: B.irry. It is not one of the 



42 



best growers : nurserymon cannot niako money out of it as rapidly as out of some others, 
but all things considered it is the best light plum grown, being extremely hardy and 
producing a crop of the liuest quality every year. Its disadvantage as against La Reine 
Claude, which is the standard light colored plum, is that it comes in earlier. If it 
ripened as late as La Reine Claude I would say it was the l^est of the light colored plums 
to plant for market, but it comes in earlier. The advantage of La Reine Claude is thar> 
it comes in later. I obtained ray stock eighteen years ago, and during last season wo 
have tophudded 150 trees to continue it. Then for the sixth there is Coe's Golden Drop, 
which ought to be planted. We have had experience s^ometimes in winter killing, and in 
picking these varieties I have endeavored to select those which hold their foliage well, 
becau.se that is a very important point. The Imperial Gage we have dropped, because 
the tree is tender. Of the light colored ones I do not know one that is more tender than 
the Imperial Gage, and it is not the equal of La Rpine Claude in productiveness. I 
have omitted J^a Reine Claude because I do not know whether it would be considered 
hardy for your section, and yet it is the " king bee " of all the plums. I have had trees 
that yielded as high as ip20 in a season. 

The Skcretarv. — It is perfectly hardy in western Ontario. 

Mr. WiLLARD. — Yes; but I desire to say that the plum is a capricious fruit. It 
mav be entirely hardy here and not with us, and vice versa. I think that is the 
experience of anyone who has grown plums largely. 

Mr. Dempsey. — La Reine Claude is perfectly hardy in part of our county (Hastings) 
and ttnder in other parts, but there is nothing better in the form of a plum for canning. 
I cannot grow it at all, while a man who lives only twenty miles from me succeeds every 
time. 

A Member.— What about the McLaughlin? 

Mr. WiLL.\UD. — It originated in the State of Maine and is of very fine quality, but 
not a profitable market plum. It is almost of the highest quility to eat. 

The President. — What have you to say of the Niagara plura ? 

^[r. Wn.L.\RD. — Well, if you plant good Bradshaws I am sure you will get a good 
list of Niagaras. Shipper's Pride is a very good plum a little north of us in the State 
of New York. It is a very fair plum, but not what we were led to believe The 
Jeffeison is of the highest quality, but not productive enough for market, being in 
this respect the same as the Wabhington. Quackenboss is a very desirable plum, but 
we find it has a little inclination to shyness in bearing. There are places where it suc- 
ceeds well ; I have seen it very fine on the Hudson river, but there are others which 
we think more profitable. The Gueii is much more profitable to raise than the Quacken- 
boss. 

A Member. — Do you know anything about Glass' Seedling! 

Mr. WiLr.ARD. — Only as I have tested it myself. Some of them were sent to me by 
this A.S'^ociation a good many years ago, and we tested them in a small way. I thought 
it was so near akin to the Quackenboss that it was not worth while propagating it. Pond's 
Seedling is a finf plum, but it makes wood slowly, and is not productive enough of 
dollars and cents. The Victoria is a very fine plum some seasons ; then, again, it is 
liable to over-produce, and the fruit is small and fails to ripen well. The General Hand 
is a fine plum in appearance, but does not produce enough. The Peach Plum is hardy ; 
one of the most hardy we have. There are six other varieties I would be very glad to 
mention in connection with the .six 1 have already named as my choice, which I think 
are valuaVjle. The Prince of Wales is a most beautiful plum, of very fine color and very 
productive and hardy. It is comparatively new here, though i heard of it years ago in 
England. .Then there is the Stanton, which originated in Albany county, N. Y. If I 
were to name only one plum for canning I don't know but it would be this one ; 
if it were two years hence I could tell better. We have now over a thousand 
trees that will be in bearing next year. It is one of the finest to eat, and we have 
kept the phuns for weeks in our cellar sent up when ripe from Albany county. I 



43 



think anyone making a test would do w«ll to plant it. Then there is the Field, which 
ripens a little ahead of the Miagura, and is like it in si/.g and appearance, except that it 
is a little <l;irker in color. It is a very desiralile new sort, and had its origin in Scoliarie 
county, N. Y. Then we have the Grand Duke, one of the latest intro.luctions from 
England, originated by Mr. Rivers, which promises to he the best late plum of dark 
color that I know of for market. We had the fruit this year for the lirst time for 
market, and it l)rought a doll.ir a basket in eight ponuil baske,ts. Mr. Rivers brought 
out three plums, the Grand Duke, the Archduke and the Monarch, which in my opinion 
are going to make their mark in this country. Anyone who saw the exhibition of 
fruit at Buffalo this fall might have seen the Monarch. It is one of the lirgest of 
plums, and bids fair to be very hardy ; the tree holds its foliage very well and is very 
productive. Then there is one of the Japan plums called the Botan. 

President Lyon. — Are not there several varieties of that name ] 

Mr. Wii.r.ARD. — Yes, there are. That is a sort of general term for a number of 
those plums sent out from Japan, but having received this one under the name of 
Bctan we raised it as such ; we have another under the head of Botan which is a little 
different. This summer I obtained two others called the Sweet Botan and Burbank's 
Ja[)an. I had enough to market this year of Ogan, but 1 saw they were not going to 
take, and that was sufficient for me. 

A Memher. — What do you think of Basset's American"? 

Mr. WiLLARD. — I don't thing it is worth enough powder to blow it over the fence. 

A !Memi{ER. — What about Munro's Seedling? 

Mr. WiLLARD. — It is tender with me ; we never grew a plum so tender in the nursery 
row as the Munro. 

A Member. — Have you planted Prunus Simoni ? 

Mr. WiLLARD. — Yes. It may be hardy and sufficiently productive, and will be sold 
at fruit stands even if it is not of the first quality. They want it in the cities, though it 
is not strictly first-class. 

THREE BEST PLUMS FOR HOME USE. 

Mr. WiLLARD. — I see there is another question : " What are the three best plums 
for home use, early, medium ami late ? Quality, productiveness and hardiness of tree 
tree alone to be considered ; soil, light sand V I think I should take the Bradshaw for 
the first, then Peter's Yellow Gage and the Stanton Seedling as my choice. 

A Member. — Does not the Lombard do well on light soil 1 

Mr. WiLLARD. — Yes, I have seen it do remarkably well. 

A Member. — Tn our neighborhood they have adopted what they call the French 
stock, which does not sucker as much as the standard stock. 

Mr. WiLLARD. — We use French sometimes because we cannot get any other, but if 
I were selecting an orchard I would prefer, if possil)le, to have them worked on the 
horse plum stock of we.><tern New York. But they will all sucker bad enough if you cut 
the roots ; you can plow them to death a good deal easier than kill them any 
other way. 1 would advise people who have plums to do their work with cultivators. 

Mr. De.mpsev. — Did you ever try any of Rivers Damsons ] 

Mr. WiLLARD. — Yes, 1 have the whole list of them now ; they are succeeding 
first rate. 

A Member. — How far apart do you plant them ? 

Mr. WiLLARD. — Our plan originally was 16 feet each way, but now we get our 
rows 16 feet apart and ten feet in the row ; you can handle them better, but it wants 
high culture. I would not advise anyone to do it unless he has the manure. 

, A Member. — Do you spray youi- trees for curculio 1 



44 



!Mr. WiLLARD. — As I remarked to-day if it were not for curculio I would not raise- 
plums. God put us here to light something, and we might as well fight these pests a& 
anything else. So far as spraying is concerned, if I were to spray I would use Paris 
green. We experimented this year with London purple, to our sorrow, for it cost us 
about .$500 to learn that London purple was better somewhere else than on plum trees, 
or perhaps any other trees. It is soluble, and no matter how careful you may be you 
may touch some of the ver}' sensitive plum foliage. We have used Paris green, but I 
don't want to hold the nozzle all day myself, and I cannot trust men to do it ; they fool 
away their time, and put on so much that they injure the foliage of the trees. 



SALOME APPLE AND RUSSIAN APRICOT. 

Q. — I would like to know whether the Salome apple is in any way better worth 
planting than the Baldwin, and also if the Russian apricot is worth planting. 

President Lyon. — It does not show any fine qualities beyond being hardy. It i& 
hardy enough for central or northern Illinois, but beyond that it has been found to fail. 
Its quality is not good and is not particularly attractive. It is claimed to be a good 
producer, and rnight do very well for a market apple, but there are so many more desir- 
able apples that I question whether it is worth planting at all. 

Mr. WiLLARD. — I have not the greatest confidence in the Eussian apricot although 
we grow them, but we have to do so in our business ; we have to grow what people want 
and demand. I have very great doubts of its value, and would not recommend it. 



SEEDLING FRUITS. 



Q. — Should not the Association appoint one competent man as an expert, to examine 
and report upon all new seedlings fruits in the Province that may be sent to him ? 

Mr. Beall. — I think it would be an excellent idea. 

Mr. BucKE. — Anyone who heard the address of Prof. Saunders of last night will 
remember that he said he would be very glad to receive at the Experimental Farm any 
new fruits or trees, and I think he is a very competent person. 

President Lyon. — The trouble with us has been that there are a great many people 
who will not take the trouble to inform themselves of what is being done, and are always 
ready and waiting to be imposed on by travelling tree pedlars who will tell them 
anything. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I fall in with the idea, and I think no better man than our secretary 
could be selected, but I think he would like the assistance of Mr. Saunders and some 
others in some instances. I move that Mr. Woolverton be appointed as one of the com- 
mittee to receive fruits as suggested. 

The President. — Mr. Woolverton has been acting in that capacity, and you have re- 
ceived some of his reports through the Horticulturist , and if only one man is appointed I 
think he is the proper man. It would be well enough, as Mr. Dempsey says, that he should 
have one or two others associated with him with whom he might confer in special cases. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I move in addition that Prof. Saunders, the ex-President, Mr. Allan,, 
and the President, Mr. Smith be appointed on the committee. Carried. 



RAILWAY FREIGHTS. 



The question was asked, " Is it wise to interview the railway companies regarding' 
a special fruit train service, on the ground that the express companies are no longer 
competent to carry the ever increasing shipments of fruit in a proper manner ? 

Mr. T. H. Pace said in reply that last summer he had got from the secretary of the 
Association three baskets of choice peaches, and that when they had arrived they had all' 
been broken into. On complaining to the company, it was stated that this was no 
unusual occurrence. He then threatened the company with prosecution, and also i^o 



45 



coraplain througli the Fruit Growers' Association to the Lpgislature, asking for logi.slation 
to protect the public from such pilfering. The agent sent the complaint to lieaihjuarters 
At the same time Mr. Race eu(iuiri'(l whether otlieiH in the town had similar complaints 
to make, and found that it was a common occurrence to have fruit package-; pilfered on 
the train. In about two weeks a reply from headquarters came, giving the agent 
written authority to settle ^fr. Race's claim and hush up the matter; but this he was 
iniwilliug to do until there was souk; guarantee of safer transportation. 

The following Ittter, from the tivand Trunk Railway Company, was handed in and 
read by the Secretary : 

As regards cars being specially fitted with shelves for holding the baskets to prevent the fruit being 
•bruised by the baskets when piled on toj) of each other. This has been done to some extent by the G. T. R. 
Co., but it takes so long for the cars to return, — say from Montreal— that i)ractically it is impossible to 
provide enough of such cars, the season being so short, and tliey cannot be used for other freight on the 
return journey, it must be apjfareiit the cost to the Railway Co. would be too great, excepting in the case 
.of short distances, such as between the Niagara district and Toronto where the cars can return daily and 
therefore a few of them can do a large amount of work. The circumstances here are very different, the 
distances being so great. However this dilHoulty of (himage by bruising has bee^i solved to a great extent 
by the new style of basket manufactured in Walkerville, as .several tiers can be ])iled on top of each other 
without injury to the fruit. On behalf of the G. T. R. Co. I may say that the importance of rapid and 
cheap transit is fully recognised. 

THOS. DOW. 

The following letter also, from the Grand Trunk Railway Company, was handed in 
read by the secretary : 

In regard to shipping facilities for grapes and small fruits generally so far as the Grand Trunk Railway 
is concerned : The possibilities of tiiis district for the cultivation of fruits generally have been recognised, 
and for several years efforts have l>een made to encourage those engaged in the forwarding of this traffic 
viz. by allowing cars to go direct to their destination, even when loaded with but a small quantity of fruit, 
rather than load the same car for several stations. There has been no hesitation in forwarding three tons 
direct at anj- time, but even as low as 1,500 lb have been sent. As a rule there is no delay in reaching the 
larger idaces in good time, as there is always other freight that can be used to fill up a car. But the diffi- 
culty arises with small lots, more especially when for places off the main lino. Such consignments are apt to 
be delayed more or less at junction points, but three daj's should be the maximum time in transit in any 
case. We have been able to give quick despatch to Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, and London shipments, 
cars going direct, and tho.se interested may rest assured that no effort will be spared to co-operate with 
shii>pers in reaching the markets as speedily as possible. 



HEDGES FOR SOUTHERN ONTARIO. 

The PKiiSiDEN'T. — Mr, McNeill will now address us on the subject, " AVhat kind of 
hedges are best suited for Southern Ontario." 

ifr. McNeill — Hedges are of particular interest to fruit men ; as you are well 
aware they serve the purpose of a wind-bteak and a protection from the inroads of 
animals and as an ornament. I think those three purposes are served by hedges. I was 
converted to hedges by a short visit to England, and I think Canada will never be really 
beautiful until it has its hedgerows. As a matter of protection against animals I am not 
altogether so sure that they are a success. I am afraid that in the case of cows the un- 
sightly wire fence is aliead of it, and I do not see how it is possible to grow a hedge for 
less than a wiie fence can be constructed for. In the case of the wire fence you have 
the protection at once, while in the case of the hedge you must wait a number of years, 
so merely for protection I do not think the hedge is a live question for many years to 
come. There is another aspect, however, of particular interest to fruit growers — the 
■wind-break ; it is conceded that the wind-break is of material advantage to the fruit 
grower, and it is from that and the aesthetic standpoint th:it it must stand or fall with 
them, for on the score of cost it cannot compete with the wire fence. Twenty-five years 
ago I helped my father to plant a white willow hedge. We took long pieces of willow 
limbs -and dug a narrow trench and put our willow sticks down five or six inches apart, 
and had no trouble whatever in getting thom to grow. I\[y father left that neighborhood 
a year or two afterwards, but I .'<aw that hedge aljout five years ago, and it was a perfect 
solid wall of vegetation, tlirough which a mouse could hardly crawl. Rut I think it was 
costly as far as the occupation of ground was concerned, and white willow must pass out 
of consideration altogether. My father and I e.xperimented with the common thorn. 



46 



The special thorn I am speaking of is called the Cockspur thorn, which is more easily 
described to the ordinary individual as a species having a pt-rfectly smooth leaf and being 
thickly set with thorns. After several failures in our experiments with this we got Ijoth 
the method of growth and the plant that answered the purjjose as a hedge plant. Our 
error in growing it was in allowing it to grow too high before cutting it off, and as a 
consequence in one oi two years there were bare spaces below, but after we had some 
experience we found that we must get a strong bottom growth after which there is no 
difficulty in getting a perfectly impenetrable hedge, and a hedge that will last for ever. 
The advantages of this thorn are these : First, it is a perfectly hardy plant ; you cannot 
kill it by any ordinary method. It will stand dry weatlier, cold weather, or wet land to any 
degree found in land tit for cultivation ; it will stand browsing which only imi)roves it, and, 
in every way, it makes a splendid hedge. Its growth, however, is too slow to satisfy 
most people, and it has one other fatal defect I am afraid. So far we have always been 
able to get our supplj' of the plant from a river bottom Hat, but if the plant is ever to 
become a hedge plant it must be propagated in some other way, and I do not know how 
it can be cheaply propagated. I was informed by Prof. Saunders that the seeds are ex- 
ceedingly slow of germination, and if that is the case it is a serious defect, but I think it 
is worth while to experiment with root cuttings, from which some of the san)e family are 
very readily developed. Our experience is simply that we take these plants from a river 
bottom and plant them out, and in about four years they mske a hedge that will turn 
anything and that gives little or no trouble in the way of trimming or pruning. The 
hedge in question is so close that nothing can make its way through it, but mice or small 
birds. The birds make their nests in it, and it is a most excellent protection for them, 
and if for nothing else I think hedges should be grown for the protection of the birds 
which are such friends of the fruit grower. 



FRUIT AS FOOD, 



At the evening session a pajier was read by Mr. L. Woolverton, Secretary of the- 
Association, on this subject, as follows : 

One of the best ways of increasing the selling price of our fruits is to educate the 
public into a freer use of them. Fruits are too often looked upon as mere luxuries, agree- 
able to the taste but useless when nourishing food is required. We tind the citizens buying 
meat and potatoes regularly, but the fruits are only purchased occasionally as a special 
treat. When the family go from the city to the country in summer, the mother is in 
constant anxiety about the amount of fruit her children consume, and is surprised when 
the dreadful results anticipated do not follow. This craving which children have for ripe 
fruit is one proof of my first point, viz.: (1) The free use of ripe fruits at our meals tends 
to health and longevity. No doubt there are many persons present who can verify this 
position from actual experience. I have heard men say that in the autumn, when har- 
vesting grapes and eating freely of the fiuit, they have noticed an increase of weight of 
from five to fifteen pounds. So well acknowleged has the healthfulness of the grape been 
that, in France and Germany, patients are treated with what is called the "grape cure" 
for many diseases due to overfeeding. A French physician says that nothing does more 
to rid him of his patients than the daily use of fruits ; and another says that since the 
apple has been more freely used in Paris, there has been a decrease of dyspepsia and of 
bilious afi'ections. We all know with what avidity the fevered patient sucks the cooling 
juice of the ripe cherry. I have in a previous paper, referred to the healthfulness of the 
currant in dispelling headaches and reinvigorating the system. 

Not only on the score of health, but also on that of economy, we can speak a word 
for the use of fruit. Meat is one of the most expensive articles of diet, and in summer 
time not the most wliolesome. Indeed, some physicians trace autumnal diarrhea to the 
use of meat in the hot wnather, giving rise to alkaloids which are purgative in their 
efl*ects. The fruit often gets the l)laine for what is due after all to the meat. A grain 
and fruit diet, according to an eminent English physician, is in summer more healthfjl 
and less expensive than a meat diet. 



47 



Fruit contains the oleinonts necessary for the nourishment of the hotly, as ^ill Ije 
se( n from the folhiwing table showing' the composition of the strawberry, viz.: 

Water 87 per c<iit. 

S'lfjar 4 

Free acid 1 + " " 

Nitrogen Oj " " 

Insoluble matter (A per cent of which is ash) 7 " " 

Who objects to being convinced of the healthfulness and ec jnoiny of the strawberry 
in summer as contrasted with a meat diet 'i Prot". Faraday says of apples : 

Let every family in autumn lay in from two to ten or more barrels, and it will be to them the nun' 
economical investment in the vvliole range of culinary supplies. A raw mellow apple is digested in an hour 
and a half, while boiled cabbage recpiires Hve hours. The most healtiiful dessert tliat can he ])laced on the 
table is baked apple. If taken freely at breakfast with coarse bread and without meat or flesh of any kind, it has 
an admirable effect on the general system, often removing constipation, correcting acidities, and cooling oft 
febrile conditions more effectually than the most approved medicine.'?. If fjimilies could be induced to substi- 
tute the ai)i>le — sound, ripe aTid lusciims— for the pies, cakes, candies and other sweetmeats with which chil- 
<lren are too often stuffed, tlure would be a diminution of doctors" bills, sutticient in a single year to lay up 
a stock of this delicious fruit for a season's use. 

The moral of all this is : Let every farmer plant a fruit garden with sucli a selection 
of varieties as will furnish iiim with a constant succession of fresh fruits for his family, 
and let every towusmau nuike arrangements for a constant supply of fresh fruit from the 
fruit market. 

The second point I want to emphasize is this : (2) Apples form one of the most val- 
uable articles which can be given hoi'ses and cows in connection with their daily allow- 
ance of food. In point of nourishment alone they are equally valuable with carrots for 
horses and with turnips lor cows, and more valuable than mangels pound for pound. On 
pa^'e 95 of the Repurt, for 1887 will be found a table prepared by Prof. L. B. Arnold, in 
which he shows that, ripe apples have a feeding value equal to one-third the value of hay, 
about 16 cents per 100 lbs, or 8 cents a bushel. I believe that, this is far too low an esti- 
mate and in this I am supported by a Mr. K. H. Hutchinson, an American farmer, who 
says : 

For the general purpose horse of the farmer, I know from actual experience that apples are valuable 
food. I have had horses that were in very low condition, from worms, entirely frsed from this trouble 
when running aiming apple trees, where they eat all they want. I believethat a horse not at hard work would 
do as well on four (juarts of oats and a peck of apples as on a peck of oats per day. If this statement is 
true, it would give ajjples a feeding value of about 20 cents a bushel. , 

It will be o'lservetl that we have here a practical farmer giving apples about two 
and a half times the value which Prof. Arnold has allovved to them, viz.: L'O cents per 
bushel, or -40 cents per 100 Bb-i. Now if this can be proved it will open up a new wav of 
disposing of a large portion of our apple crop, and increase the value of the farmer's 
orchard. If apples can be shown to be worth 20 cents a bushel as food for stock, surely 
■we need not fear over-production or market gluts. And if weight of testimony is of any 
use, here is another from a writer in Orchard awl Garden. lie says • 

When some of my pear trees littered the ground with their ripe, mellow fruit, I fed them to my cows. 
A peck of pears, with two quarts of meal and bran for a noonday feed increased the milk and buttar one- 
fourth, and when the apples were ripe and cheap in the market, the horses, cows, pigs and fowls had all 
they wanted. 

Here are two quotations from the Michigan Fanner. Mr. Chiirles Dann says : 

I have fed apples for twenty years finite extensively. Durincr the past three years T have been feeding 
twelve cows with them. As soon as the app es attain any size ami dri<p from the trees, I have them picked 
u(> and thrown in the pasture. Some days the stock get as much as ten bushels and I can always see an 
increase of milk. The apples are of different varieties, but not very sour. Cut down all trees which produce 
apples that will not do to eat. I am feeding two bushels of Baldwins at one time to my cows and get an 
8i (juart can of milk extra from the fruit. 

I have been interested in discussing the value of anples for stock. I had last winter (iOO bushels of 
apples and began by feeding them to my team, giving them at noon instead of grain, and with apparent 

fain t<> the hi)rseH. If the team was hard at work it pmbibly would not answer. I hid a pen of fatting 
ogs to which I had been feeding a bushel of applet for their noon feed. I had no means of making accu- 
rate tesis, but think tiny did eipi.illy well. I also gave them t ) my cows, a peck at one feeding, with the 
result of increasing the yield both <«f milk and cream. I have also fed them all winter to pigs which I am 
keeping over. 1 am convinced that ti> feed apples to stock is as profitable and much more satisfactory than to 
Bell them to be made into cider with the possibility if not the probability that its use will lead to the use of 
stronger intoxicants. — E. A. Bradley, 



48 



And to accumulate evidence here is a (|uotation from a writer in the New York 

Tri/jime : 

A few years ago one of our largest apple growers liad a large lot of enlla left over. He was offered 
10 cents a bushel for them delivered to an evaporating and cider-makmg concern five or six miles away. 
Instead of selling them at that price he bought hogs to eat them. I am at this time unable to recall the 
details of his method, but whatever other feed was given them was accuraaely weighed and measured, and 
the gross cost at market i)rices and all other expenses, except the labor of feeding the apples, were duly 
charged up against the hoes till they were killed and marketed, when it wasfound that the apples had netted 
him 32 cents a bushel. The only case of ill result was where a large herd of cows were turned into an 
orchard of several himdred trees and permitted to gorge themselves without restraint. Like any other 
food, ai)ples should be fed with much discretion, beginning with small rations and increasing them 
gradually. 

For several years T have myself been experimenting in this direction, and must say 
that I am more than satisfied with the results. Last winter I fed a team of horses 
about seventy-five bushels of cull apples which were unfit for shipping. They were fed 
with cut hay or cornstalks, and chop stuff" made of peas and oats ; and a \y.\vi of the time 
of corn and oats. The ration was made up about as follows : One bushel of cut hay or 
cornstalks, one peck apples and one quart chop stuff". This was given the team twice a 
day when idle, and three times a day when at work, with about 8 or 9 lb. of hay at 
night. The result is that the team came through the winter in a far better v-.ondition 
for work than ever before. There was no need of condition powders with that team. 
The old coat of hair was shed early in the spring, and the new one was remarkably sleek 
and smooth ; and everyone exclaimed on seeing them, " In what fine condition those 
hor.ses are." I tried the same diet on a two year old heifer, giving her the same ration 
twice a day. That beast is now as fine a one as can be seen for miles around, fat and 
sleek and healthy. I have therefore given up growing turnips and carrots for stock, for 
I find in my waste apples food as valuable for their nutritious qualities as roots, and 
more valuable for their condimental qualities. 

Having, then, such numerous ways of disposing of our fruit crops the encourage- 
ment becomes greater for growing them. We can evaporate or feed to stock all second 
grade apples and pears, and thus relieve our markets of a class of apples which glut 
them with rubbish, and anger the busy housewife. Thus also we shall be able to cull 
closer our fruit for shipping, and only put up f )r export the choicest grades, which will 
bring the very highest prices ; and secure for our Canadian apples the reputation which 
their excellence deserves of the very finest in the world. 



Prof. J. H. P.\NT0N, of the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, then gave his 
lecture on " Fertilisation of Plants," a most interesting and valuable address, illustrated 
by a chart of colored engravings. This has been published in the Report for 1888. 

The evening was enlivened by some excellent music, contributed at intervals by the 
Detroit Medical College Glee Club, together with solos from Messrs. A. D. Bowlby and 
W. Paterson. 

Resolutions of appreciation of the kind and courteous treatment by the town of 
Windsor, of thanks to the press, and to the Glee Club were most heartily passed by the 
Association, 

The Mayor of Windsor, and others, replied in .suitable terms, and the meeting was 
closed with " God Save the Queen." 



49 



THE SUMMER MEETING. 



The summer meeting was held in the Town Hall, Old Niagara, on Tuesday eroning^ 
July 8th and Wednesday, July 9th, 1890. 

The President, A. M. Smith, Esq , called the meeting to order at 8 o'clock on Tues- 
day evening, when an address of welcome was read by Mr. R. Gourneen, President of 
the Niagara Fruit Growers' Association. 

The President replied to the address in fitting terms, and declared the meeting open 
for discussion, suggesting that the Venerable Archdeacon McMurray, of Niagara, should 
address the audience. 

INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION. 

Archdeacon McMdrray. — I was very much delighted when I heard that the pres- 
•ent meeting of the Fruit Grower's Association was to be held in this town, having long 
thought that one of its meetings ought to be held here. I have vary carefully followed 
the various meetings of the Association in different parts of the province by means of its 
publications, of which I am a constant reader, and which I think should be taken and 
read by every person at all interested in the growing of fruit or in horticulture. I am 
delighted that you should have met here, and anything I can do or say in furtherance of 
your objects I shall do most cheerfully. A most interesting paper was recently read 
before the society here by Mr. Billups, on the curculio, of which he exhibited numerous 
specimens. I should like to hear that paper repeated during the course of the present 
meeting. The curculio is an enemy we have to strive manfully against and I am afraid 
will attack our peaches as well as plums. I think we may learn something practical dur- 
ing this meeting regarding gooseberries. I have some tine gooseberries, but almost all 
mildew as the trees get older, and the only thing I can see to do is to keep plantations 
coming ou. After a tree is six or seven years old it is almost certain to mildew. 



GOOSEBERRY MILDEW AND APPLE SPOT. 

The Secrbtary.— Regarding the gooseberry mildew to which the Ven. Archdeacon 
has referred, I may say that I have been studying very carefully the reports of the United 
States Experimental Stations, at which a series of careful experiments have been in pro- 
gress connected with mildew and other fungoid diseases, and 1 believe that means will be 
found of stopping mildew without having recourse to cutting down the bushes or destroy- 
ing them. Experiments are being made with copper solutions, which are found success- 
ful in combatting fungi, and one of them, which is being very successfully applied to apple 
spot, I hope may also prove useful for mildew, that is thearamoniacal carbonate of copper. It 
is prepared in this way : an ounce of copper carbonate precipitate is dissolved in a quark 
of ammonia and diluted with twenty-tive gallons of water. I think we should keep care- 
ful track of these remedies and try them ourselves. I am this year trying this ammcniacal 
solution of carbonate of copper for apple spot and I think I observe some benefit from it 
already, although I did not begin so early in the season as I ought to have done. It 
should be applied before the buds open at all for apple scab, and also, of course very early 
for mildew, because these fungi live through the winter in some way and the action of 
these copper solutions is preventive rather than curative. The reason I did not apply it 
•a early as would have been desirable was that our local druggist did not keep it in stock, 
it being an article not in demand at present and it was not nntil after a good deal of ui^- 
iug that he wrote to a wholesale druggist and succeeded in procuring it. 

4 (». a.) 



50 



Mr. BuCKE. — That is for the apple spot. 

The Secretary. — Yes. Hypo-sulphite of soda has been recommended and has been 
used by some with success, but it is not nearly so effective as this carbonate of copper. 
The only difficulty with the carbonate of copper is that the ammonia renders it soluble, 
and we have to spray our trees with Paris green as well, which makes extra work. If 
some way could be demised of using the copper carbonate and Paris green together it 
would save labor, but unless the ammonia can be dispensed with it cannot be done, 
because it makes the Paris green too injurious to the foliage. 

Mr. Oraig. — At the Experimental Faru some work was tried in the same line with 
the Paris green and the carbonate of copper without ammonia to see if there was any 
beneficial effect, and with carbonate of copper alone and in suspension. I find that in 
water it will remain in suspension as well as Paris green, so it is possible it may be used 
without ammonia as a solvent. If, as the secretary has suggested, we can get a combined 
insecticide and fungicide it will he a very valuable acquisition. The carbonate of copper 
costs about sixty cents j)er pound in the precipitated form. Large trees will take from 
one to three gallons to do them fairly, that is of the mixture with Paris green. 

Mr. BucKE. — That amount of the stuff would make a very large quantity of 
the mixture. 

Mr. Craig. — Yes. We have used a different strength from that mentioned by Mr. 
Woolverton ; I have used it from one to three ounces and at the rate of twenty-two gallons. 
I do not think there is any doubt we will be able to get some results which can be 
followed up next year. 

The Secretary. — As this is an interesting topic I do not think it out of place to fol- 
low it up. I would like to add that I have been applying it to the pear as well. This 
year the Flemish Beautys are horrible, covered with scabs and curling up in every .shape 
on the side in which the scab has affected them and are certainly going to be utterly 
worthless. Of course it was too late with them ; I could not get it in time to apply early 
enough, but I really think I see some results from its application after the scab made its 
appearance. I have tried it on pear trees standing side by side, applying it to one and 
not touching the next and I think I can see a difference. I have not tried the sulphate 
of copper alone. 

Mr. Oraig. — I was very much surprised to find that applied in the proportions given 
at Washington it injured the leaves. 

Archdeacon McMurray. — Would it not be well also to give us the proportions in 
which Paris green and other chemicals should be applied. 

The Secretary. — The quantity of Paris green that it is safe to apply is about three 
ounces to fifty gallons of water. I think that is quite as strong as we dare use it, and about 
two ounces of the carbonate of copper to fifty gollons, mixed with the other. If you use 
the carbonate of copper without the ammonia, it, being a powder, can be used with the 
Paris green. 

Mr. Beall. — You mean adding one powder to the other with the one quantity of 
water — fifty gallons? 

The Secretary. — Yes. The two of them in solution with water. Take a barrel 
that holds fifty gallons and put in three ounces of Paris green and two ounces of the 
copper. Even with that strength I have often found that 1 have injured the foliage, but 
that, I think, is because I stopped too long at a tree and sprayed it too heavily, for I 
think too much can be put on in that way. 

Mr. A. 0. BiLLUPS. — What effect has the Paris green upon the leaves ? 

The Secretary. — They look as if burned, and then drop. 

Mr. BilIjUPS. — Have you noticed that the carbonate of copper has any effect upon 
the curculio when used without the Paris green 1 

The Secretary. — I do not know whether it would or not, not having experimented 
in that line. 



51 



A Member. — Do you tind any diflference between the solution made with ammonia 
and the suspended solution? 

The Skcrktary. — I have not experimented long enough to be able to say, 
Mr. Beall. — The rev. gentleman here, spoke of cutting up a large number of bushes ; 
I hope he destroyed them. 

Archdeacon McMurrav. — I destroyed them. 

Mr. Morris. — It is my opinion that mildew in gooseberries is caused by cold nights 
and warm days. This season we have been comj)aratively feee from cold nights, which, 
I think has had a good deal to do with it. 

Mr. Beall. — I may say we had cold nights and hot days similar to other years ; 
there has been only a very slight difference in the maximum temperature of this and other 
• years. 

Mr. T. H. Race (Mitchell). — My theory is, and I will always adhere to it, that 
nature's methods are more perfect than those of man, and if nature is not obstructed in 
her operations she generally attains perfection. I attribute my success in gooseberry 
culture to a free circulation of air, plenty of sunlight and the application of ashes to the 
soil. I have had no mildew for years, but you will not find another garden in the town 
in which I live in which there is not mildew. When I say ashes of course I mean hard- 
wood ashes. I have about 200 bushes of Whitesmith, and I have Grown Bob and 
Industry, which are my leading varieties, and I defy any man to come into my place and 
tind a single case of mildew. The Whitesmith I have seven years, the Industry four 
years and the Crown Bob two years. I apply ashes very heavily, which is the only 
fertiliser I give them. There is just one other thing on which I would like to ask an 
opinion. Five years ago I had a row of Whitesmith gooseberries, about 30 in a row. I 
wanted to manure them very heavily and t wheeled out fresh manure from the horse 
stables and dug it in very heavily about half the length of the row, and the remainder I 
manured very heavily from the cow stable. A few weeks afterward I noticed a rank, 
fungous growth on the ground manured from the horse stable and the bushes immediately 
above that mildewed, while there was no indication of mildew at all on that part 
manured from the cow stable. 

Archdeacon McMuruay. — What quantity of ashes do you apply ? 

Mr. Race. — My Whitesmiths are planted tive feet apart in a row, and I started with 
ashes by putting a pailful of ashes between every two bushes. That w:is a pretty heavy 
application but I saw good results from it, and every year after I applied about half 
that quantity. 

Mr. Morden'. — My theory is that the fresh horse manure iujured the roots of the 
plants spoken of by Mr. Race and therefore the fungus could take etlect the more readily 
upon them. Manure from a horse stable, applied in large quantities, will injure almost 
any tree or plant except corn, which will stand a good quantity. As an illustration of 
this, I put a hot-bed within ten feet of a large black cherry tree, at least ten inches in 
diameter and it was within twenty feet of a mountain ash and that hot-bed killed them 
both. I have wheeled out stable manure and laid it on an open space where some goose- 
berry bushes got broken down and I found that the bushes on each side were materially 
injured by nothing else than the heating of the manure. 

Mr. Race. — The condition that induces mildew is in the plant 1 

Mr. Morden. — Yes. I believe a healthy plant has a greater resisting power than a 
feeble one. 

Archdeacon McMurrav. — I thought the condition which induced mildew was a 
humid atmosphere. 

Mr. Morden. — Yes ; but what I mean is this, that a healthy plant has greater 
powers of resistance ; it will not be attacked so quickly nor to the sauie extent as a sickly 
plant would be. A plant i)i which a rank and rapid growth is induced is not in a healthy 
state. 



52 



Mr. Racb. — I think the horse manure produces mildew by a condition in the atmos- 
phere arising from gases of some kind. 

Mr. Morris. — I think Mr. Morden is right, and that too much manure will induce 
an unhealthy growth ; but ashes, on the other hand, while it produces a strong growth 
produces healthy wood. I have had a good deal of experience in the use of ashes and I 
think their use makes a strong, healthy bush, able to withstand the attacks of mildew. 
I know that a pear tree with ashes is not nearly so liable to blight as one with manure. 

Mr. BucKE. — I think if Mr. Race had applied the manure in a rotten state the result 
would have been different. I have never yet succeeded in killing gooseberries with old, 
rotten manure. 



THE CURCULIO 



Archdeacon McMurray. — Regarding the curculio, I was very anxious to know how 
iong it would remain after the fruit falls from the tree, how long it would be before tho 
young curculio makes its appearance. I asked the question and was told not more than 
four or five days. I had no idea it would come out so quickly as that ; I thought a fort- 
night or three weeks. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — In reference to the curculio leaving plums, I find that under various 
circumstances they leave at different times. I have noticed that in mild, warm, still days 
the plum does not generally fall until relieved. In that case the curculio leaves sooner 
than if the plum had been blown off by a storm, in which case it remains for some time. 
I would like to know if anyone who has studied the matter can tell definitely the average 
time the larva takes, after the plum has fallen, before it enters the ground. 

The Secretary. — I do not think anyone present can answer that. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I think it is one of the few things Prof. Saunders has failed to men- 
tion. I think if farmers would only take the trouble to gather the fallen plums at inter- 
vals of two or three days and destroying them it would do much good not only with plums 
but with cherries. I have found in several instances this summer that over 90 per cent, 
of the cherries have been bitten by the curculio. 

The Secretary. — I have been experimenting with helleboie in water and spraying 
-aherry and plum trees, part of them with it and part with Paris green, and I am certain 
I had better results with the hellebore than with the Paris green, that is from one sea- 
son's experience. The proportions were the same as we used for the currant worm. The 
cherry trees upon which I tried it are free from curculio, but unfortunately they are 
rotting badly. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — The use of Paris green is very unsatisfactory indeed. I have never 
seen any experiments with hellebore, but I dio not think it could well be less satisfactory 
than Paris green. The dose of Paris green people here use is a teaspoonful to five quart 
pails. I think that it is a very heavy dose, and though, in my experience it has not 
injured the foliage at all it is not at all satisfactory. 

The Secretary. — I think one reason is that it is not used early enough. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I may say also that I think it is not applied late enough. 

Archdeacon McMurray. — Is there any way of reaching the curculio after it has 
fallen and reached the ground t Would not some alkali thrown around as far as the limbs 
extend be of some benefit ? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I do not think it would have any effect ; as so soon as the chrysalis 
has reached the open in the spring the curculio gives off a perfect insect, ready for work. 
I do not know that it eats very much ; once the curculio comes from the chrysalis its 
only object in life is to lay its eggs and then it dies. I do not think that any alkaline poison 
around the ground would have any effect. Indeed I may say I do not know that Paris 
green itself actually kills the curculio ; I think it possibly finds there something unpleasant 
on the plum and therefore leaves it. I believe that sprinkling with some kind of ashes o 
•inders would be almost as efficacious as Paris green. I think Paris green acts more as a 



53 



mechanical barrier than as a poison. 1 mean that the curculio reaches the plum and finds 
it is covered with a rough substance and leaves it. I do not believe it eats the poison 
and suffers thereby, but 1 believe it merely leaves the tree. 

The Secretary. — Do you not think it eats the leaves that are poisoned t 

Mr. BiLLUPs. do not think so. 

The Secretary. — It has been found by confining the curculio in a box that it will 
eat plum leaves. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I have found the curculio eating paper, sawdust and many other things 
too; they are very fond of destroying things. 

A Member. — What do you think they feed on 1 

Mr. BiLLUPs. — I think the curculio has very little need of feeding ; I think all the 
feeding is done in the larval state. They will live six or eight months without eating. 

The Member. — Well, I do not agree with that. Can you account for the numerous 
holes in the plum leaves 1 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I think the insects are trying to find a place to lay their eggs. 

Mr. Pettit. — Have you noticed any difference in different grades of Paris green with 
regard to its dissolving in water ? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — No ; I did not know that Paris green would dissolve at all ; I thought 
it was merely a suspended solution. 

The Secretary. — You are correct in that, but perhaps the gentleman may mean that 
lome grades are heavier than others. 

A Member. — With some the water will remain clear and with others the water is 
green. With some grades the particles are large and with others small. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — That is because of some glutinous malter in the Paris green which 
sets together the grains, and that glutinous matter would not be dissolved by cold water, 
but I do not think that either hot or cold water will give a chemical solution of Paris green, 

A Member. — How do you account for potato bugs being poisoned 1 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — If you notice the leaf of the plum tree or potato you will notice a well 
defined mark of the Paris green. In a chemical solution it is combined with the water, in 
a suspensory solution the water evaporates. The only object of mixing Paris green with 
water is to secure its even distribution over a large area. If it is necessary to have a 
•hemical solution the use of ammonia is requisite. 

The President. — We have a gentleman here, Mr. Morden, who knows something of 
chemistry : perhaps he can tell us something about this matter. 

Mr. Morden. — It is generally understood that Paris green is not soluble in water. 
This year I used Pari.s green for the currant worm for which I had previously afjplied 
hellebore. I dissolved the paris green in ammonia and applied it at the rate of a tea- 
spoonful of Paris green to five gallons of water, just half the strength. I have been in the 
habit of applying it in the suspended state and I had good result. In the suspended solu- 
tion it settles in drops on the surface of the leaf, and a considerable portion of the Paris 
green settles in that particular drop, just as in a pail of water, and it consequently can- 
not be as effective, because the insect may traverse a considerable portion of the leaf before 
it reaches that part. I am so much satis6ed with the results that next year I am going 
to apply no hellebore at all, but the aramoniacal solution of Paris green. 

Mr. Craig. — 1 fancy the reason you find greater effect from the aramoniacal Molution 
is owing to the fact that more of the Paris green is brought into contact with the leaves 
than there would be in a suspended solution. 

Mr. Morden. — Ammonia is one of the best tests of Paris green we have. Pure Paris 
green will dissolve without sediment, but there is no pure Paris green on the market. I 
would not object to a small quantity of sediment, but I do not think there should be over 
one-tenth. 



54 



Mr. BuCKE. — How do you mix the two together? 

Mr. MoRDEN. — I take a little Paris green and pour it in a flat vessel, moistening it 
with water before putting in the ammonia, because there is sometimes a little mucilaginous 
matter at the bottom and you can then get a better solution with the ammonia. The solu- 
tion is a bluish green. 

Mr. Beall. — I intended this spring to have used the ammoniacal solution spoken of 
for mildew on gooseberry bushes, with which I have been a good deal troubled and had I 
done so I should have no doubt said it succeeded admirably, because this year I have not 
had one particle of mildew in any variety ; but I made only one very slight application of 
Paris green. The point I want to make is that we should not jump at conclusions too 
soon after making an experiment ; it is something which requires a long experience and 
extended observation and the results should be ascertained very carefully and accurately. 



THE APPLE SCAB. 



The following paper on this subject was afterwards contributed by Mr. D. W. 
Beadle, of St. Catharines : 

Much loss has been sustained by the injuries caused by this fungus to many of our 
most popular apples, notably to the Snow apple. Northern Spy, Early Harvest, and 
others. The late John Oroil stated that the loss to him was so serious as to amount to 
thousands of dollars. In former volumes of the Canadian Horticultui-ist attention was 
drawn to some experiments made with hypo-sulphite of soda which gave promise of our 
finding in that fungicide a remedy. Since then experiments have been made with other 
substances known to possess fungus destroying properties. An account is given in the 
bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station, of the State of Michigan, for April, 
1890, of some experiments made there by Mr. L. II. Taft, the horticulturist, the substance 
of which cannot fail to be deeply interesting to all of our orchardists. 

Twelve trees of the Northern Spy were chosen as the subjects of these experiments. 
The fungicides used were the following : (1) Potassium sulphide, but which of the 
sulphides is not stated ; (2) sodium hyposulphite: (3) a sulphur solution; (4j copper 
carbonate and ammonia ; (5) modified eau celeste, composed of copper sulphate, car- 
bonate of soda and ammonia. Copper sulphate is popularly known as blue vitriol. Two 
trees each were sprayed with one of these five fungicides, and two were not sprayed at 
all. The spraying was done with the little climax pump made by the Nixon Nozzle 
and Machine Co., Drayton, Ohio. Care was taken to cover every leaf and fruit with a 
fine mist-like spray, using about three gallons to each tree. The time occupied was about 
ten minutes to a tree, but the report states that with a large Nixon or field pump not 
over three minutes would be needed for spraying a tree. The applications were first 
made on the 24:th of May, 1889, and the second on June 6th, at which date there was no 
appearance of scab on the fruit, nor of injury to the foliage from any of the fungicides. 
On June 12th a third application was made, and at this time there was no appearance of 
scab or of injury from the use of the chemicals. The fourth spraying was given on the 
25th of June, and now the scab was visible on both the fruit and leaves of all the trees, 
also the leaves of the two trees sprayed with sodium hyposulphite were turning brown at 
the edges. July 6th the trees were sprayed a fifth time. At this and subsequent 
applications of the .sodium hyposulphite the strength was reduced by the addition of two 
more gallons of water, and no further injury to the foliage was perceived. A sixth 
spraying was given July 2Ith when a slight increase was noticed in the size of the spots, 
and but very few new scab spots could be found. The seventh and last application was 
made August 1st, at which time no new spots were forming, and the spots that had 
formed were not spreading. 

There were frequent rains during the period covered by these experiments. Rain 
fell on May 29th and continued at intervals until June 4th, falling again on the night of 
June 6th and continuing lightly for the two following days, with frequent showers up to 
June 25th. There was no rain from that date until the 14th of July, but a steady rain 



00 



set in on that day, lasting through the 15th, succeeded by several heavy showers between 
that and August 1st. All of the solutions except the two containing copper, Nos. 4 and 
5, were easily washed off. 

Early in October the apples were gathered and assorted into three classes, those 
entirely free from scab, those slightly, and the badly scabby. The apples in each class 
were then counted and weighed, with the following result : The trees sprayed with 
potassium sulphide yielded 1,944 apples free from scab, weighing 441 ^ tt) ; 5;G59 were 
slightly scabl)y, weighing l,171f tb ; 15 were bady scaliby, weighing 2 Hj ; that is 25.5 
per cent, were free, 74.3 percent, slightly scabby, and 0.2 per cent, badly scabby. With 
sodium hypo-sulphite 1,715 were free, weighing 419i| ft ; 5,484 slightly scabVjy, weighing 
1,218;^' lb; 65 badly scabby, weighing lOJ lb; or 23.6 per cent, free, 75.4 per cent, 
slightly, and 0.89 per cent, badly scabby. With the sulphur solution 1,010 were free, 
weighing 278 lb ; 4,643 slightly, weighing l,146i[ lb; 65 badly scabby, weighing 10^ ft ; 
which is 17.6 free, 81.2 slightly, and 1.1 percent, badly scabby. Copper carbonate with 
ammonia give 4,289 free, weighing 1,107^ lb ; 4,067 slightly scabby, weighing 913| ft ; 
13 badly, weighing 2ft; which is 51.2 per cent, free, 48.6 slightly, and 0.16 per cent, 
badly scabby. The two sprayed with modified eau celeste yielded 3,983 free, weighing 
1,174 ft ; 1,178 slightly, weighing 519^ ft ; 11 badly, weighing 2ft; or 68.8 per cent, 
free, 31.0 per cent, slightly, and 0.2 per cent, badly scabby. A marked difference is seen 
in the product of the two trees not sprayed, of which only 365 apples, weighing 101 ft 
were free from scab ; 2,498, weighing 681| ft were slightly, and 51, weighing 13i- ft were 
badly scabby ; that is, only 12.5 per cent, were clean, 85.7 percent, were slightly scabby, 
and 1.8 per cent, badly. 

The chemicals used were bought at the drug store in small quantities, costing as 
follows : Potassium sulphide 40 cents per lb, sodium hyposulphite 6 cents, copper car- 
bonate 60 cents, copper sulphate 10 cents, sodium carbonate 5 cents, and ammonia 35 
cents a quart. At these prices the cost of five applications per tree, including labor, was 
for potassium sulphide 20c., sodium hyposulphite 12^c., copper carbonate and ammonia 
25c., modified eau celeste 30c. 

The experimenter is of the opinion that if the spring and early summer should be 
comparatively dry thi-ee applications at intervals of four weeks of either of the copper 
mixtures will be sufhcient. If the spring should be cold and wet five sprayings at inter- 
vals of everv three weeks will be required. When the trees are sprayed just after the 
blossoms fall for the codlin moth, the fungicide may be added to the solution of Paris 
green, thereby saving all extra labor in the first application. When large orchards are 
to be sprayed the chemicals can be purchased at wholesale, thereby effecting a consider- 
able saving in cost of material. 

It will be seen that the copper mixtures are by for the most eflficacious, therefore 
passing the others l;y, we give the formula for preparing these as recommended by Mr. 
Taft in his very interesting and valuable report. 

Copper carbonate and ammonia. Mix three ounces of copper carbonate with one 
quart of ammonia, and as soon as all action has ceased dilute with water to twenty-eight 
gallons. 

Modified eau celeste. Dissolve two pounds of copper sulphate in hot water ; in 
another vessel dissolve two pounds and a half of carbonate of soda. When both are fully 
dissolved mix tin; solutions together. Before using add a pint and a half of ammonia 
and then dilute to thirty or thirty-two gallons with water. 

It will be noticed that the best results were obtained with this last mentioned mix- 
ture, and there seems to be good reason to believe that in the case of varieties subject to 
the .scab fully fifty per cent, will be added to the value of the crop by its use. 

I am just in receipt of reply from Prof. Taft. He thinks that the ammonia if added 
to the Pans green just before using would dissolvt the arsenic to only a slight extent. 
He adds however that he feels like recommending the following formula for the first two 
applications, viz., dissolve in hot water 2 pounds of sulphate of copper. In another vessel 
dissolve 2 lb of carbonate of soda ; mix in a tub ; after all action has ceased dilute to 32 
gallons. There would be no danger of dissolving the arsenic by adding this to the Paris 
green. He believes, however, that the copper solution alone will have sufficient poison- 



66 



ing effect to destroy the codlin worm. If that be the case, the Paris green can be 
omitted altogether. In the last two or three applications he would add the ammonia to 
the copper and soda as prescribed in the formula given in my paper. (See report 1890). 
He further says that if this copper mixture is applied early enough and occasionally re- 
peated, it will prevent both mildews of the grape. With reference to the curculio he 
says, " From what I have seen of the use of hellebore I consider it fully as effectual " as- 
the arsenites. 



POINTS IN PEACH GROWING IN THE NIAGARA DISTRICT. 

The Secretary, Mr. L. Woolverton,of Grimsby, read the following paper on this subject :: 

After the good success which has been the fortune of peach growers in this immediate 
neighborhood of late and the failures which have been our lot in other sections of the 
Niagara peninsula, it ill becomes a Grimsby man to come here to speak upon this subject. 
I will not inflict upon you a lengthy paper but only mention a few points which may lead 
on to a discussion of this subject. 

After some twenty years of experience in peach growing, during which time the fail- 
ures far outnumber the successes, I am still of the opinion that it pays us in this region to 
grow peaches for profit. Even if we only get one good crop in five years, and that is no 
worse than our luck sometimes has been, the peach is still worthy of a place on our fruit 
farms. A good yield will sometimes pay the owner as much as $200 per acre, and this- 
gives an average of $40 per acre for five years, supposing he is that unfortunate, while 
at the same time he is supported by the chance of better things. 

Careful attention to a few points will go a good way toward making peach growing 
profitable. One is, of course a wise selection of varieties. Our president recommended,, 
at our last winter meeting, the following as his choice of six for profit : Alexander, Early- 
Rivers, Hales, Crawford's Early, Wager, Bowslaugh's Late. These are excellent ; but I 
am becoming more and more discouraged with the Early Crawford. This season, for 
instance, when 1 have a fair show of others in the orchard there are no Crawfords. Last 
year it was the same, and indeed this so often happens that it has become almost the rule. 
Now when we get this peach it is so fine that we feel as if we wanted to grow no other,, 
but we do not get it and we must choose between no fruit or fruit of a less desirable 
quality. Our American friends, at the last meeting of the N. Y. State Horticultural 
Society, stated that two varieties lately tested by ihem had been found to be reliable 
bearers, viz. : Hynes' Surprise, and Horton Rivers. The latter is a seedling of the Early 
Rivers and possesses many of the exeellencies of that very desirable variety. We have 
also some seedlings of Canadian origin which seem to promise well ; as, for instance, one 
originating at Chatham, with a Mr. Scott, one at St. Catharines with our president, and 
the one mentioned above, which originated at Grimsby with Mr. Bowslaugh. 

I have tried many other kinds besides the above mentioned but nearly all hare some 
fault. I will mention among them the following, viz. : Early Purple, Eaily York, Royal 
George, Sweet Water, Honest John, Early Barnard, Early Beatrice, Early Louise, Old- 
raixon, Jacques Rareripe, Late Crawford, Morris White, Lemon Cling and Smock 

In addition to these, I have now under testing, among others, the following : Troth's 
Eaily, Christiana, Sahvay, Steven's Rareripe, Wheatland, Willet's, Conkling, Oooledge's 
Favorite, Foster, Hill's Chili, Lord Palmerston, May's Choice, Mountain Rose, Richmond, 
Salway, Schumaker, Pineapple, Globe and Centennial. 

While I hope that of these latter I may find some of sufficient value to be placed on 
a list of the six best kinds when I report next to you, I am loth to leave out one or two 
in the former list, as e.g. the Oldmixon, one of the grandest old varieties, both in quality 
and appearance that I have cultivated ; but it is tender, and worse than all it seems to be 
peculiarly subject to the yellows. The Smock, too, is a variety that I have highly valued 
act a late variety, but I believe its place will be better supplied by the Steven's Rareripe, 

Another very important point in peach growing is the selection of a suitable site 



57 



and congenial soil, for the peach is very hard to please in this respect. It demands, for 
best results, a well drained sand loam orrjravelly soil. I have tried orchards on sand, clay 
loam, sandy loam, both high and low, but ray best orchard is on an elevated piece of 
ground of about five acres in extent. On other parts the trees have been short-lived and 
unsatisfactory, especially on the clay loam. 

I am in favor of rather close planting of the peach trees on account of their liability 
to die of yellows at an early age. If our trees lived, now as they did in the days of our 
fathers, when it was not uncommon to meet with orchards twenty-five or thirty years 
planted, then a distance of twenty feet would be needed ; but as it is I am inclined to 
plant at about twelve leet apart. 

The method of pruning has much to do with deciding the distance of planting. If the 
limbs are allowed to grow to any length, spreading out like bare poles, with foliage 
and fruit far out towards the ends, certainly close planting would not answer. But this 
method of pruning is out of date in Canada, even trees so treated die early, and are not so 
productive as when properly shortened in. Of late years 1 have become more and more 
convinced of the great importance of the shortening in system of pruning the peach tree, 
and every year practice it to a greater extent. The idea is simply to cut back the new 
growth about one-half every spring ; and in case of neglected orchards which have already 
be-ome straggling, to cut back the old wood severely ; and in this way an abundant supply 
of young wood is kept up which is productive of bi tter fruit and a greater abundance of 
it. An orchard so treated will also live longer and be more attractive in appearance. 

The peach orchird must have thorough cultivation, especially in the early part of the 
season. I usually plow twice in the early part of the .season, and then cease cultivation, 
in order that the wood may matvre well before the cold weather. 

The peach has its share of enemies and diseases, chief among which are the curl, the 
curculio, the borer and the yellows. For the curl I know of no remedy. It is not often 
severe, but sometimes with the diseased leaves the fruit also drops. I have little difficulty 
with the borer. I always heap up my trees with earth in the spring and when Mr. Egeria 
exitiosa, as the entomologists call him, attempts to get a place in the tender part at the 
collar of the tree he finds he is blocked out by the earth. The Yellows is st'U as great a 
mystery as ever, notwithstanding the enormous expense incurred by the Department of 
Agriculture of the U. S. in trying to understand it. I have looked carefully through the 
report on the subject faithfully and elaborately prepared by Prof. Erwin Smith, but can 
find no better method of eradicating this scourge than the one which you and I have been 
faithfully employing for years past, and that is, rooting out every case as soon as discovered. 

Prof. Burrill, of Champagne, 111., the discoverer of the microbes which cause the 
pear to blight, called on me last year. He showed me through his powerful microscope 
the microbe accompanying the yellows, but he said that its mode of operation was still a 
mystery, and he could not yet say whether it was the cause of the disease or an accompani- 
ment of the unhealthy conditions. 

Packages and packing are important in the handling of a crop. The old bushel crate 
has entirely passed out of use with us in Canada. The half bushel and basket lias given 
place to a twelve quart basket, and now the question is whether this is not too large. I 
intend to use, for choice samples during the growing season, the ten-pound grajte basket, 
putting only the finest in this package and the ordinary in a larger package ; but I shall 
weary you, gentlemen, if I go into details in matters concerning which you have as much 
experience as I hava 

I only hope that the difficulties in respect to hardy varieties of merit and of insect 
enemies and fungus diseases may be so far overcome that peach culture in this favored 
peninsula may take the place it should among our most profitable industries. 



58 



Archdeacon McMurray. — Are you troubled any with borers 1 A number of years 
ago I planted seventy trees from Ohio, and those worms destroyed all my trees. 

The Seoretary. — I have been troubled with them, but not so much of late. I pre- 
sume that the trees you got from Ohio had the borers in them, and as you did not notice 
them and did not get them out they destroyed the trees. If the borer is in the orchard 
the only way is to go with a knife, and wherever you see any castings or wax oozing 
from the root you may be sure there is a borer, and by removing a little earth you will 
soon find a hollow place in the bark, and can easily find the larva of this borer and 
destroy it. This should be done every summer. But I have been very successful with 
the nu.-thod I have de.<^cribed in the paper ; that is, by going over my peach orchard early 
in June and heaping up the trees with earth. It takes very little time and where the 
orchard has been plowed up it is very little trouble to heap a mound of earth around 
every tree, and that will effectually keep out the borer, because the moth deposits the egg 
at the collar of the tree. If it deposits it higher the bark is too dry and it is not likely 
the borer will hatch out, and if it does it will not do any great mischief. I leave these 
mounds there during the summer; the moth deposits its eggs during June, July and 
August, and it is during those months the protection is needed. 

Mr. NiCHOL. — Is that a distinct insect from the apple borer ? 

The Secretary. — 1 es. The peach borer, I believe, will live sometimes two years, 
but generally only one ; it will remain in the tree from one to two years before it trans- 
forms into a chrysalis. The parent of a peach borer is a moth ; the apple tree borer 
is a beetle. 

Mr. Morris. — I quite agree with the paper read by the secretary, with the excep- 
tion of what he says as to varieties. I do not think he has mentioned the most profit- 
able ones at all, that is Wager and Mountain Rose. I agree with him as far as the 
Early Crawfords are concerned. I have planted five thousand of them in my time, but 
would not nowj plant another. I do not think, as the secretary hag said, that too much 
can be said in favor of early cultivation ; the only orchards having any fruit this year, 
that I have seen, are those which have been early cultivated. 

Mr. Service. — Which is the most successful, the yellow or the white? 

The Secretary. — I think, as a rule, I have got more fruit from the white fleshed, but 
with the exception of one variety, the Wager, I have not tried it sufiiciently long to say 
much about it. Last year it was a most abundant bearer. 

Mr. NiCHOL. — I have found coal ashes very valuable, not only for the borer ; it is 
an excellent mulch for young fruit trees, and is a protection against drouth and mice. I 
have applied it heavily, and although there is no fertilising matter in it 1 have seen no 
bad effects from it. 

Mr. Morris. — I would ask the secretary if he does not think trees with long trunks 
are more subject to disease and borers than short stemmed ones 1 

The Secretary. — I do not know whether it has any effect as far as the borer is con- 
cerned, but I am strongly in favor of low-headed peach trees and keeping them 
down pretty low. I believe in low trees in the first place, and I keep them down after- 
wards by constantly cutting them back. I think a very great mistake is made in the 
method of pruning peach trees all through this section of the country. It is not only the 
trunk, but all the limbs from the trunk are bare for so many feet; you have just tufts of 
branches away out at the ends of these limbs, and as a result there is very little new 
growth from such pruning, and the trees very soon die of old age. I know that is 
the great fault of the growers at Grimsby. I do not think the trees are so produc- 
tive as when kept down. The object of the borer, of course, is to get into the 
root, and as long as we have heap of earth or anything to prevent his finding his way 
to the root of the tree I do not think ' would much matter about the height of the 
tree. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — Do you think the mound of earth prevents them 1 

The Secretary. — It prevents their reaching the spot they want to get to. 



59 



Mr. BiLLUPS. — Don't you think it has often an opposite effect — that it liarbors 
them ? 

The Secretary. — You must be careful to take out any borers before you put the 
earth around about the trees. If they have been exposed during the season the borer ought 
to be dug out in the autumn or early spring and the trees then banked up and left 
so during June, July and August, when the moth is Hying around seeking a place to 
deposit it eggs. 

A Member. — How do you cultivate low-headed trees? 

The Secretary. — I manage to get quite near them. I suppose the trunk will be 
two and a half or three feet from the ground, and then by keeping them well cut back 
the branches get bushy and you can get pretty close to them, especially if your harness 
is adapted for the work. 

I\Ir. BiLLUPS. — Is it an established fact that the moth of the borer places the eggs 
upon the stem of the tree or in the earth surrounding the tree. In the little experience 
I have had I have generally found the borer a little below the surface of the ground. 
The moth certainly cannot find its way under the ground to deposit its eggs. 

The Secretary. — I think, though I won't say positively, that it is deposited in the 
tender bark near the surface of the earth, where the root begins, but I have noticed that 
when the larva becomes full grown it emerges from the tree and transform.s in the cast- 
ings outside. 



FRUIT CULTURE IN THE NIAGARA DISTRICT. 

The President. — I find on the programe for discussion the following question : " Is 
fruit culture on the increase or the decrease in the Niagara District, and is fruit growing 
more profitable than grain and root crops, taking into consideration the large amount of 
labor, attention and fertilisers required for the fruit crop, tlie insect enemies, off years of 
bearing, etc 1 " 

Mr. CoURNEEN. — There is no doubt that fruit culture is on the increase. 

Mr. Ball. — Last year there was more fruit shipped from the township of Niagara 
than from the next two counties to it. 

Archdeacon McMurray. — There have been tens of thousand of peach trees put out 
this spring within three or four miles of this place. 

The Presidejct. — The fact that it is on the increase may be taken as an indication 
that it is more profitable, but the question is whether it is more profitable when the 
amount of labor expended and the losses of one kind or other are taken into consider- 
ation. 

Mr. Ball — A few years ago all you could get for land here was $50 per acre, but 
now no person would think of asking less than Si 00 per acre or over for land suited for 
fruit culture. 

Mr. Morris. — The planting of fruit is very much on the increase every year. 

Mr. Nelles. — I think it pays. We have a very fair crop every year. This is the 
first year we have missed having an average crop, and this spring we felt sure of having 
an immense crop. 

The Secretary. — What do you reckon is the average profit of an acre of peaches? 

Mr. Nelles. — I have not figured it down that fine. 

Mr. Morris. — We have an orchard of four acres of peaches, all the varieties we can 
get hold of, and one year we had 81,500 off that four acres. If the peaches had all 
been of one profitable variety we would have made three times as much as that, for 
many of the varieties did not pay anything at all. That orchard is about five years old. 
It is true that it has not since produced anything so good, but I think this year it is 
going to do fully as well. 



60 



Archdeacon McMurray. — I am told that $1,500 oflf four acres, clearing $1,200 
profit, is what Mr. Carnochan did. I myself had one tree from which we took eighteen 
baskets, besides four that were destroyed. 

The Secretary. — I think we ought also to look at the other side. I have planted 
several orchards, from some of which I have never had a crop ; that is the reverse of 
the shield. My cousin, on the next farm, certainly did reap one enormous crop from 
ten acres of peaches, from which he got $3,000, but he never got another like it ; I think 
it was the first and the last real good crop. I do not think, on the average, peach cul- 
ture pays any better than any other kind of fruit growing. I think it is hardly wise to- 
let these glowing statements go out without some little qualification. 



THE SUITABILITY OF ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

At the opening of the meeting on Wednesday morning Mr. D. Nichol, of Cataraquiy 
read the following paper : 

In the eastern and northern parts of Ontario there are annually expended thousands 
of dollars for ornamental as well as for fruit trees, which to the purchaser are worthless. I 
think most of you are quite familiar with this fact. No doubt this subject has often been 
discussed at previous meetings of this kind, but still the evil continues increasingly. 
Travelling tree agents, as a class, are not men of practical experience, consequently they 
cannot be supposed to possess a correct knowledge of the requirements of the dwellers in 
the various localities. In this locality you can grow many trees which cannot be success- 
fully grown in by far the greater part of Ontario. Each succeeding generation of farmer)i> 
in the colder districts goes through the same expensive experience, and the probability is 
that so long as only about one in fifty read a horticultural or an agricultural journal, so long 
will they continue to be imposed upon, unless some means can be devised for preventing 
the imposition. 

I do not pretend to have discovered a remedy, but would merely enunciate som« 
ideas gleaned from observation and a long practical experience which may lead to a dis> 
cussion that may perchance be profitable to some. 

According to the programme I i.m also to speak of some mistakes which are made 
concerning ornamental trees. I will not undertake to tell you all the mistakes I have 
made myself because some mistakes I have made in this matter were so stupid I would be 
ashamed to tell you of them ; so I will briefly notice only a few things, "without using any 
technical names. 

Although the catalpa, tulip-tree, Kentucky cofTee-tree, the magnolias, the cypresSr 
ailanthus, laburnum, enonymus, buttonwood, persimmon and sassaffVas are not suitable for 
our northern climate, there is certainly no lack of variety of beautiful trees which can be 
rel'd on as being hardy enough and in every way suitable for any inhabited part of 
Ontario. Among evergreens we have the hemlock spruce, which for gracefulness of habit 
and richness in color of foliage is not excelled by any foreign variety that I know of. I 
often wonder why it is so seldom jilantcd and grown as an ornamental tree. Perhaps by 
some it may be considered too common, but that is a mistake, for, according to present 
indications, it will soon become one of the most uncommon trees in this country. We 
have also the Norway spruce, the black, white and blue spruce, the balsam fir, arborvitsea in 
great variety, red cedar and the retinispora, the Austrian pine, Scotch pine, Weyaouth 
pine and a lot of other pines, which, when grown as single specimens with plenty of room 
make beautiful ornamei.tal trees. Then among deciduous trees, besides all the glori- 
ous maples, elms, ashes and mountain ashes, we have the basswood, European larch, 
European white birch, American canoe birch, purple birch and the cut-leafed weeping birch. 
Trees of all these kinds, when properly grown as single specimens, are admirable. 

One prevailing er/or in regard to this matter is planting trees too closely together 
wherever they are planted. Not long ago I saw growing on a lawn in front of a house 
three beautiful trees of considerable size ; one each of the purple beech, cut-leaf mapl© 



61 



»n(l weeping birch. They were only twelve feet apart and beginning to crowd each other, 
oonsequently in about three more years the two outer ones will be lop sided and the middle 
one a spindling scrub. I have seen thousands of fine trees ruined in the same way. Indeed 
it is only in rare instances they are given sufficient room to display their natural beauty. 
I speak only of ornamental trees and will not encroach on forestry, at least, on this occasion. 

Another objectionable practice is that of clipping or trimming evergreen trees into 
various fanciful shapes. When trees are grown for ornament and given plenty of room 
they usually take a natural and graceful form, which is always more pleasing to those who 
have acquired a correct taste tlian any distortion that may be given by pruning. I have 
known some otherwise beautiful landscapes sadly marred by the stiff appearance of some 
barbered trees. 

Another common mistake is made in giving preference to all foreign species belonging 
to the same genera as some of our native trees. The European larch is of more graceful 
habit than our native tamarack, and the white birch, with its weeping varieties, is certainly 
uiore beautiful than any of our common birches ; but the European linden is not by any 
means preferable to our basswood as an ornamental tree, neither is the English elm for 
beauty or for shade to be compared with some of the varieties of our own white elm. 
Particularly is this noticeable on some of the streets in Toronto where the different species 
are growing on opposite sides of the street. The horse chestnut is a magnificent tree when 
grown to perfection, hut in my district it is too short-lived ; even if it lives for 30 or 40 
years it loses its beauty when branches begin to die. 

There is perhaps no tree more unsuitable for ornamentation than the silver poplar, 
{Chinese abele,) yet about many farm houses it is the only tree planted. When once 
planted it is there to stay, for it continuously sends up suckers enough to destroy every other 
kind of tree near by. The down it throws off, after fijwering, is an abomination. The 
Lombardy poplar is admired by some, but it deserves no place on ornamental grounds. 
Whoever will plant poplars let them plant the aspen ; it possesses some beauty, but it 
would be folly to plant it unless for the sake of variety. 

When asked which of all trees I prefer for the ornamentation of a lawn I invariably 
recommend the cut-leafed weeping birch. I have lost many fine specimens of it through 
the depredations of the sap-sucker, (yellow-bellied woodpecker) yet if I had but room for 
one ornamental tree I would plant this one. Next I would prefer the purple birch, Weiss' 
cut-leafed maple, European larch, red cedar, blue spruce and Norway spruce ; after that 
the European mountain ash, the Imperial cut-leafed alder, the basswood and the dogwood. 
On extensive grounds I would of course plant a large variety and would include the yellow 
locust. The only objection to it is its tendency to send up suckers. The sweet perfume 
from its flowers iu the month of June entitles it to a place on the pleasure grounds. 

The wild black cherry is seldom planted as an ornamental tree although it is remark- 
ably suitable for the purpose. It is beautiful in flower as well as in fruit. I have never 
seen it afiected by the black knot, but have found it to be one of the most enduring. 

The hickories, as a class, are of slow growth while young, but their foliage is exceed- 
ingly beautiful. In exposed positions they endure and thrive well, while many other 
kinds would be injured. The ash-leafed maple is quite as hardy but it requires a richer 
and raoister soil. For a large growing, wide spreading tree for shade the common birch is 
unsurpassed. The white ash, when grown as a single specimen with plenty of room, is a 
noble tree, well suited for an extensive landscape. 

Many others might be added, but I fear I haVe already occupied too much of your valu- 
able time. I have mentioned nearly all the most beautiful of our native species, at least a 
sufficient number to make any country home as cheerful and beautiful as the mo.^t refined 
taste could desire. I believe one of the chief reasons why so many farmer's homes look 
desolate is because the owners have become discouraged through the imposition of 
unscrupulous vendors who have urged the purchase and planting of trees utterly unsuit- 
able for locality and conditions. Nurseiymen who allow their agents to sell unsuitable 
trees are also blamable and they make a mistake, because success with suitable trees would 
•ertainly lead to increased demand. I have been selling trees for 35 years and by selling 



62 



some which I only supposed to be suitable have been frequently required to make retribu- 
tion or be branded as a rogue. It requires an ordinary lifetime for a man to learn by 
experience the suitability of trees which are not indigenous to this country ; hence the 
necessity of being guided by the experience of others. If buyers would take the trouble 
to inform themselves as to what trees are suitable for their locality and order direct from 
experienced and reliable nurserymen they would obviate disappointment and the provoca- 
tion of being swindled. 

Mr. Morris. — I agree with what has been read in the paper. Regarding the pruning 
of evergreens, I think they can be sometimes benefited by the use of the knife, not dis- 
torting or trimming them into fancy shapes, but shortening a limb here and there where 
it is required. Ironwood can be made into one of the prettiest of ornamental trees that 
grows, and it will grow so thick a bird can hardly go through it. 

The President. — One or two nurserymen in Rochester make a specialty of ironwood^ 
I think, and even advocate it as a hardy plant. 

The Secretary. — I think it would be well to hear from Mr. Gilchrist, of Toronto, 
who is somewhat interested in the varieties of trees adapted for planting in southern 
Ontario for small ornamental grounds. 

Mr. Gilchrist. — The question has been somewhat sprung upon me, as I did not 
know what was to be the programme until I saw it this morning. I think I can endorse 
all that Mr. Nichol has said as to pruning ; it is time we had learned to stop it. It may 
be all right for a man to go to a barber to get shaved, but I do not think the use of 
the knife improves the appearance of our ornamental trees. Almost everywhere in 
Toronto it is the same, the natural beauty of the tree is destroyed by pruning. I think 
we in this society should ailvocate the leaving of trees in their natural shape and beauty. 
What is the use of planting a great variety of trees and pruning them all into one shape T 
There are two kinds of beauty, the symmetrical and the irregular, and we find the trees 
having the second character, such as birch or elm, the most admired by refined people. I 
think the blue spruce is the best spruce. It has proved quite hardy at Guelph ; and 
when spruces are selected they have the most beautiful colors. Some are as green as the 
Norway spruce, while others are almost white. It will not stand the knife, which destroys 
its symmetrical form. There are four or five varieties of the cornus which are very beau- 
tiful, both in the fruit and the flower, and the foliage is always beautiful. I think all the 
cornuses might be utilised, and also the witch-hazel {Hamamelis), which has fine large 
leaves ; it is not a large shrub, but one of the finest we have. But I prefer the Americaa 
elm to any other tree except the cut-leaved birch. The latter is spoiled by being planted 
among other trees; it should be planted alone, where it has room to develop, and so that 
it can be seen from every aspect. The cut-leaved maple is also a very nice tree, but not 
superior to the cut-leaved birch. Some European trees have better forms than the 
American; for instance, the birch and some others that might be used to advantage, but 
I quite agree as to the lindens. Our American linden is another very fine tree, as is also 
the soft maple where it has room to develop. I think it is very much finer than the hard 
maple. The horse-chestnut has been planted too closely in Toronto. It is a tree which 
has seen its best days. In the northern part of the country it has never succeeded, and 
the money spent on it might better have been spent on native trees. It is very disap- 
pointing to pay out §1 per tree for chestnut trees and never have them grow twenty feet 
high. I know that thousands of dollars have been spent on that tree in the northern 
part of Ontario. Nurserymen should try to send out trees suitable for the localities they 
are going to, and should not employ ignorant agents. The time is coming when they will 
have to be enlightened on these points ; there is no use in planting peaches in Muskoka, 
and it is just the same with planting horse-chestnut trees. 

The Secretary. — Are there any other trees planted around Toronto that you think 
are worthless ? 

Mr. Gilchrist. — The catalpa does pretty well. It kills back when young, but when 
it gets older it is a straggling, irregular tree. There are one or two in Guelph about 



63 



twelve teet high, in sheltered positions. I do not think it is a tree that should be recom- 
mended for platitini^, however. The Association oiifjht to take up the matter, and make 
out lists of the ornamental trees adapted for different districts. There would l)e no diffi- 
culty at all in doing so, and it would save thousands of dollars to farmers. We have such 
a variety of climates that a very short distance makes a great difference in trees ; those 
which may do very well here do not do as well in Toronto or Guelph. 

Mr. Morris. — In regard to pruning, I think most shrubs, if left unpruned, become 
as unsightly as old currant bushes. Eirly blooming shru])s can be trimmed immediately 
after blooming, and the new growth will bloom the following season ; I think that is the 
way they should bo treated. Many, like althea, will grow into a good shrub without 
pruning, and of cour.se I do not think tliey should be cut. I think Mr. Gilchrist is mis- 
taken when he says that spruce cannot be pruned — 

Mr. Gilchrist. — I think they can be pruned but not improved. 

Mr. Morris. — I difler from you there, again. The proper time to prune Norway 
spruce is about the 2nd of June. That is for this section. It would be later for the 
north. Just before they finish making their growth and begin to form the buds, by clip- 
ping the sides the buds will form further back. We have a hedge of it that grows about 
six inches every year, and we prune it the same as any other hedge, and it gets thicker 
every year ; it is so thick that birds can hardly enter it. Of course I agree with Mr. 
Gilchrist as to ornamental trees, that they should be cut in only just a little. I would 
say that all evergreens require a good deal of manure. If they get plenty of food of that 
kind they will resist the winds on one side a great deal, and for trees that are already in 
that shape I do not know any other course than to trim off the other side and try to force 
the growth on that side also. Do the trimming about the latter end of June. 

Mr. Craig. — I might say that tlie blue spruce grows very well at Ottawa : the principal 
trouble is a fungus that appears on the leaves about the 10th of June, and which is very 
bad now. The leaves are beginning to drop, and it disKgures the tree. This fungus seems 
to be the principal difficulty, and for it I am now trying the copper solution. Of the cornuses 
I think one of the most ornamental is the cornus sericea. Another that has not been 
mentioned is the tamarisk amarensis, which in Ottawa, however, is not quite hardy. Of 
the viburnums, probal)ly the old English one is the best. Poplars I do not like, on 
account of the seeds and its sprouting habits. There is one of the American poplars that 
does not sprout, but I do not think it succeeds in this part of the country. Catalpa 
speciosa is not satisfactory at all; it will die the third or fourth year, and I do not think 
it is worth growing for an ornamental tree. Another tree which I think may /be addoil 
to the list of hardy ornamental trees is the European larch. Of course it is not an ever- 
green, but it puts on beautiful foliage in the spring. 



HUMBUGS IN HORTICULTURE. 

The President announced that Mr. T. H. Race, of Mitchell, Ont., would read a paper 
on Humbugs in Horticulture. 

Mr. Race. — I have no paper prepared on the subject. I have met many humbuo's 
in my time, and the list is a numerous one, l)ut at the head of it I place the nursery 
jobber humbug. By that name I wish to indicate the man who claims to be a nursery- 
man, but who yet has not a foot of ground in the world, nor a single tree to his name. 
It his been stated here, and often elsewhere, that farmers are a class of people who take 
a delight in being humbugged ; that they are better satisfied when they are being hum- 
bugged than when they are getting a fair deal. But even granting that to be so, the 
object of this Association is to extend and increase fruit-growing in this province, and 
I think for that reason it is our duty to protect the farmer from being humbugged, and 
to educate him up to a point where he will cease to feel any delight in the humbnggin7 
process. Uur first object, as I have just said, is to extend the growth of fruit and its cul- 
tivation throughout the province ; to awaken an interest among farmers as a class in this 



64 



industry. My experience is that it is not very easy to awaken such an interest in their 
minds. At present the farmer looks upon his orchard as the most unprofitable part of 
his farm ; sometimes, indeed, he looks upon it with a certain amount of disgust. He has 
paid for what he supposed was a certain kind of trees, but after a number of years has 
discovered that he did not get what he paid for at all, and that his orchard is filled up 
with a large number of Talman sweets or some even cheaper variety, and, there being no 
sale for those varieties, his orchard is neglected. I am not a protectionist, but I teel so 
keenly in this matter that if I were asked to construct a tariff for this province I would 
have to introduce that principle of protection first of all on fruit trees, on which I would 
place so high a duty that it would strike the nursery jobber, one that would be prohibi- 
tory on his goods. I find that nearly all these so-called nursery jobbers who have been hum- 
bugging the farmers, get their supplies from the other side. I have no fault to find with 
American grown trees, but the nursery jobber will buy his trees where he can get them 
cheapest, and the nurseryman to whom he goes to purchase them, knowing that he is 
responsible to the jobber only, and not to the jobber's customers, and that he has to put 
these trees in at a very low rate, is not likely to give him his best. As a result the nur- 
sery jobber fills the orchards of our farmers with the very cheapest trees that are to be 
had ; it is as a rule the leavings of the nurseryman's other customers that find their way 
into the hands of the nursery jobber. Therefore the farmer who buys from the 
nursery jobber runs the risk of getting just whatever the nurseryman has at his 
disposal at the time the jobber sends his order, and owing in a great degree to 
this the experience of the farmer is that seven out of every ten trees are a fail- 
ure. 1 think that proportion will hold good throughout Canada, for it is based on 
inquiries I made last fall. When I was talking in this strain before the farmers 
in many places, I was fallen foul of by these very agents, and I have had some 
pretty sharp passages at arms with them. Farmers; would ask me what nursery- 
man I would recommend. !N'ow that is not a very pleasant question to deal with, but I 
always tell them I am not advertising any nurseryman, and mention the names of one or 
two of our prominent nurseries. Then they want to know how to deal with them to be 
sure of getting the right varieties, and at reasonable prices. In reply to that I recom- 
mend them through their farmers' institutes to make up lists of what they want in fruit 
trees, and then send their secretary, or some other live man in whom they have confi- 
dence, to deal directly with the nurseryman. By this plan I tell them they can get 25 
per cent, ofi" the regular list prices, which will pay the expense of sending a man to deal 
direct Another question I am asked is, how they are to know these men who represent 
themselves as nurserymen and not jobbers, and how they can protect themselves. In 
answer I say that when a farmer wants to build a house, barn or stable, he does not wait 
until some carpenter comes along and persuades him he needs such a building and 
takes his order for the material, but he makes up his mind during the winter and begins 
to make inquiries where he can buy the material best and cheapest, and by whom he can 
get the work done most economically. If he will treat the matter of an orchard in the 
same way, and proceed to inquire carefully where he can best get the requisite trees, we 
will hear le.ss complaints of the kind that are so prevalent among those who wait to be 
taken in by the first man who calls on them with a plausible tongue. I find it necessary 
to take this lino in going out among farmers to talk to them of fruit-growing, for they 
have been so persistently humbugged that — although people will tell you they like being 
humbugged — you cannot arouse in them any interest in fruit-growing unless you point 
out some more satisfactory mode of dealing than the one the evils of which they have 
experienced in the past. But the nursery jobber is only one of the humbugs with whom 
we have to deal, for we frequently find humbugs in connection with reliable nurserymen 
among our own countrymen. Some of the regular nurseryman will send out as a sort of 
inducement a "catchpenny," as the saying is, and many of these have had the eSect of 
souring farmers against the fruit industry. Not many years ago quite a number of Russian 
mulberries were brought into the county of Perth. I felt that the importation was a humbug 
when it first came in. Many persons inquired my views in regard to it, and I would tell 
them I did not know much about it, but would not recommend them to buy It proved 
a regular humbug. The next was the Russian apricot, Trhich in the northern sectious Of 



65 



this province is no doubt a humbug. Now, all these things have the cflVct of putting a 
damper on whutever interest may be felt in fruit culture, and do inestinialjh^ diimage to 
the fruit-growing industry. I do not know how we are going to combat that kind of 
thing unless we can educate tlie farmers up to refusing things until they have been tho- 
roughly tisled by the E.\perimental Fiirms, where 1 think all these things fchould be tested 
before they are recommended for adoption. This Association has made a move in the 
way of int-Tcasing the interest in fruit culture by sending out represcntative.s to the 
farmers' institutes. It is no use sending these men out to induce farnjcrs to live and die 
in the very happy recollection of being humbugged. We want to attain some belter 
results than that. There is another humbug which I will speak of now, which I did not 
mention before ; that is the man who goes out and sells trees on the " homegrown tree" 
argument. There are lots of little nurserymen throughout the i)roviuce who go out into 
the country among the larmcrs and persuade them to buy the home-grown tree. The.=o 
men may have an acre or two, but they will turn over a book and show the farmer many 
thousand trees they have sold as being home-i^rown trees. Now if a man has only an 
acre of land and is selling thousands of trees he does not grow theoi on that ground, and 
he is just as bad as the nursery jobbi r. 

Mr. Cavf.rs. — I represent the Gait nurseries. We send out many agents and we dis- 
tinctly tell them we do not grow all the st:ck that we sell. Of coarse when our men are out 
canvassing we do not know what they tell customers. The more tender varieties of stock 
we could not grow as well as they could be grown elsewhere. We know th it as the result 
of our experience, and we tell our agents to tell our customers that we can supply them 
with better stock of the tender varieties by not attempting to grow them ourselves. We 
do not know exactly what our men tell our customers but we distinctly inform them that 
all the stock they get is not necessarily grown in our own nurseries. We lind that by 
growing only those varieties we can guarantee, we are able to give better satisfaction than 
if all were Jiome grown. In the Gait district we cannot grow all that is called for. Now, 
what are we to do ? Are we to be called jobbers and ruled out of the business because 
we do not have all home grown 1 And suppose a nurseryman is growing all this stock 
himself, is that a guarantee that the stock supplied a customer is what he says it is ? The 
customer has to depend upon the reliability of the men he is dealing with in every case. 
We make it a rule to send nothing out of our nursery that is not exactly what it is 
labelled. Sometimes we substitute, but when we do we put on just what it is so that the 
customer may refuse it if he likes. If ever a tree goes out with a wrong label it is a mis- 
take. Something has been said hereabout nurserymen sending out tree? that are not 
suited to the sections of country they are ordered for. Nurserymen have to send out 
what is ordered, and in some cases where, knowing that what is ordered is not adapted to 
the climate, something else has bt en substituted because it was more suit ible, the cry is at 
once raised that there was some dishonest ulterior motive in the substitution. Now, what 
are we to do for that? In discussing this question of humbugs it would not be amiss, per- 
haps, to lake a lock at it from the nurseryman's joint of view. We always endeavor to 
do things perfectly upon the square, but you see the dilficulties we have to contend with. 

Mr. Denton. — My own impression is that the further south you go the more delicacy 
you will lind in a tree for certain pai ts of Canada, and my disposition would be to encour- 
age more of our home selection, deferring to this question of humbugs which is under 
discussion it is very sad to go through my district, especially Lobo, and see so many 
orchards which men have planted and brought into bearing, and then found it was the 
commonest fruit grown, instead of being choice varieties such as these men paid for and 
expected to get from their trees. It is very hard in the face of that to induce men to 
enter more largely into fruit culture, but I think if they will take the list published in the 
"Horticulturist" it will overcome the difficulty presented. We all know that men who 
have stuff to sell will sell it if they can. I believe the gentleman who has spoken is per- 
fectly honest, but are his men going to be so strictly bound down when their living depends 
on the exteut of their sales? I think not. The farmers generally are ignorant of what 
is best for them to plant, and I think it is the duty of this Association, as has been 
said by my friend Mr. Race, to go forth and educate them, and in ten years from this 
time there will be a great change. 

5 (F.Q.) 



66 



Mr. A. H. Pettit. — 1 look upon this discussion as a mere waste of time. If we 
wait until the humbugs are all done away with we shall wait until the raillenium. 

The Secretary. — I think it is a mistake to make any personal references whatever 
in a farmer's institute ; I do not think we ought to disparage any local nurseryman by 
name in any of our meetings, nor do I think we should advertise any of our reliable 
nurserymen by name although we have every confidence in them. We should recommend 
those varieties that are desirable for planting and be unsparing in our condemnation of 
those which are worthless ; but I do not think we ought to make any personal references 
one way or the other by name of either Canadian or American nurserymen. In regard to 
the Russian apricot, which has been spoken of, I believe it was sent out by nurserymen 
both in the States and Canada with perfect confidence, because it had not been tested. It 
has been found that a large number of these Russian apricots, introduced by the Mennonites 
from Russia, were seedlings grown from the fruit of trees that fruited in the southern 
part of Russia, down near the Black Sea, and I am told by a correspondent in Russia that 
that section of the country will grow tender fruit such as we cannot pretend to grow here : 
fruit such as is grown in California. Russia is a word which covers a very wide territory 
and the southern portion of it is a very mild climate. 1 believe, however, that there are 
some varieties of Russian apricots which have been tested at the Iowa Agricultural 
College that have been found hardy, and I am told by Russian friends that there is a 
variety of apricot, known there as Ansjustin's, which is more hardy than any of the varieties 
we have tried. 

jMr. McMiCHAEi.. — The gentleman from Gait has said that they sometimes, under 
some circumstances, take the liberty of substituting. I remember a number of years ago 
giving an order for a considerable number of pear trees, and in filling it the nurseryman, 
substituted some varieties and said he had not what was ordered in stock. All the sub- 
stitutes with us were found to be totally worthless when they came into bearing. 

Mr. Morton. — One humbug in connection with this matter and connected with the 
Canadian nurseryman is the humbug of the agents nurserymen employ. The nurseryman, 
according to what was stated by the secretary a minute ago, is no better than the farmer, 
because, if the apricot was introduced in the way he says, it proves to me that no person of 
any common sense would send ont a thing in perfect confidence because it had not been 
tested ; I cannot see that it at all follows. 

The Secretary. — He might not have known that it was a fraud. 

Mr. Morton. — I think a person who introduces a thing, recommending it as likely 
to prove beneficial when he does not know anything at all about it is the next thing to the 
man who wiil recommend that which he knows positively to be worthless. A person has 
no right to recommend a thing of which he does not know anything. However I do not 
wonder at their adopting that coui'se when I find that in appointing agents they follow a 
similar plan. Their agents have not been tested, and consequently, as in the case of the 
apricot, they have every confidence in them. Of course it is well known that some firms 
have had experiences the reverse of pleasant with their agents. In my own section sev- 
eral instances have come under my notice of orders having been duplicated by agents or 
raised on the face of them. I must say in justice to the nurserymen that in no case have 
they refuse d to do what was right in the matter, according to my ojnnion. In a great 
many instances the agent does not know anything about the business. I have had exper- 
ience with several. One man, who came to me to sell me grapes — I pretended not to 
know anything about them — recommended the Niagara as of better quality and earlier 
than the Champion. I asked him what quality the Champion was and he said he was not 
quite sure of the color but he knew it was a sour grape. Now I think it is folly to send 
out an agent like that. It is to the advantage of the firms themselves to see that the men 
who represent them understand their business and are straight and honest, because on 
their shoulders must fall any slip made by the agent. 

Mr. Wellington. — It is not often I take part in a discussion that lays me open to 
the charge of talking " shop," and I am very sorry the present discussion has assumed the 
form it seems to have assumed. I fully appreciate the remarks made by Mr. Morton, but 



67 



perhaps if that gentleman had twenty years experience in the handlinsf and management 
of agents he would be better qualified to offer advice calculated to ena'de nie to overcome 
the difficulties encountered in running agents. There is much to be said against agents 
and nurserymen and there is also much to be said against cunning fruit growers and farm- 
ers, and when we touch upon humbugs we touch upon a very wide subject ; one which 
might occupy a great deal more time than we have at our presimt disposal. In tin- dis- 
cussion of humbui^s I might tell you of many little frauds which we hear of as being com- 
mitted by farmers in bringing their good.s to market. All these things are very disagree- 
able when raked up before a class of people who live in glass houses aiul who therefore 
should not throw stones. The fruit tree agent has been of service, even with all his 
humbugging, because the experience people have had with him has made them more care- 
ful. The matter rests entirely with the people themselves. As nurserymen we have 
many dithculties to contend with and we try to meet them squarely and to deal with them 
in the most effective way suggested by our experience, and there is more honesty in the 
business than we are generally given credit for. Regarding the Russian apricot, we gave 
it a very fail test as to hardiness ; as to the quality of the fruit we were aware we could not 
depend on its being uniform, but as an ornamental tree sent out singly it was no humbug. 
These things have to be experimented on and tested by the fruit grower as well as the 
nurseryman. They were introduced in the first place from Russia and they were tested 
by a firm who bore a very good character in Nebraska to begin with, and I do not think 
they will prove a humbug altogether. The same firm introduced the Russian olive, in 
regard to which we have been very conservative — we would not put them out at all. 
Prof. Saunders tells me, however, that they are a perfect success, and he thinks they are 
perfectly hardy at Ottawa. It is a novelty as a fruit that will never amount to anything, 
but as an ornamental shrub it will be a success. Still it will be denounced by some as a 
fraud and a humbug. We should look at these things and consider before making sweep- 
ing accusations sgainst any class of persons. 

Mr. Race. — I am in thorough accord with the secretary in his remarks. I do not 
think it is a good principle to mention names either in a favorable or reverse manner and 
I have always, where 1 could avoid doing so, refrained from it ; but it is not a very easy 
thing to do when you start out to talk to farmers about fruit growing, they will crowd you 
until you almost have to do it to satisfy them. At Meaford I took the platform at seven 
o'clock and the farmers, who are very keenly interested in fruit growing, kept me until 
ten o'clock plying me with questions. There were quite a number of agents present, but 
the farmers cornered me up so that I was forced to mention some of these names. As 
long as we have in our own country reliable nurserymen aV>le to supply the demand I think 
we should recommend them, and advise our institutes to send men to buy from them what 
they want, direct from the nursery. 



COMMITTEES, REPORTS AND QUESTION DRAWER. 

After considerable criticism and several changes in values of the apples, the fruit list 
for Ontario was finally adopted by the Association. The list, as finally adopted, appears 
at the end of this Report, for convenience of reference. 

FRUIT COMMITTEE. 

The Secret.\ry. — I think the present is a very suitable time for me to suggest the 
appointment of one or two committees. In the first place we have a little fruit on the 
table, and we must ask the President to appoint a committee to inspect it carefully and 
report on it. I had a couple of baskets of strawberries sent me three or four days or a 
week ago, with a request that I should bring them before the Fruit Committee of our 
association. Unfortunately they were in no condition to present when 1 came away from 
home. They weie of a new strawberry which originated near Brantford, called Prince of 
Orange, or Williams' improved, so called from the originator, Mr. Williams. They were 
sent me by David (Jreig of Oainsville. The berries are certainly extra large and tine, and 



68 



he telle me that they have created quite a sensation in that section, and are quite the 
raoe anion" the strawberry growers, who are all trying to get them. He believes it is 
the coming strawberry for that section of the country, if not for the province. I am very 
sorry I was not able to bring the samples wilh me. 

The President. — I shall appoint Mr. Nichol, Mr. Pafford and Mr. Dempsey as a 
committee on the Iruit exhibited here. 



OBITUARIES. 



The Secretary. — I have now, Mr. President, to make an announcement that I am 
sure you will all be very soiry to hear. I have here a comnninication containing an 
announcement of the death of Mr. John Croil of Aultsville, which was sent to me about 
a week a-^o. ISIr. Croil, who was sixty-tive years of age, died at his residence on the 2Sth 
of June. This loss is in connection with our own society, and we have also to deplore 
the loss f^ustained by the Montreal Society in the death of their Vice-President, Mr. 
Charhs Gibb, to whom we are all so largely indebted, and whom we so often welcomed 
in our own meetings. I think it is desiiable that a committee should be appointed to 
draft resolutions of condolence aiid sympathy in regard to the loss of these esteemed 
deceased friends. 

The President. — I appoint Messrs. Race, Beall and Craig. 

Mr. Beall asking to be excused, Mr. A. McD. Allan was appointed on the committee 
with the other gentlemen named. 

MARKETING FRUITS: 

The President. — One of the questions set down for discussion by the Association at 
the present meeting is, '' What i3 the best method of selling small fruits in our city local 
markets t " We will hear what our Secretary has to say on that point. 

The Secretary. — There is a great prejudice against the sale of fruit by auction, and 
perhaps there may be some reason in it. It has been tried to a certain extent in the city of 
Toronto, not perhaps with the most eucouagiog results, but I am of the opinion that if it 
was undertaken by reliable persons, and carried on in a systematic, business-like manner, it 
would be to our advantage to have fruit sold there in that way. Thsre would certainly 
be no opportunity for growers to be cheated as to the proper sales made, because it would 
all be done in a public way. Fruit is a commodity which must be sold at once, whether 
by auction or by private sale, and if the j)ublic once became aware that auction sales of 
fruit were beinf^ held regularly I think the highest prices would be realised in that way ; 
certainly the fruit should bring us a fair value if sold in that way. Some days, no doubt, 
there might be a loss, but on the average I believe an open sale, regularly conducted, 
would result to our advanta:;e. The question was suggested by Mr. Allan, i think, who 
desires to get the opinions of the growers in this part of the province, and that is my 
opinion us one of them. 

Mr. McD. Allan. — I did not expect to speak to this question, which I suggested 
merely for the purpose of eliciting information and the opinions of the growers themselves, 
based on their expeiience in selling both by auction and in the ordinary manner. If the 
svstem of sellin'^ fruit by auction is adopted the auctioneer, in the first place, should be a 
p'erson well versed in fruit, and having a thorough knowledge of its value. He stands 
between the buyer and the seller, and he should be a man who will not either knowingly 
or unknowingly do an injustice on one side or the other. He should know the value of 
each «'rade offruit before him, and what it ought to realise. At the same time he should 
protect the purchasers, that is, he must not misrepresent anything, but give them the fruit 
required for their particular custom or tiade. It seems to me that if he understands his 
business thoroughly, and is willing and able to conduct the sales properly, the plan must 
be a success, and I am of opinion that upon the whole the auction system would be the 
most advantageous lor all inUiested. 



69 



The President. — Is it not tho system Tuost prevalent in the markets of thp old 
country ? 

Mr. Allan. — Yes, almost entirely. Everything of that sort ia sold by commission 
houses at auction. 1 think in Toronto the auction system would h^ most advantageous 
both for the buyer and the seller. 

Mr. Wellington. — I think the auction system, properly conducted, is the right way 
of di." posing of fruit. It would be well for fruit-growers to understand that Mr. James 
Lumbers was the gentleman who inaugurated the auction system, which ho worked up 
for a younger brotlicr, and so long as the business remained in his hands everyone who 
had any dealings with him got full and correct returns. lie infoi ms mo that some of the 
fruit growers were themselves to blame for the uUiraat© failure of the system, ina.Huiuch 
as they made contracts with storekeepers in Toronto for tiieir crop up to a certain dxte, 
and sent the best of their fruit direct to the store.s and the poorer fruit to auction. This 
fact, coupled with the opposition ofl'ered by the storekeepers, who were making money 
faster under the old ."system and did not wi.sh for the change, was in the main the cause 
of the failure of the auction .system. Another cause wa.s the want of proper quarters, 
and of proper facilities for handling fruit direct from the lailway stations and steamVjoat 
wiiarves. These drawbacks combined were, I think, the cause of the failure of the auction, 
system. In the hands of a good man I think it would eventually succeed, bub in the lii-st 
instance opposition would be encountered from the storekeepers in Toronto, who would 
do all they could to discredit the auction system in the eyes of the public. If the fruit- 
growers were to establish and support an auction system I believe they would in the end 
obtain better results in selling their fruits. The store ke<^per is the one who gets the 
profit on the fruit; the gi'owers have suif<ired very severely. Many times [ have seen 
strawberries sold at some of our large establishments, where they have a good cl;i.«is of 
custom, at twenty cents when I knew that the average returns to the grower were not 
more than five or six cents ; the shopkeeper gets fancy prices for the good fruit, and 
very fair prices for the rest. Now, to make the auction system a success, there must be 
a combination among the growers and they must support the auctioneer. The first step 
is to get a good responsible firm or individual to handle the fruit at that auction and then 
give him hearty support and keep the fruit away from the shopkeepers ; that is, do not 
sell to them direct and then they will have to buy it at the auction and pay its value for it. 

The Secretary. — I have noticed in shipping that a great many of these commission 
houses to whom we ship not only sell on commission but speculate on their o\^n account, 
and of course uhen there is a glut in the market it is not until they have disposed of their 
o vn that they oHer our fruits, and as a natural consequence we get the worst of it. I 
have had some very sorry experience of that kind with perishable fruit and got almost 
nothing at all for it, though .shipped in good, sound condition. It was not until after what the 
fruit deahrs liad in stock was sold, at good prices, that it was offered. In one instance I 
know that they had bought on contract a large number of Dartlett pears when the mar- 
ket was high. The market rapidly went down and pears I had sent were not sold until 
the prices were down to the very lowest notch. Tiiat is what makes me feel a little dis- 
salislied with the present method. If we had an assurance that a house would act solely 
in our interests we would have juore confidence in getting fair treatment, but as things 
arc now we do not feel that we are being fairly dealt with. 

]\Ir. Wellington. — That is the basi.s of my statement. Some pears are sold direct 
and others shipped on consignment, and the latti;r h ive to take tlu^ir chances while the 
others are placed on the market when prices are high. Of course the commission men 
will take care to protect themselves first, 

Mr. Pettit — We have now what Mr. Woolverton was speaking of — agents in every 
city. I think we have six agencies in the large.st towns and cities in the Dominion. 

^Ir. BucKE. — What is the objection to that system. [ should think they would get 
the best returns from their own agent.s. 

Mr. ^Morton. — I suppose public competition has an etTect on the purchaser. Men 
will often pay a great deal more for an article at auction than they would by private con- 
tract. That is my experience of auction sales in other line-s. 



70 



PACKAGES. 
The President. — The next question is " Should Raspberries be sold in pint baskets?" 

The Secretary. — I have had no experience in pint baskets for raspberries, but I have 
noticed that in the New York market raspberries are sold in pints and as small measures 
as thirds or half pints. That seems a good deal of wood for a very small amount of fruit, 
but I think that in a quart box too many raspberries are put together ; they pack very 
close and you get more than a quart of raspberries in a quart measure it seems to me. If 
the basket were not quite so deep it would be an advantage, and for that reason I think 
the pine would be better. 

Mr. Oraig. — The pint basket is growing in favor in Chicago and other western 
markets. 

Mr. Morton. — I am in favor of a shallow basket as ripe raspberries break down 
more easily than strawberries, and even in the latter with some varieties we are bothered in 
the same way. 

Mr. Race — The fact that one has no guarantee of fruit reaching its destination in 
good condition has a bad effect upon the demand. It is impossible in any of our smaller 
towns to get a basket of peaches delivered, i had some experience in that way last year 
when getting peaches from the secretary. Could there not be some light cover devised 
that would protect us from pilfering ? 

The Secretary. — I do not think that applies so much to crates in which we ship 
small fruits as to peaches, which we cover with leno. 

Mr. Race. — I know we would get many more plums and peaches if we knew we 
could get such packages as I suggest. As it is we know there is a very great risk, as the 
express companies tell us it is difficult to deliver a consignment in good shape to a 
private individual, because it is supposed that the latter is not so likely to complain as a 
large dealer. As soon as I let them know I was a director of this Association they 
stopped the pilfering at once. 

Mr. BuCKE. — The best way would be to ship by weight and if there is any differ- 
ence when they are delivered let the express company bear the damage. 

A Member. — I sent some peaches from Winona to a friend in Hamilton last fall and 
the next morning when he got them there were two of the worst looking baskets of trash 
you ever saw. 

Mr. Race. — There would be a large increase in the demand for fruit from my locality 
if there was any assurance that fruit shipped to us by express would be delivered in any- 
thing like proper condition. 

A Member. — If the baskets were fixed in the way you suggest would the consumers 
pay extra for the fruit — the extra cost 1 

Mr, Race. — The additional expense would be very small ; you would only have to 
add a little more to the price of the fruit, and I know the people up north would be will- 
ing to pay a little more if there was any assurance of ^le fruit reaching them in good 
condition. 

The Secretary. — A wooden cover could be had for about a cent a basket, which 
could be wired down, in addition to the leno covering. 

Mr. Cline, — I have had fruit stolen even from baskets with wooden covers wired on, 

Mr. Wellington. — There is no doubt this is a matter which should be taken up and 
some measures adopted to remedy it. I am in the habit of having sent to me in Toronto 
from n:y own place some choice specimens and I do not think that in any case has the 
package ever reached me in the condition in which it was dispatched. Some of the best 
clusters of grapes would be taken out of a basket and the same applies to peaches. A 
man who wants two baskets must have three sent him to make sure he will get the 
<juantity he desires. 



71 



The Secretary. — I was at Caledonia station the other day and saw a lot of straw- 
berries that were being shipped in from Buffalo, which wore there an hour waiting to be 
transferred, and the boys and everyone else were helping themselves through the openings. 
Now, what are we going to do about it ? 

Mr. Wellington. — We ought to take some concerted action. 

Mr. Race. — 1 wrote a letter to the express agent telling him 1 intended to bring the 
matter up at the next meeting of this Association with a view to having a deputation 
sent to the i^ovfrnment to see if some legislation could not be enacted whereby we could 
recover damages for this kind of thing. I said that at the present time there was no law 
that 1 could put in operation without going to too much trouble and expense. That 
letter was sent to the head ottice and 1 saw the letter sent to the agent in reply to it. It 
was, to g'> and see this man and settle his claim at once and have the agitation checked. 
So it is evident they do not care about having any agitation of that kind. I think their 
fear of such a thing is the very best proof that we should make a move in that direction. 

A Member. — I think the difficulty in making private consignments might be got over 
by having some kind of package in place of the open baskets. Of course that would not 
do for the open market, where dealers like to have them covered with material that gives 
a good appearance, but I think peaches shipped to private individuals might be sent in 
crates, which could be had at a tritling expense. 

Mr. Allan. — That would only be an inducement to the Express companies to throw 
them about. We had a thorough illustration of that at the time of the Colonial Exhibit- 
ion, when our stuff was sent over in boxes. 

Mr. Kage. — I propose that a deputation be appointed from this Association to wait 
upon whatever government has power in the matter and to see what can be done. 

The Secretary. — I think we might get something done. I move that a committee 
be appointed to interview the government in regard to the matter and see if some legisla- 
tion hearing upon the question cannot be devised. I suggest Messrs. Race, Allen and 
Oline as members of the committee. 

^Ir. Morton. — I apprehend very great difficulties in any scheme such as is asked for. 
There are only two remedies against the company, a civil one or a criminal one. I very 
much doubt our getting legislation pointin.^ to a cri'ninil liability, and as for a civil 
liability it might be said that we have already the same remedy as any other i,ndividual. 
The difficulty at the present time is to prove that the fruit was stolen. The Company, in 
a case of this kind, would stand on strict legal ground and everything would have to be 
proved — that the fruit was in perfect condition when shipped, that the damage took place 
on the way, etc. I have grave doubts as to whether the government would interfere in 
the matter, but of course it will do no harm to point out the evil. 

Mr. Cline. — I knew a shipper who took a receipt for every package and he did not 
have any trouble ; there were no missing baskets, or, if there were, they were paid for ; 
but it is a good deal of trouble if you are not at the station early enough for the agent to 
look at it and see that the packages are all right. 

Mr. Morton. — If that is the case then the shippers are more to blame than the ex- 
press company. By neglecting to get that receipt he is simply putting a premium on 
dishonesty. I think the shipper should avail himself of every existing means of avoiding 
the effects of dishonesty, and when he has done that and still suff^^rs it will be soon 
enough for him to complain. 

Mr. Wellington. — That is all very well as to the packages, but it does not apply 
to the abstraction of a few of the best bunches of grapes from a basket. I do not know 
what the present legislation is, but I think something might be framed to make the 
punishment of this pilfering a little more easy than it is. I think the case is a proper 
one to be investigated by a committee. 

The Association then adjourned to meet again in the evening. 



72 



THE CURCULTO. 

The President. — Mr. Billups will now read to us his paper on the Curculio, 

Mr. Billups. — I have not had at my disposal sufficient time in which to prepare 
such a paper ns I would have desired to read before this Association, but I will endeavor 
in a few words to jjive a brief outline of the ciircnlio family. 1 may say, in the first 
place, that the curculio is distinguished from other coleoptera by having the head prolonged 
in all cases into a snout of greater or le.s3 extent ; in some cases that snout extends three 
or four times the length of the whole insect, while in others it is scarcely noticeable. 
The curculio in fact is a very hard family to define ; it is hard to say where the true 
curculio begins and ends. I have upon the table here a fair representation of all the 
ditFerent genera of the curculio known throughout the globe. I think it would perhaps 
be well to give a brief outline of the life history of the insect, and in doing so I do not 
think I shall be far wrong in taking the familiar plum curculio as an example, it being I 
believe a fairly typical species of the great family Curculionidaj. So infinitely small are 
many members of this family that it is difficult to give to one unaccustomed to them any 
idea of the differences which exist in the diffdrent genera, but to the eye of one accustom- 
ed to handling such small insects the difFiience is vast. In the diagram before you you 
see in No. 1 the larva of the curculio. No. 2 shows the next stage, the chrysalis, and 
No. 3 the perfect insect. I have in a bottle heie the egg of the plum curculio. This 
curculio bites and destroys a great variety of fruit; the cherry, the plum, the jjeach, and 
1 believe in some instances the grape. It lays its eggs early in the spring upon the plum. 
The female commences by working a small puncture in the skin of the plum, as repre- 
sented in No. 4, and deposits the egg, and makes a semi circular Vjite arouud the spot on 
which the egg has been laid. This causes tho skin of the plum to wither and dry up, 
and afTords food for the young gi ub. AVhen first hatched I have generally noticed that 
this grub, after spending a short time in the exact locality of its hatching place, moves in 
a circuitous manner around the skin of the plum, and finally ends up very near the stem. 
This causes the plum to weaken and rot around the stem, and either by its own weight 
or by the first windstorm it is caused to fall to the ground. The larva, which during the 
time the plum rotted had a sufficient period in which to gather strength, after a certain 
lapse of time disappears into the ground- and changes to the chrysalis state, No. 2. I am 
Boiry to say I have no specimens of the chrybalip, but I have a number of specimens of 
the larval in difl-rent stages of advancement. Now, as regards the methods of destroy- 
ing the curculio, which I suppose is the most important thing to this meeting, as far as 
my experience goes tlio only true way to get rid of them i^ to gather up the fallen plums. 
I think it is almost impossible to do anything by Avaging war against the perfect insect, 
as the perfect insect eats very little. Nearly all the feedin:^ in insects of every order, I 
may Fay, takes place when it is in the larval state. The object of the full grown insect 
is chiefly to find a resting |)lace for its egg, and that done its usefulness is over, and it 
dies. T think the plum curculio lays from thirty to as high as fifty eggs. Of course 
that means if there are twenty or thirty curculios on one tree that not much of the fruit 
is going to e.scapo. The curculios are all vegetable feeders, some of them live upon the 
seeds of plants, some upon the stems, and a great many upon the fruit. It is generally 
supposed there are only a few injurious curculios, which I suppose is owing to the want 
of taking sufficient interest in the masses of vegetation by which we are surrounded, but 
there are very few plants in this or any other country but what have their own special 
curculio. I think there is no just idea formed of tho va.st number of curculios that exist 
upon the earth. The best Citt-tlogue we have, tho Munich catalogue, which is live years 
old, enumerates 10,000 distinct species, but 1 think that in the past two or three years 
there have ben some hunilred or m )re s[) icimens discovered new to America. I think 
Prof. Brodie, of 'J'oronto — I am not certain in niakinji this statement — told mehe had tifceen 
or twenty undetermined Hpccies that lie had found in O.inada. If that is correct, and 
every entomologist has done as much as he has, though he has not made a specialty of 
curculionida; — if they have all taken five or six undtscribed specimens, there must have 
been an immense pwclling of that Munich catalogue. I have here one of the larger cur- 
culio, which attacks the sugar cane. It is one of about the largest size that exists. From 



73 



the facts I have given it will easily be seen that it is a family of very small and insignifi- 
cant bpetles that we have hoen do.iling with, hut althou;;;)! small, the amount of damage it 
does is larger than that done by any other family of Leet'es. Now, in the case of the 
larger wood boring booties they do not do damage, but good, and if it were not for them 
in a short time we should have no forests. That seems rather a wild statement lo make, 
but looked at carefully it is a very true one. In tlie immeii.^ie forests of Brazil, Mexico 
and southern countries, numbers of trees have been blowii down l)y storms, and if there 
were nothing to assist the process of decny there would be such a tangled mass of fallen 
trees that nothing else could grow on the space covered by thom. I>ut the wood-boring 
beetle steps in and deposits its oggs on the bark of the tree, and in a very short time the 
whole ma.ss of timber is perfoi ated thoroughly by these immense bottles, places for moisture 
are formed, and in a very short space of time the tree decays and is reduced to dust, wl)!cH, 
mingling with the earth, induces new vegetable life. I do not think, however — certainly 
I have never observed it — that any of the curculionidaj do the least good. I do not 
know that there is one gootl point about the family curculionidte at all ; the only beetle 
I know of that has been made of any use to mankind is one of the larger curculio, the 
grubs of which are eaten by the natives of some countries, and deemed very dolicious. 
Generally then they are injutious, and being such a small beetle it escapes the eyes of 
many in.sectivorous birds, and at any rate it is a very hard, unpalatable thing. I think 
they are the hardest shelled beetles in existence, taking a small, hard steel needle to 
pierce them. There is one thing in connection with this subject that needs alteration ; 
there has been little or no individual research either in this country or in England. We 
find in the reports of the entomological societies of Canada and other countries that the 
same facts are being brought before us dozens of times, and these facts are the result of 
the researches of men who lived a number of years ago, and, after all, many of the papers 
written by able men are but recapitulations of the work done by others. Now, this is 
not the case in other branches of entomology, and I think it a pity it should be allowed 
to be so with Curculionidaj. To give one instance of the small amount of interest and 
study that has been devoted to curculionidte in Canada, I may state this: During my 
stay in England 1 visited some twenty of its best museums. In the South Kensington 
bl-anch of the British museum, which contains the best entomological collection in the 
world, our Curculionidse were represented fairly. In the Oxford museum, the second 
finest in the world, there were barely one hundred specimens of our Canadian Curculionida'.. 
In other countries the Curculionida^ were belter represented in their larger and 
more showy insects, but there were only about one hundred specimens out of our five 
hundr<d species. It is my wish, if I can secuie help from any entomologist in Canada, 
to senil over this fall a fairly representative collection of our Ciiroulionida;, and I only 
hope I shall be able to get that help. I cannot do very much myself, being unable to 
move from one locality to another, and I hope I shall have help from everyone who is 
able to give it, and if such persons will only try to assist me in getting specimens I shall 
be doubly obliged, i think it is only right that the Dominion should be better repre- 
sented than it is at present in England. 

Mr. MoRDEN. — Does the ordinary ])luai curculio attack cherries and pear?, or is it a 
diJferent variety. 

Mr. BiLLUP.s. — The ordinary plum curculio this ye:.r destroyed nearly ninety per 
cent, of the crop of a cherry tree. The tree was unsprayed and not protected iu any 
way, being one 1 left in that way as an experiment. Ttiis tree was situated some two 
hundred yards from any plum tree. 

Mr. IMonoEX. — What about pears 1 

Mr. BiLn;ps. — I have specimens in a bottle here ; I think there were about thirty 
pears on the tree, and none had less than one, and some three or f jur bites of the jdum 
curculio. 

The Secretary. — It also affects the apple ? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — Yes, that is a pretty well known fa«t, but I have not made any ex- 
periments. 



74 



The President. — And the. peach ? 

Mr. BiLLurs. — Yes, it attacks the peach. I do not think it will ever become suffi- 
ciently dangerous to the peach to excite much alarm. 

A Member. — Too much wool 1 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — Yes, too much wool. If a curculio finds any dirt or dust on a plum 
it is working on it will generally leave it for a clean one. 

The Secretary. — You think the application of some other dust than Paris green 
would work almost as well ? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I may be making a rash statement, but I believe if trees were dusted 
with powdered ashes it would be just as efficacious as Paris green. 

The Secretary, — I have a row of cherry trees on the roadside, where it is dusty, 
and I seldom find them affected by the larva of the plum curculio ; that would corrobor- 
ate your theory. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — Yes ; I am very glad to hear that statement. So far it has been my 
theory, unsupported, but I do not think I am wrong in saying it. I may not be entirely 
right, but I am right to a great extent. I believe that Paris green acts more as a 
mechanical agent than as a poison. I think when we take into account the small amount 

of food necessary for a curculio, and the limited space it touches upon the plum, it will 

be evident that it can get but a very small dose of the poison, 

Mr. McMichael. — Does the larva of the curculio resemble the larva of the codlin 
moth in its habits 1 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — No ; it stays in captivity until it is fully ready to enter the earth. 

Mr, McMichael. — Paris green has no effect upon the larvse ? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — No, not the least, because it never sees daylight until it is ready to 
enter the ground ; all the work is done in the skin of the plum. 

A Member. — In regard to the curculio not liking peaches, there cannot be any dust 
on my peachts, for they seem to take them very freely ; I found two rows in which I do 
not believe there was a single peach that had not been bitten two or three times. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I am much interested in learning that fact ; it only shows more 
clearly that the curculio is one of the worst enemies the fruit grower has to contend with. 
It would seem that the plum curculio attacks almost any kind of fruit. 

The Secretary, — About what length of time do you find that the beetle continues 
its operations? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — As soon as the plum blossom falls it begins, and the day before 
yesterday, July 7th, I found a curculio in the act of laying its egg, which shows very 
clearly that it is incessant. I very carefully watched the tree, and I am satisfied my 
statements are correct. I have seen them on the plum, searching around for a place and 
have seen it force in its beak and withdraw it, and prepare to lay its egg. I think that 
is a thing that Mr. Saunders does not mention in his book — the length of time the cur- 
culio opeiates. 

Mr. MoRDEN. — I think it ordinarily does its work in about ten days, 

Mr. BiLLUPS, — Well, the injurious work is probably done at that early stage, be- 
cause after the fruit is well developed the curculio is comparatively harmless to the fruit, 
though it spoils the look of it. I have had pears, for instance, bitten three or four times ; 
it does not actually kill the pear, but it makes a little rough place. Some people think 
that the better fruit is not attacked, but I do not think that is so. It is because the 
better fruit is taken more care of and sprayed more frequently. I think they are just as 
likely to attack the better plums as the blue common plum. 

A Member, — Is there any parasite of the curculio? 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — Yes ; but at present my experiments are in such early stages that I 
am not prepared to make any distinct statement on the subject. I may say, however 



76 



that there are to my certain knowleilr^e two or three distinct parasites of the curculio. 
The question arises whether wo can so foster and encourage the parasite t'lat in time it 
will become stronger than the curculio, and eventually wijx^ it from the face of th(! earth 
altogether. I am trying a few experiments on a small scale to find out. Another curi- 
ous thing about the curculios is that they seem to come suddenly and to di.sappear suddenly 
Four years ago the corn weevil was very scarce in this locality, and the next year it 
appeared in vast numbers. I found it on the white oak, tho red oak and on quercus 
robur ; on three oaks. That in itself was a rather remarkable thing, as entomologists 
have hitherto noticed it only on the white or the red oak, I am not s\ire which, while I 
found it distinctly on three oaks. This year I have found tr^ices of none, except one 
perfect insect I found on tlie 24th May, and the year before there were none. They 
seemed to appear one year and disappear entirely the next. In this Prof. Brodie'a notes 
agree exactly with my own. 



PEAR BLIGHT 



The President called upon Mr. McMichael, of Waterford, to speak on his experience 
with pear blight. 

Mr. McMichael. — This is a subject in which I am very much interested, sadly 
interested this year and last year. I think it is now about twenty-five years since I 
began pear culture, and during that time we have had three recurrences of the pear 
blight. We would have about three years during which the blight was bad, and then 
perhaps five or six years freedom from it. We have also found that daring the time it 
was bad in the pears it was also equally bad on the apple trees. In my peir orchards, 
where the blight has been worst, usually there has been an apple tree badly affected, and 
•from that it spread very much worse to the pear trees. Where we have taken those 
trees out we have very much sooner got rid of the blight. List spring — I may say that 
previous to that we had not been troul)led for a number of years — I comnaenoed cutting 
on it about the middle of July, and I have rr-ison to r-^gret that I did not com- 
mence a month sooner. This year, in an orchard of about L50 pear trees that have been 
planted out nearly twenty years, the trees had suffered a number of years with a fungus 
which caused the wood to become very brittle and hard, and this spring, I think on the 
9th of June, I commenced working in them, and the points of attack would average from 
fifty to seventy five or a hundred in each tree. They were in the twigs, and under the 
twigs. With one hand I broke the twig out ; and with the oth-^r, with a piint brush 
tilled with linseed oil, I went very thoroughly over the orchard, and I have done so four 
or five times since, and in scarcely an instance where this was taken out did the blight 
reappear. A few days after that I went into another orchard of trees, set out about 
eight years, which were remarkably thrifty, the growth long and the limbs just curling 
over and the tree full of bloom, but in those trees I found it very difficult to cope with the 
blii^ht The great difficulty is down on the limbs ; these little twigs blighted, and in 
three or four days the bark would be colored, but by going over them every other day, 
just as the leaves began to turn, the art of taking these twigs off with a knife and paint- 
ing over with linseed oil, I was enabled to save the limb. I had been led to believe, by 
the treatise of Pr.)f. Burrill, that all the virus entered through the bark, or where it was 
punctured, but in this orchard in nearly every instance it entered through the ends of 
the.se little matured leaves or the blossom, and, where these are cut out, just a little 
paring around it stops it. The bark being punctured the virus might easily enter again, 
but the oil has a tendency to keep that out by closing the pores. If that orchard of 
eight hundred thrifty trees h:id been left until now without taking those diseased portions 
off, I might as well have burned every tree, but the present indications are that we shall 
be able to save it. One of the mistakes I made was in not cutting low enough ; you 
have to cut three or four inches below any coloring of the bark, or the blight continues. 
In the other orchard, where the limbs are hard, there was no difficulty in staying the 
blight. 



76 



A Memder. — Is painting without cutting any good ? 

Mr. McMicnAEL. — It is no good unless you cut below the blight. 

Mr. MoRDEN. — Did anyone ever paint before the leaves came out ? 

Mr. IMcMiCHAEL. — I did for a number of years, with the body and the limbs, and 
there was no trouble. I thought oil was a preventive ; but my impression now is that 
the virus enters mostly through the leaves, so of course it would not do any irood. P.ut 
it is a very great benefit to prevent the virus entering; you see in cutting off the liraba 
that that is the place where the virus can enter. It is very dilHcult to avoid making 
some little breaks in other limbs, and the painting with oil over them prevents the 
blight entering. 

Mr. Cline. — Did you ever try leaving the blight on the tree and letting it spread 1 

Mr. McMicoAEL. — No. 

Mr. Cline. — I have tried it and it never has gone any further. 

Mr. McMiCHAEL. — In our locality there are lots of trees entirely dead. 

Mr. Clink. — It just killed the top limbs down four or five feeb. They were pretty 
tall trees and I never cut them off. 

^Ir. I\TcMiciiAEL. — Going from our place to Brantford wherever the trees were left 
they are all dead, but where part was cub out it saved the trees. 

The Secretary. — Mr. jNFcMichael has the impression that Prof. Burrill states that 
the pear blight only enters through the V)ark. 

Mr. McMrcnAEL. — Yes. 

The Secretary. — Professor Burrill told me last year that the point through which 
the blight most commonly enters is through the blossoms and the youui; growth at th"? 
end of the branches. It may have been a previous statement of his that Mr. MjMichael 
saw, but I thought it best in justice to the Professor to mention it. His latesb invesbiga- 
tions seem to have convinced him that it is chitfly through the blossoms that the spares 
of the pear blight fungus find their entrance into the troe. Therefore just after blossom- 
ing time, as soon as we discover the least indications of blight in the blossoms or the 
leaves about it, we should carefully go over our orchards and in that way we may be able 
to Save the trees. 

Mr. McMichael. — My observation is that it enters more through the leaves than 
the blossoms, and in four or five days the tree is destroyed if these are not taken off. 

A ^Iembkr. — Is there any difference as between trees that are cultivated and those 
which stand in sod ? 

Mr. McMiciiAEL. — It seems at the first output of the leaves that it is as bad in trees 
that are rot thrifty, but it continues very much longer in the thrifty trees. It is also 
my observation that wlure trees have boen manured with barnyard manure they aro very 
much more liable to it than where ashes havs been used. 



APPLE PACKING. 



The President. — I have no doubt there are many here who are interested in apple 
packing. !Mr. A. McD, Allan will now addre.ss us on "Repacking apples in Britain; 
drawbacks and advantages; why repack, and how." 

Mr. Allan. — This is a question I suggested for the purpose of drawing out certain 
inform;.tion which I am inteiested in getting. I suppose you are all aware tiiab I am 
intimately connocted with the hnperial Produce Com)).iny of Toronto, a company which 
is engaged in handlinirall kinds of Canadian produce in t\w- British marki-ts, and it is my 
wish to make special experiments in a yreat many lines in the interests of the fruit 
growers of Canada. This question of repacking occurred to me four years ago when 1 



77 



was over in Britain at the Colonial Exhibition. A great many cargoes of the 
apples that are packed and shipped Irom Ontario and other parts of Canada to Britain 
arrive there in very poor condition. This ari.ses from many dillerent cau.ses. In the first 
place some of the apples are not fit to be packed or put in the barrels — appl-s wilh 
particles of lot upon them or fungus spotting. They ani very ajtt to heat from some 
cause, and the result is that rotting t«k«\s place and the bairel of apples is more or less 
damaged. It is rather the exception to find a cargo that comes out entirely in fine order ; 
there is mere or less damage, which those who ship over there wid have seen mentioned 
in the returns mostly as "slack, wet." It occurred to me, and I carried the idea into 
execution, to take a cargo of that sort, open it up, and repack it. Of course there are a 
great many objections to repacking. I would not advocate repacking a gooil barrel of 
apples, as a rule-, because there are more or less bruised specimens in it, and you would 
really lose a considerable number of the apples by the repacking; that is there are a con- 
sideiable number you cannot call first class specimens fit, to r<^^'pack in a smaller package. 
But in the case of a damaged cargo 1 have known instances where it would be impodsible 
to t\o otherwise than lose money for the shipper by placing them on the market in the 
shape they were in. There would be no way of disposing of tliem in the condition in 
which they were landed and making money of them for the shipper. Then the question 
is what can be done! I find in the majority of cases of that sort that there is a large 
quantity of really good apples, for which, by repacking them in a smallt-r package, I could 
realise fancy pricis. For well culled, unitormly siz^d, finely colored fruit an extra price 
can always be realised in the British market, and by observing that I have been able to 
bring the shipper out money in pocket when he would probably have been at a heavy loss 
otherwise. Now, I would like to hear from those who have had personal experience in 
this matter of repacking what objections there are to that method. Our company has 
the idea of going into it if it is found to be in the interest of the fruit growers in Canada. 
We have all the accomraoJation and necessary arrangements made to do so and at a com- 
paratively nominal cost to the shipper or grower. ^ly own belief is that it is going to be 
largely a matter of experiment for I have met very few persons who have any actual 
experience in it. You must look for a loss in repacking; but under any circumstances, 
with such cargoes there is more or less loss at any rate. I would prefer selling the fruit 
in the original package if it was in anything like the proper condition, but, as I have said 
before, such cargoes are rare. 

The Secretauy. — You spoke of putting the apples in a smaller paekage. What des- 
cription of package t • 

Mr. Allan. — I trade the barrels off for boxes and baskets ; anything I can "ct. 
There is little or no difficulty in making a trade of that sort and i certainly found it 
advantageous to sell in small packages. I see but one disadvantage in getting second- 
hand pickages. They judge fruit in the Brititsh market by the package in which it is. 
If they see a tine, well got up package they want to see what's inside it and they conclude 
at once that a man who has packed in that way cannot afford to put a poor article in the 
package. Every one is keen to get hold of such packages and they wiil always pay more 
than enough to cover the extra cost of packing. 

A Memueii. — Wvjuld you ship half barrels? 

Mr. Allan. — Yes ; I think so. We used to sell pears by the barrel, but pear grovr- 
ers have learned that there is more mouf^y in .selling them by the basket. You can make 
a good deal more money by selling them in the smaller package even in our owa markets. 
Mr. NicnoL. — What do you think of box crates holding a bushel and a half of apples 1 
Mr. Allan. — I believe there would be more money than in shipping in the ordinary way 
in barrels and they woidd not cost any more. For one firm we are making a specialty 
this year by putting up apples in crates, so many boxes to a crate. The boxes are sup- 
plied with a pasteboard division the same as e/g boxes and an apple in each division 
packed just as eggs are. They are putting up fine Wealthy and ETameuse apples that way. 

Mr. NicriOL — I think they would be more careful with a box than a barrel, which 
is rolled, would they nofi 



78 



Mr. Allan. — Yes ; thougk they are getting into a better system of handling now. 
On the other side barrels are handled much more carefully than here. The only objection 
to a square package is that you cannot pack as tightly or well to keep them from moving. 
I would not advise the putting up of anything except very choice fruit in the small 
packages, nor in any package for that matter, because it takes as much labor and costs as 
much money to pack and send across a poor lot of apples as it does for the best. 

Mr. NiCHOL. — Have you tried rolling them up in tissue paper 1 

Mr. Allan. — I did try that a good many years ago and on that occasion it came out 
well, but to what extent that could be profitably carried I do not know. You will find 
a good deal of fruit handled that way in Oovent Garden. Something of that kind could 
be done with extra fine specimens in repacking. I am strongly impressed from the little 
experience I had three years ago that repacking of these poor cargoes might be resorted 
to advantageously. Boys and girls can be hired to do the work at merely nominal wages 
and the only trouble is the loss of the poor and bruised fruit. 

The Secretary. — I would like to ask you about early apples. Do you think it would 
be possible to get any of our early apples over 1 

Mr. Allan. — Yes, certainly. I think the Duchess would go but it must be picked 
on the green side. You could scarcely try Red Astrachan. All early apples must be 
kept in a cool atmosphere. I do not see the slightest difficulty in taking those soft fruits 
across in a cold air compartment, and I believe we could get higher prices for those early 
fruits than we can expect for our winter varieties. 

The Secretary. — Do you think it would be possible to get pears over to England ; 
Bartlett pears that are picked green 1 

Mr. Allan. — I think there would be no difliculty in getting them over with the same 
vessel arrangements. As to how it would pay that would depend altogether on the state 
of the American crop. If the British and European crop was short it might be expected 
to pay well. I would not advise the shipment of our pears to the English market except 
under those circumstances. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Does the pear crop often fail in the channel islands 1 

Mr. Allan. — I do not think so. If we could educate the English taste up to appreci- 
ate the fine flavor of our pears we might do better, but they have not got to that point 
Yet. They are coming to it gradually, however. They now eat our apples, while a few 
years ago they thought they were no good except for cooking. 



HOW TO MAKE THE BEST OF TEN ACRES IN FBUIT OULTURR 

Mr. MoRDEN. — The first requisite is the right man, and that man must have the 
qualifications of a solid business man. To make money in fruit growing requires business 
talent and it is a great mistake to imagine that a person lacking in business ability will 
ever make a successful fruit cultivator. Next to that business ability he requires 
a knowledge of the business he is engaged in. I will not dwell upon this, although it is 
a current idea among city people that every man is a born farmer and fruit grower. If 
you want to find a man who thinks he knows all about agriculture and fruit growing it 
will be necesary for you to go in search of him in the centre of some densely populated 
city. The men who have followed this business all their lives know very little about it. 
Although, as I have said, this is a very common idea it is a mistake. The fruit grower 
needs a practical knowledge of his business in addition to business qualifications. He 
also requires pluck and must be willing to work and fight weeds eight months of the year. 
He must hate weeds with an undying hatred and manifest that hatred every day of the week 
except Sunday. Having got the right man the next thing is to locate him in the right place. 
In the first place I would locate that man near some source of fertilisers. It is necessary to 
put him near some town or village of considerable size, because to get the best results out 
of ten acres requires no inconsiderable application of fertilisers. I would also have him 



79 



near a local market. It is rather a difficult thin;^ to make a fortune out of growing fruit 
and shipping it exclusively to distant markets. I have myself a very deei)ly rooted 
aversion to wearnig out my life in the behalf of express companies and carriers and com- 
mission men. Yet that is about the history of our business. The carrying companies 
and commission men have been making money fast and we have been getting very little. 
By being located near a local market wo can very largely get rid of that trouble, but it is 
seldom that a local market alone is sufficient for us and it is therefore also desirable to be 
near a good shipping point, one at which there is competition, more than one way of reach- 
ing the outside market. From this point, for instance, you have as a rule only the steam- 
boat to connect you with Toronto. At the Falls we have a variety of ways : we com- 
monly send our fruit into Toronto, just past your door, as cheap or even cheaper than you 
send yours at the present time. We ship very largely through St. Catharines and Port 
Dalhousie and we get it to Toronto just as cheap as the people of Port Dalhousie. Then 
we have as alternatives this route and the Great Western railway line. It is a great 
advantage to have a variety of ways of reaching the market. Now, having the right man 
in the right place, which is near some town or village, you must have for the next thing 
the right kind of soil, which is a very essential thing. It is quite possible in a small plot 
where the soil is iiot right to make it right, but it would be rather a large contract to 
undertake to make ten acres, not naturally adapted to the requirements of the fruit 
grower, suitable for them. I think it was Henry Ward Beecher who said he never 
respected a mountain so much as he did after he had attempted to make one, and I would 
not advise any one to try and make ten acres of hard clay or very poor sand or swamp 
into a fruit l>rm, because yon have to compete with men who have suitable soils for the 
protit of the business, and to do so with any hope of success you must start on even terms 
with them. If you start with a bad soil the chances are that the business will be a fail- 
ure as a matter of profit, and, as it is evident that the produce of ten acres of land in fruit 
culture would be more than a single family would consume it is as a matter of profit we 
are considering this question. Now we have the right man in the right place with the 
right soil and he got s to work. Another one thing is this, and in this I have failed though 
I generally try to practice what I preach : if you are not able to fertilise ten acres 
properly sell five and fertilise the other five. Fruit growing requires a great deal of 
manure, and it is my experience that a great many of the artificial fertilisers are a failure ; 
indeed I have never yet been able to get ten dollars back from a ten dollar expenditure 
in that line. The preparation of ground for fruit culture is a different thing from prepar- 
ing it for the ordinary crops. If you wished to secure a good ordinary farm crop of oats 
or barley you would probably not cultivate very deeply, but with fruit the ground requires 
to be more deeply and thoroughly worked because the fruit will occupy the same ground 
year after year, even in the case of strawberries probal)ly two or three year.-!, and I have 
never yet been able to turn in manure so deeply that these plants would not find it, so 
you need not be at all alarmed about cultivating too deeply. The soil should be very 
deeply cultivated and thoroughly worked, and all the weeds eradicated as far as possible 
before planting. In planting ras])berries, gooseberries and currants, plant in squares so 
that you can cultivate crosswise. Raspberries you put five to six feet asunder and about 
four feet in the row, so you can cultivate both ways. With gooseberries and currints 
you may plant closer, it will depend on the richness of the soil ; but as far as po.ssible get 
cro.-;s cultivation by which you will find the expense of cultivation very much reduced and 
the results will be better. In some cases of course you plant in rows. At the outset you 
can plant a vegetable crop between your gooseberries, currants and raspberries, or grapes. 
In grapes I am favorable to the idea of making the rows somewhat wider asunder, by 
which you can get through readily with a waggon with manure, and you can utilise the 
space between by getting a crop early in the season, because some vegetables will be 
allowable in the case we are speaking of now. In regard to the varieties of fruit to be 
planted that will depend vtry much on the kind of soil you have. If your soil is entirely 
iandy you cannot plant so largely of some varieties as you otherwise could. With a sandy 
loil my crop of currants would be less and my raspberries greater. One of the thinfrs 
hat the possessor of ten acres would be very likely to plant at the outset is strawberries. 
[ would not advise, however, that any one should do what 1 have frequently seen done, to 



80 



plant these with a row of grapes, because there would be a good deal of difficulty in tak- 
ing the strawberries out later on. I do not fancy planting them in the rows. To make a 
success of planting strawberries the soil requires to be made very rich. Another crop is 
goosebenies. From currants I have been able to make almost as much per acre as from any 
other fruit I have ever grown. !No matter how cold the weather you are almost sure of 
a crop of currants, althonyh this year I have a veiy poor one; but we never get a total 
failuie and generally get good croj s when we give them careful attention and fioht against 
the worms, which we must do. Just here I may say that 1 met with a difficulty this 
year. Hellebore has been the remedy all along, but the hellebore I got this year is so 
very mild tliat the currant worms will be killing the bushes next year, I have plantf d and 
grown raspberiies very largt-ly and make as much money wiih them as Avith any Cruit. I 
plant so as to cultivate both ways and I use cujtivatois with knives. The sucker ques- 
tion is no matter of didiculty with me. I have been able to get very large returns from 
raspberries. I find that although you may get more strawberries to the acre, raspberries 
will "ive you ten or twelve cents a basket as readily as strawberries will si.K, and I have 
always realised readily v\ith raspberiies. One reason perhaps is that I compete with our 
Ameiican friends in their own markets. Nearly all the raspberries I growaie sold in the 
United States. In that I have the local market I have just been contending for, and in 
operatin" the local market 1 have followed the plan cf taking orders from private families, 
which 1 can very readily do where I am known ; and I get the retail prices and my baskets 
back. 1 have no baskets or crates lost or stolen. I can pick my berries at three o'clock in the 
afternoon and at six o'clock in the evening 1 am home with the money in my pocket. Black- 
berries can be sold at good prices and are grown with \>roi\t at a few points, but I would not 
recommend generally the culture of them even on this Niagara peninsula. I have never 
made a great success of them, but some men have, so it is not for me to say because I have 
failed with a certain fruit that no one else will make a success with it, and I find that 
other people in other places do succeed. Quinces can be grown on a ten acre plot ; they 
can be planted closely, as I stated before, and other things can be grown between while 
they are voung. I would grow plums also, especially if I had some clay. I have an 
immense crop on my trees and I never fail in having a crop of some kind, although mine 
is sandy soil on which we have to tight the curculio. I would also grow pears in 
limited area like this. Plums, pears and quinces can be grown where your space is 
limited because by giving the caie and cultivation I have spoken of a great deal can be 
accomplished in a small space where the land is rich. Now, in dealing with ten acres 
you must remember that you are to be confined to that area and you must not 
at once plant the entire area with fruit because the fruit must be renewed 
from time to time. One of the secrets of success in small fruit cultivation 
is the renewing of vour cultivation very frequently ; with raspberries and gooseberries 
perhaps once in seven years, and oftener in the case of strawberries, and it is always 
desirable to have some space reserved for that put pose which may be used otherwise ii 
the meantime. Anyone who would succeed in the growing of small fruits must be pre 
pared to do an immense amount of cultivation as compared with the ordinary farmer whc 
puts in his crop of corn or potatoes aud cultivates it once or twice. I find it necessary t( 
cultivate my ground twelve or fifteen times a year, and to hoe nearly as often, thougr 
hoein" is not necessary so often, because if the ground is rich the shading of fruits wil 
prevent the growth of weeds. We can keep weeds down very easily where the land is il 
thorough cultivation. 

The Secretary. — Which would you rather have : ten acres of fruit planted an< 
cultivated in the manner you have described or a hundred acres of ordinary farm withoui 
any fruit? 

Mr. MoRDEN. — Well, of late years farming has been rather a poor business aud 
would hardly be fair to make a comparison. It would be a mistake to think that yoi 
would get from ten acres of fruit the same profit as from one hundred acres of ordmar 
farm land with one-tenth of the expenditure, but in farming one hundred acres there is a 
considerable investment for implements and buildings, and it is difficult to get your inter- 
est out of it. If you bring that down to ten acres of course there are a great va&nj 



I 



81 



advantages. You may do with a less expenditure for buildings, etc., and there will pro 
bably be less hard, heavy labor, l)ut you must not run away with the idea that you can 
do that without expense. The fertilisation, planting and caring for ton acres of fruit so 
as to get a protit is going to take considerable. I think it would be well in a hundred 
acre farm to devote ten acres to fruit ; but if I lived ten or fifteen miles from any mar- 
ket I would be sorry to drop ninety acres of it and devote the remaining ten to fruit. 

Mr. BiLLUPS. — I have tried pyrethrum and have found it ahead of helleljore and it 
is not poisonous in any way as the hellebore is. 

Mr. BucKE. — Why do you not use Paris green 1 

Mr. MoRDEN. — I use it early in the season. The currant worms iliake their appear- 
ance early in the season and sometimes I give them a little. 

The SECRETARr. — I have very little trouble with the currant worm. I use the 
hellebore in the powder, shaking it on the bushes just when the currant worm first appears, 
which is quite early. We find him near the base of the bushes and I blow it down among 
them and give them a good dusting. Early in the year you have very little dusting to 
do and it is very efiective. 



CULTIVATION OF THE PEAE. 

Mr. Dempsey. — It would not be possible for me at this late hour to go into any 
extended remarks upon the pear. As to its culture I would select for it first of all a soil 
a little on the clayey side and I would prefer a northern exposure, ascending slightly to 
the north. I find that our trees situated in that way are less liable to blight. They 
mature wood earlier in the fall and consequently they are more hardy. I grow some of 
my finest pears on what was formerly a brickyard. I have had people walk through it 
and pick up a little of the soil and say, " Oh, my ! if I had a soil like this I could grow 
pears too." But it is one of the stiffest clays we have in any part of the country and the 
secret is it was always dry. We have heard considerable about blight taking our pears 
and apples. Now, I would simply endorse what we have heard to-night on that point 
and let it go just there. I am satisfied the blight comes first through the leaves and if 
neglected in a short time it becomes past cure. 

Mr. Mc^IiCHAEL. — My experience as to a northern or southern exposure varies a 
little from Mr. Dempsey's ; I should recommend as a result of my experience a southern 
rather than a northern exposure. 

Mr. MoRDEN. — I have succeeded with some pears in a soft soil, though I believe a 
hard soil is right. The specimens were not as good as those from a harder soil. 



(6 F.G.) 



83 



APPENDIX. 



REPORT OF FRUIT COMMITTEE-SUMMER MEETING. 

"The Committee on Fniits report : 

Tliat tliey liavo examined the gooseberry Pearl and can recommend it as a most prolific bearer, and 
the samples exliibited show no indications of mildew and larger ones shown are a good sample, and are 
presumably a variety of the Whitesmith and well worthy of cultivation. We also have noticed the King 
Conn, which for ai)[)earance does not compare favorably witli larger varieties, also a sample of the Industry, 
which is now become a favorite variety. We have also noticed some excellent samples of currants, the 
Fay and Versailles, &c. (Sent from Experimental Farm, Ottawa.) No. 3tJ'J is a berry of fine size, superior 
flavor and highly commented on. No. 1G9 is of fair flavor, medium sized, and worthy of cultivation. No. 
175 is too long gathered to retain its flavor; seems very productive. No. 302 is a large berry, good flavor, 
will rank No. 1. The strawberry Pearl is a marvel for size and beauty, highly flavored and wonderfully 
productive, also some seedling strawberries. The sample No. 189 is productive and worthy of further trial. 
No. 307 is of good flavor and worthy of further trial. 



THE ONTARIO FRUIT LIST.- APPLES. 

The Committee on the Ontario Fruit List reported as follows : 

Your two committees appointed at the last summer meeting at Seaforth to prepare catalogues of all 
fruit commonly grown in this province in such a manner as to show (1) a list of the varieties grown in the 
province ; (2) lists showing the varieties best suited to the climate, elevation, soil, etc., for every district or 
locality, and (3) that any and all such lists b« so prepared or constructed as to enable judges at competition 
exhibitions of fruits to intelligently estimate the true comparative value of any fruit on exhibition and 
thereby secure uniformity and fairness in judging fruit at all such exhibitions, beg leave to report : 

That upon a careful consideration of the subject it was found that tlie duties of the two committees 
were so inextricably mixed as to make it necessary for them to work conjointly. 

The catalogue of api)les herewith submitted is therefore the work of your joint committee, and is the 
extent of their work to the present time. This report is therefore a report of progress. 

The first decision arrived at by your joint committee was to leave out the headings usual in such a 
catalogue, such as Size, Color, Hardiness and Productiveness. The first two, Size and Color (to which might 
have been added Shape), are omitted because any such description to be of value should be sutticient for 
identification of a variety, but has not yet been done by our best pomological writers. The headings 
Hardiness and Productiveness are also omitted because they are applicable throughout the province to 
but a very few varieties, yet many of the varieties grown are both hardy and productive in many places. 

You will observe that your Committees have adopted four general headings, viz:— Season, l2'J''>'hty, 
Commercial Value, and Total Value. Quality and Commercial Value are however sub-divided : quality 
into Dessert and Cooking, which embraces about all the properties of Quality ; and Commercial Value into 
Home Market and Foreign Market, which gives the nearest approach we may make to the commercial 
value of any fruit. 

The plan of rating adopted is to suppose all varieties to be perfect specimens. Then, the best varieties 
under each of these four heads are rated at 10 and all the more or less inferior varieties by some figure less 
than 10. 

It frequently happens, however, even with the best varieties, that imperfect a.amples are exhibited. In 
such cases all values given in the catalogue must be reduced one or more points each for lack of color, 
under size, unevenness of size on plate, wormy, scabby or illshapen specimens, lacking stem or calyx, 
polished fruits i. c. having bloom wiped off, or for any other thmg whicli tends to change the natural 
appearance of the fruit. 

The column Total Value is for use when prizes are offered for fruit without designating the purpose for 
-which such fruit may be required. 

All of which is resjjectly submitted. 

( THOS. HEALL, Chairman. 
Sicrned ) ALEX. Mel). ALLAN, 

Signed, < p L. DEMl'SEY, 

{ r. C. BUCKE. 

Wim»30K, 10th December, 1889. 



84 



TTiia catalofrue was sent to the Minister of Agriculture in July, 1S90, accompanied b3' the following letter from the 
Secretary. From the Department printed copies were sent out to »11 Secretaries of Agricultural and Horticultural 
Societies in Ontario. 

To the Honorable Charles Drdry, Minister of Agriculture : 

Sir, — The Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario has had under, consideration the subject of "How to- 
attain greater uniformity and fairness in the awards of Prizes at Fairs." The great disparity in these 
awards has been a matter of public connnent. This has been especially noticed in cases of collections of 
fruits where the rating of the values of the varieties has been left entirely to judges, some of whom are 
incompetent, and know very little of the comparative merits of the varieties placed before them. Even in 
cases of single plates, many of the judges employed are in a quandary as to whether an apple, for instance, 
should be classed among the fall or winter varieties. 

The present system of appointing three judges in the fruit department of our Agricultural Fairs is also 
thought to be a mistake, for, even if one of the three is an expert, the final judgment will often be reversed 
in deference to the opinion of the other two. 

Now, in order to secure uniformity and fairness in the awards and prizes for fruits at fairs, the first 
important consideration seems to be the appointment of fruit experts who will not award prizes for winter 
apples to autumn varieties, or allow one variety to pass for another because of their inability to identify 
them. If three expert judges cannot be had it appears to our Association that it would be far better to 
engage one expert, throwing upon him the whole responsibily and remunerating him accordingly, as is 
done in the judging at the poultry shows. Such a judge might also be required to give a list of points- 
upon which his judgment in each case was based. 

It is evident that the educational value of our fairs depends very largely upon the correctness of 'the 
judgments given, and it is therefore exceedingly desirable that the work of the judges should be based 
upon some one standard, for even experts will differ with regard to the value of the various kinds of fruits., 
and their jiidgments cannot therefore be expected to be uniform. 

To aid the directors of the Agricultural and Horticultural Societies of Ontario in attaining so important 
an object as has been indicated above, the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association has undertaken the prepara- 
tion of a Fruit Catalogue for the Province, beginning with the following one of apples, to which, in the 
near future, is to be added catalogues of other fruits prepared in a similar way. 

The Catalogue is not intended in any respect to be a guide for planters, as this has been dealt with'in 
other lists which will appear in the next annual report of the Association, and because fruits which might 
be of general excellence might be ill adapted to certain localities. 

In order to the better understanding the Catalogue a few explanations will be necessary. It will be 
observed that the usual headings found in such a catalogue, such as "Size," "Color," "Hardiness" and 
"Productiveness, " have been omitted, the first two because any such description to be of value should be 
sufficiently full and accurate to serve for the identification of the varieties, and the other two because there 
are very few varieties which are uniformly hardy and productive throughout the Province. Four general 
headings have been adopted, viz., " Season," " Quality," " Commercial Value " and "Total Value." 

In the plan of rating, all varieties are supposed to be perfect specimens ; then the best varieties under 
each of three or four heads are rated at ten, and all the more or less inferior varieties by some figure less 
than ten. It frequently happens, liowever, even with the best varieties, that imperfect samples are exhibit- 
ed. In such cases all values given in the Catalogiie must be reduced one or more points each, for (1) lack 
of color, [2] undersize, [3] unevenness of size on plate, [4] wormy, scabby or ill-shapen specimens, [5] lack 
of stem or calyx, [6] polished fruits, i. c, having bloom wiped off, or for any other thing which itenda to 
change the natural appearance of the fruit. 

The column "Total Value " is for use when prizes are offered for fruits without designating the pur- 
pose for which such fruits may be required. 

The committee to whom the preparation of this list was entrusted consisted of the following gentlemen, 
viz. : Messrs. Thomas Beall of Lindsay, Alexander McD. Allan of Goderich, P. C. Dempsey of Trenton, 
and P. K. Bucke of Ottawa, but before publication their work was submitted to a general meeting of the 
Association, where it was carefully amended and the desirability of its circulation among the secretarieB of 
Agricultural and Horticultural Fairs agreed upon. 

I am. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

LINUS WOOLVERTON, 

Secretary. 
Grimsby, July, 1890. 



85 



Oatalogue of Apples for the purpose of securing greater uniformity and fairness 

in judging at exhibitions. 



Name. 



Alexander 

American Golden Russet 

American Summer Pearmain 

Arnold's Beauty 

American Pippin 

Adam's Pearmain 

Autumn Strawberry 

Bailey Sweet 

Baldwin 

Beauty of Kent 

Ben liavis 

Benoni 

Belmont 

Blenheim Pippin 

Blue Pearmain 

Bottle Greening 

Bourassa 

Cabashea 

Canada Baldwin 

Canada Reinite 

Cayuga Red Streak 

Chenango Strawberry , 

Colvert... 

Cornish Gilliflower 

Cox's Urange Pippin . . 

Cranberry Pippin 

CeUini 

Domine 

Drap d'Or 

Detroit Black 

Duchess of Oldenburgh 

Dyer 

Early Harvest 

Early Joe , 

Early Strawberry 

Edgar's Red Streak 

Ella 

Esopus Spitzenburg 

Fallawater 

Fall .Janeting 

Fall Orange 

Fall Pippin 

Flushing Spitzenburgh 

Fameuse 

Fall Queen (see Haas) 

Gloria Mundi 

Golden Russet (English) 

Golden Sweet, 

Grand Sultan 

Gravenstein 

Green Newton Pippin 

Grimes' Golden 



Season, 



A 
W 

S 

w 
w 

w 

A 

W 
W 
A 

W 

s 
w 
w 
w 
w 
w 

w 
w 
w 

A 
A 
A 
W 
A 
W 
W 

W 
A 

A 
S 
A 

S 
S 

s 
w 
w 
w 

w 

A 
A 
A 
W 
A 



\V 
W 
A 
A 
A 
\V 
W 



Quality. 



Commercial value. 



Dessert. 





10 
3 
6 
6 
6 



Cooking. 



7 
6 
4 
10 
5 

3 
3 
2 

7 
4 

7 



Home 
market. 



6 
8 
2 
10 
3 

9 
3 
7 
7 
3 
9 



1 
7 

10 
6 
6 



Foreign 
market. 



Total 
value. 



10 
9 

3 

5 

7 



3 
8 
7 
9 

G 
10 
8 
4 
6 

9 
9 
7 
8 

8 
2 
10 



7 

f) 

4 

10 






8 
5 
10 

9 

7 
3 

7 
7 
8 



10 

8 
7 



28 
34 
() 
12 
21 
30 
13 

14 
22 
23 
19 
11 
19 
32 
28 
19 
18 

26 
31 
24 
25 
18 
25 
4 
29 
31 
23 

25 
16 
10 
32 



21 
14 
17 
27 
14 
35 

32 
24 
20 

28 

2r> 

31 



22 

32 

7 

38 
27 
24 



Note. — In the first column the letter S denotes summer, A autumn and W winter. 



86 



Oatalogue op Apples. — Continued. 



Name. 


Season. 


Quality. 


Commercial value. 


Total, 


Dessert. 


Cooking. 


Home Foreign 
market. market. 


value. 


Haas (see Fall Queen) 


A 
S 
A 
A 
\V 
W 

S 

A 
A 
W 

A 
A 
W 

W 
A 
W 
A 
A 
W 
A 
A 
W 

A 
W 
W 
W 
W 

A 
W 

A 

A 

A 
W 
W 

W 

W 
W 
W 
A 
W 

w 
w 

A 
W 

s 

A 
W 
A 
A 

A 1 
W 

s 

A 
W 

A 
W 

A 


5 
6 
2 
6 
7 
5 

7 
1 
9 



1 
8 

9 
7 
5 
3 
2 

5 
2 
1 

3 
4 
3 
6 

8 
4 
6 

8 

1 

7 
8 
9 

9 

7 
5 
4 

4 

9 
10 
5 
4 
7 
9 
10 

1 

5 
4 
5 
2 
G 
G 
5 


7 
5 
8 
8 
8 
5 

6 
3 
7 

8 

9 

10 


5 
7 
8 
9 
8 
7 
9 

' 

7 
7 
7 
7 
8 
6 
8 
7 
3 

8 

10 

9 

10 

7 
7 
8 

7 

4 
5 
6 
9 
7 
4 
6 

1 
5 
7 
4 
G 
8 
6 


7 
5 
7 
7 
8 
4 

6 
1 

7 

8 


6 


7 
7 
8 
6 

7 


8 

8 


25 


Hawley 


16 


Hawthornden 


24 


Holland Pippin 


28 


Hubbardston Nonsuch 


31 


Hurlbiit 


20 


Irish Peach 




Jeffries 


26 


Jersey Sweeting 

Jonathan 


5 
81 


Kentish Fillbasket 


24 


Keswick Codlin 


6 1 7 


23 


King of Tompkins County 

Lady 


10 

1 
5 

4 


10 

9 

7 


38 
19 


Late Strawberry 

Lawyer 


24 
21 


Lord Suffield 


6 7 

7 6 

4 


24 


Lord Duncan 


24 






Lowell 




Lord Burleigh 


5 
10 

7 
6 
5 
7 
7 
6 
6 
6 
2 

6 
10 

7 

10 

6 

7 
8 

7 
5 
6 
5 
6 
6 
5 
8 
1 
4 

2 
3 
8 
2 
7 
7 
7 




5 

8 
8 
7 
8 
8 
5 
7 
6 


7 
10 
10 

10 

8 
8 
8 

8 
7 
8 
3 
7 

5 
8 

5 

5 
.5 



8 
7 
7 


16 


La Rue 


25 


Maiden's Blush 


25 


Mann 


25 


Magog Red Streak 


22 




28 


Melon 


31 


Minister 


21 


Monmouth Pippin : .... 


27 




27 


Munson Sweet 


6 


Newton Spitzenburg 


28 




38 


Newton Pipijin 


35 


Ontario 


39 


Peck's Pleasant 


28 


Pennock 


27 


Pewaukee 


28 


Peach . . . ^. 




PhfjHnix 


26 


Pomme Grise 


21 


Pomme Grise d'Or 


24 


Porter 


17 


Priestly 


22 


Primate 

Prenzea 


19 

28 




33 


Pumjikin Sweet 


5 


Pumpkin Russet 


16 


Pomme Royale (see Dyer) 




Rambo 


13 




17 


Red Arttrachan 


20 


Red Fielle-fleur 


8 


Red Canada 


27 


Red Cathead- 


28 


Red Russet 


25 







87 



Oatalooue op Apples. — Contimied. 



Name. 



Season. 



Rhode Island Greening I W 

Kibston Pippin I W 

Roxbury Russet W 



Scarlet Pearmain 

Shiawasse Beauty 

Smith's Cider 

Smokehouse 

Sops of Wine 

St. Lawrence 

Stump 

Summer Rose 

Swaar _ 

Swazie Pomrae Grise (see Pomme Grise 

d'Or) 

Stark 

Snow (see Fameuse) 



Vandevere. 



Wagener 

Wallbridge (see Edgar's Red Streak). 

Wealthy 

Westfield Seek-no-Further 

White Astrachan 

William's Favorite 

Wine Sap 

Wine 



Yellow Belle-fleur. . . 
Yellow Transparent. 



A 
A 
W 
A 

S 
A 

A 

S 

w 



w 



Talman Sweet 

Tetofsky W 

Trenton S 

Twenty Ounce (see Cayuga Red Streak). . A 



W 
W 

w 

s 
w 
w 
w 

w 

s 



Quality. 



Dessert Cooking. 



8 

10 
(I 



2 
1 

10 



10 

8 
8 

6 
G 
4 
(5 
5 
8 

6 

2 



Commercial value. 



Home 
market. 



Foreign 
market. 



8 

10 

9 

6 

1 
G 

8 


4 



Total 
value. 



34 
36 
31 

22 
19 

(5 
19 

9 
31 
16 
16 
14 



19 



20 

7 

33 



28 

32 
29 
4 
23 
11 
30 

25 
19 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



OP TIIK 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF ONTARIO. 



1890. 



■PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 




'^^ 



TORONTO: 
rRIN'TEl) HY WARWICK & SONS, 08 AND 70 FRONT STREET WEST, 

1891. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Agrotis oliindestina 50 

" ypsilon 50 

Auisopteryx pometaria 77 

" vernata 77 

Annuiil address of President 4 

" meeting oi Association of Eco- 
nomic Entomologists .... 37 
" meetiag of Entomological So- 
ciety of Ontario 3 

" report of Council 11 

" statement of Treasurer 15 

Ant-hills and slugs 90 

Anthomyia betie 103 

" brassicie 45 

" radicum 45 

" raphani 44 

Apanteles militaris 53 

Aphides 40, 40 

" parasites of 71, 87 

Apple, insects injurious to the 104 

Apple-tree borer, parasite of 70 

Aramigus Fulleri G2 

Arctia Saundersii 17 

Arctic f rms, origin and perpetuation 

of 59 

Ariiynnis a iiaiite 97 

" alcestis 97 

" aphrodite 17, 97 

' ' atossa 97 

'• cipris 97 

Aruiy-worm, outbreak of, in Maryland 51 

" parasites of 53, 67 

Arsenites and honey-bees 89 

" experiments with 88 

Ashmead, W. H., article by 52 

Asymetiy of head, etc, of thysanop- 

tera 27 

Australian insects and fungus pests. . . 99 

Bark beetles 75 

Bean louse 46 

" weevil 102 



Paof. 

Beet fly 103 

' ' leaf miner 45 

Bethune, Rev. C. J. S., articles by 

4, 97, 98, 99 

Birds, insectivorous 90 

Black-knot 8 

Blister-beetle, ash-coloured 48 

Book notices . . .». 97 

Bracon charus 70 

Braconidaj 09 

Butterflies of Eastern United States. . 9 

" North America 9,97 

" India, Buriuah it Ceylon, 99 

White Mountains 20 

Cabbage butterfly 48 

" " parasite of 72 

" insects 45, 48, 102 

" plusia 49 

Canker worms 34, 77 

Carrot fly '. . 102 

Caulfield, F. B., articles by 55, 73 

Cave fauna of North America 97 

Cermatia forceps S4 

Cephus pygniJBUs 91 

Chalcididie 71 

Chalcis flavij)es 71 

Chelymorpha argus 56 

Chinch-bugs, destruction of 93 

Chionobas semidea 20, 00 

Chortophila betarum 45 

Cincindcla purpurea 17 

Cimbex Americana, parasite of 67 

Clarkson, F., article by 19 

Coccinella novemnotata 19, 88 

Codling moth 99, 104 

" parasites of 69, 7(1 

Cold, resistance to by caterpillar .... 90 

Coleopterous larva, peculiar form of . . 28 

Colorado potat/j-beetle 46 

Comstock, Prof. .1. H., article by 91 

Cook, Prof. A. .1., article by 2'J 



IV. 



Pagb. 

Coptocycla aurichalcea 57 

" clavata 56 

" guttata 56 

Coreus tristis 7 

Cotton moth, parasites of 71, 72 

Cri-ptinie 66 

Cryptus extreiuatis 67 

Cucumber beetle 47 

Cut- worms 6, 43, 49 

Cynipidae 65 

Daddy lung-legs 103 

Danais archippus 20 

Davis, W. T., article by 92 

Day in the woods 16 

Debis Portlandia 17 

Diabrotica vittata 47 

Doryphora decem-lineata 46 

Downy mildew of grape . . ^ 8 

Dryobius sex-fasciatus 74 

Dularius brevilineus 74 

Economic Entomologists, Association of 37 

Election of officers 3, 15, 35, 40 

Elm, insects injurious to the 73 

Elm-tree borer 73, 74 

Enemies of grain aphis 87 

Entomological Club of A. A. A. S 21 

Ephestia kuhniella 10 

Ephialtes irritator 68 

Epirrita dilutata 77 

Eudryas grata 7 

Eustrotia caduca 29 

Evaniidae 66 

Fall web-worm 7 

Flea beetle, the striped 48 

Fletcher, J., articles by. .21, 37, 62, 97, 101 

Ffjenus incertus 66 

" tarsatorius 66 

Fuller's Rose-beetle 62 

Fyles, Pvev. T.VV., articles by. .16, 44, 57, 78 

Gall insects 65 

Garman, H., articles by 27, 87 

Gelechia gallse-diplupappi 18 

Gillette , Prof. , article by 88 

Gooseberry saw-Hy 104 

Grain aphis, enemies of 6, 87 

Grapta comma 76 

'■ gracilis 17 

" interrogationis 75 

" progne 75 



Page. 

Hadena amica 49 

" devastati-ix 49 

Haltica striolata 48 

Hargitt, Prof., article by 34 

Harrington, VV. H. , article by 64 

Hessian fly 5, 25, 103, 105 

Honey bees and arsenical spraying ... 89 

Hop aphis 103 

Hoplismenus morulus 66 

Hornet, habits of a 92 

Hybernia defoliaria 104 

Hylesinus opaculus 75 

Hyraenoptera parasitica 64 

Hyphantria textor 7 

Ibalia maculipennis 65 

Ichneumon grandis 66 

Ichneumonidje 66 

Infectious diseases of insects 35, 93 

Isosoma hordei 72 

Kitchen-garden pests 44 

Larch saw-fly 7 

Lema trilineata 47 

Leucania unipuncta 51 

Leucopsis affinis 71 

Macrobasis unicolor 48 

Macrocentrus delicatus 70 

Mallophaga, development of 29 

Manual of Injurious insects. Ormerod. 101 

Mediterranean flour moth 10 

Moflat, J. A., articles by 51, 59 

Monohammus coiifusor, parasite of . . . 68 

" scutellatus, '' ... 68 

Mononychus vulpeculus, " ... 69 

Murtfeldt, Miss M. E., article by 30 

Neraatus erichsonii 7, 43 

Neoclytus erythrocephalus 75 

Neonympha canthus 17, 97 

Observations from bo.x of White Moun- 
tain coach 19 

(Ecanthus niveus 75 

Onion fly 44, 104 

Opheltes glaucopterus 67 

Ophion bilineatum 67 

" macrurum 67 

" purgatuin 67 

Ophiouinse 67 

Organization <;f sections 21 



V. 



Page. 

Ormerod, i^Tiss, article by 105 

Osborn, Pn.f., articles by 28, 29, 35 

Oscinis 25, 42 

Papili<i Asterias, parasite of 06 

Parasitic liyinenoptera 64 

Pear blight 104 

Pelecinus poh furator 72 

Phhi'otribus liminaris 75 

Phorbia ceparum 44, 104 

Physonutus heliaiithi 55 

Pieris bryonise 60 

" rapae 48, 72 

Pimpla annulipes 69 

" coiKjuisitor 69 

" pedalis 69 

" pterelas 69 

Pimplinte 68 

Plusia JBrea 58 

" fereoides 58 

' ' ampla 57 

" balluca 57 

" biruaculata 68 

" brassiere 49, 58 

" falcifera 58 

' ' mappa 58 

" mortuoruin 57 

" precationis 58 

' ' Putnami 67 

" Quebec representatives of genns 57 

" simplex 58 

" thyatiroides 57 

" U-aureuin 58 

" viridisignata 58 

Plum curculio, parasites of 39, 67, 70 

Plutella cruciferarum 42, 104 

Potato beetle, Colorado 46 

" three-lined 47 

Preserving larvse, methods of 41 

Pteromalus piiparum 72 

Radish fly 44 

Bearing insects, experiences in 30 

Red spider 10.'5 

Remedies for noxious insects 43, 102 

Report of Council 11 

Report of Delegate to Royal Society . 13 

" Montreal Branch 14 

Rhogas intermedius 70 

2* (EN.) 



Pa(;e. 

Rhyssa persuasoria 68 

Russian parasite of Hessian fly 105 

Sapcrda discoidea, parasite of 68 

" lateralis 74 

" trideiitata 73 

Satymdes Cauthus 17, 97 

Saw-fly borer in wheat 91 

Scudder, S. H., article by 99 

Semiotellus nigripes 105 

Shakespeare, Kntomology of 78 

Sigalphus curculionis 70 

Siphonophora avenae fi 

Sniicra Marise 71 

Snow, Prof. F. H., article by 93 

Spiders and their spinning-work, Mc- 

Cook 9, 98 

Squash-bug 7 

Stem eel-worm 103 

Stizus speciosus 92 

Teaching Entomology 23 

Telea polyphemus, parasite of 67 

Tent caterpillars 7 

" " parasites of 67, 09 

Tetrasticluis esurus . . . . 72 

Thalessri atrata 68 

" lunator 68 

Thecla Titus 17 

Tlieronia fulveacens 69 

" melanocephala 69 

Thersilochus conotracheli . . . '. 67 

Thrips 103 

Thyreodon morio 67 

Tiger beetles 17 

Tortoise beetles 55 

Tremex Columba, parasite of 68 

Trichogramma minutum 72 

Trogus exesorius 66 

Trypeta solidaginis 72 

Tryphoninje 68 

Vanessa Antiopa 75 

Virginia Creeper muth 8 

Wheat, insects affecting 25, 91, 103 

Wheat midge 103 

White Mountain butterflies 20 

Wire worms 103 

Wood nymph moth 7 

Woolly aphis 104 



TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO- 



To the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture : 

Sir, — In accordance with the provisions of our Act of incorporation, I beg 
to present herewith the twenty-first annual report of the Entomological Society 
of Ontario. 

The report contains an account of the proceedings of our annual meeting for 
the election of officers and the transaction of the general business of the society, 
which was held in the city of London on the 27th of August, 1890; it includes 
also thp audited financial statement of the Secretary-Treasurer, the reports of the 
Council and Montreal branch, the President's annual address, etc. 

I have also the honour to submit with the foregoing, several illustrated 
papers contributed by our members on injurious and other insects, which have 
been specially prepared for the information of the public, and are intended to 
assist our farmers and fruit-growers in contending with their insect enemies. 

The Society's monthly magazine. The Canadian Entomologist, has been 
regularly and promptly issued during the past year, and has just completed its 
twenty-second volume. It continues to receive contributions from all the most 
eminent Entomologists in North America, and to circulate in all parts of the 
world. During the past year it has been found necessary to issue more than 
twenty extra pages in order to find space for the many valuable articles which 
have been furnished the editor. 

It is a matter of profound thankfulness that our province, during the past 
year, has escaped from any serious insect attack. Those that have been specially 
noticeable are referred in the President's address, or described in the papers that 
follow. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. E. SAUNDERS, 

Secretary. 

1 (EN.) 



ANNUAL MltHTlNG OF THE SOCIHTY. 



The annual meetinjx of the Society was held in its own roonivS in Victoria 
Hall, London, on Wednesday, August 27th, 1890. A Council nieetin<; was held 
in the nioining at 10 o'clock, at which the following members were present: — 
The President, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, head master of Trinity College School, Port 
Hope; Mr. James Fletcher, Ottawa; Mr. J. A. Moffat, Hamilton; Rev. T. W. 
Fyles, Quebec; Messrs. J. M. Denton, W. E. Saundeis and Dr. Woolverton, Lon- 
don. The annual report of the Council was discussed and adopted, and other 
routine busine.ss was transacted. The Secretary-Treasurer j^resented his annual 
financial statement of the receipts and disbursements during the past year. The 
Council reported tlie purchase of a large collection of insects from Mr. Johnson 
Pettit, of Grimsby, which was deposited in the rooms of the Society. The arrange- 
ments for the formation of sections in different departments of natural science 
were laid before the Society by the President, and, on motion, duly ap|)roved and 
ratified. A scheme was submitted for the rearrangement of the work of the 
othcers of the Society, in accordance with which Mr. J. A. MoHat, of Hamilton, is 
to take entire charge of the rooms, library and collections, and be a permanent 
resident otficial in London. A number of tenders for printing The Canadian 
Entoniologuit weve received and considered; no decision was made at the time, 
but subsequently it was resolved that the tender of the London Printing and 
Lithographing Company should be accepted. Certain regulations regarding the 
library and the use of tlie rooms were drawn up and adopted. 

In order to benefit members of the Society it was resolved that for a limited 
time the volumes of The Canadian Entomologist, III. to XXL inclusive, should 
be sold at 75 cents each ; the annual reports for the following years : lb74, 1880, 
1882 to 1889, at 25 cents each ; and the new lists of labels for Coleoptera at 25 
cents per set, in each ease strictly to members only. Applications for these pub- 
lications at the reduced rates should be made to the Secretary. 

It was resolved to separate thu offices of Secretary and Treasurer, which 
have hitherto been held by one person. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 
The following gentlemen were elected officers for the ensuinji year : — 

President— Rev. C. J. S. Bethunp, M.A., D.C.L., Port Hope. 

Vice-President— James Fletcher, F.R.S.C., Ottawa. 

Secretary — W. E. Saunders, London. 

Treasurer — J. M. Denton, London. 

Directors — Division 1 — W. H. Harrington, Ottawa. 

Division 2— J. D. Evans, Sudbury. 

Division 3 — Gamble Oeddes, Toronto. 

Division 4 — A. W. Hanham, Hamilton. 

Division 5 — J. A. Moffat, London. 
Lil)rarian and Curator — .1. A. Moffat, Lcndon. 

Editor of the Canadian Entonwloyist — Rev. Dr. Bethune, Port Hope. 
Editing Committee— VV. E. Saunders, London ; H. H. Lyman, Montreal ; Rev. T. W. Fyles 

South (.Quebec. 
Delegate to the Royal Society of Canada— Rev. T. W. Fyles. 
Auditors— J. H. Bowman, H. P. Bock, London. 



After the completion of the necessary business of the Society, the rest of the 
afternoon was devoted to the examination of the books and collections of the 
Society, and the consideration of specimens brought by the members. Among 
these may be mentioned some live ant-lions {Myrmelionidce) brought from 
Indiana by Mr. Fletcher ; a collection of Plusias, and other moths recently 
captured at Nepigon by Dr. Bethune, and some very interesting specimens of 
Lepidoptera, from the Province of Quebec, by Mr. Fyles. 

The meeting adjourned at 6 p.m. 



In the evening the Society held a public meeting in its rooms at 8 o'clock, 
which was largely attended by members and other friends from London and the 
neighbourhood. The Rev. Dr. Bethune, President of the Society, occupied the 
chair. After cordially welcoming those present, he proceeded to deliver the 
annual address upon the chief topics of interest in the Entomological world dur- 
ing the past year. 

ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — Fifteen years have gone by since I last had the 
honour of addressing the members of the Society as its President. So long a period 
of time has naturally wrought great changes in our comparatively small circle of 
members, as well as in the world about us ; but I am happy to see here 
to-night some who were with us at our annual meeting in 1875, and to know 
that many others have continued ever since their active interest in the welfare of 
the Society and the advancement of entomological science. For twelve years the 
presidential chair was most worthily filled by our highly esteemed friend, Prof. 
VVm. Saunders, who only resigned it in order to devote his whole time and 
energies to the great and important work which he has undertaken as director of 
the experimental farms of the Dominion. His great success in this new office is 
well known to all who take an intelligent interest in the prosperity of our country. 

The removal of Prof. Saunders from an active share in the work of the 
Society seemed a very serious blow, and was certainly a very great loss, but 
happily we were able to find a worthy successor in the person of our excellent 
friend, Mr. James Fletcher, Dominion Entomologist and Botanist, who has so 
zealously performed the duties appertaining to the office of president during the 
last three years. With such able men at its head during so long a period of time, 
it may be readily understood how substantial was the progress of the Society, 
and how high was the reputation it achieved both at home and abroad. 

The past year has been in some respects an eventful one in the history of the 
Society. In the numth of April last 1 learned that Mr. Edmund Baynes Reed 
was about to leave this province and take charge of the meteorological station at 
Victoria, British Columbia. He was one of the original members, and for more 
tlian live and twenty years an active and zealous officer of the Society, filling at 
different times the positions of vice-president, secretary-treasui-er, auditor, librarian 
and curator. To his energy it is due that we have obtained so large and valuable 
a collection of scientific books in our library ; he also contributed many excellent 
papers to our annual reports, while discharging various other useful functions in 
the interests of the Society. His removal from amongst us was so serious a 
matter that I came up to London to make arrangements for the future manage- 
ment of our affairs, as well as to say good-bye to an old and very dear friend. 
After much consultation with Mr. Reed and other members of the council, we 
devised a plan for the general conduct of the business of the Society which has 



been laid before you to-day, and which has resulted in the appointment of Mr. J. 
A. Moffat to the permanent charge of our rooms, library, collections, etc. It will 
be a great advantage, we are sure, in many ways, to have a qualified person to 
look after our possessions, nnd to be on hand at stated times for the admission of 
members to the rooms, as well as to discharge the other duties appertaining to 
the position to which he has been appointed. 

While here in April last, a meeting of the local members of the society was 
held in order to consider apian for the formation of sections which should include 
persons who took an interest in any department of Natural Science, and thus 
extend the operations of the society beyond the strict limits of entomology. The 
scheme which we agreed upon at that meeting Avas submi*-te(l to other members 
of the ct»uncil for their approval, and has been fully ratified to-day. As its 
details have been laid before you already I need not repeat them here. It was 
very gratifying to learn that advantage was immediately taken of this arrange- 
ment, and within a few weeks active sections were formed with very satisfactory 
lists of members in the departments of Botany. Ornithology and Oology, Geology, 
and Microscopy. Many new workers have now joined our ranks, among whom 
we are glad to welcome a large contingent of ladies. A great impetus will thus 
be given, we trust, to the study of natural science in all its departments in 
London and the neighbourhood, and we hope that new life and zeal will be 
infused into the older as well as the later members by active co-operation in the 
field, the cabinet and the study. 

Another matter upon which I may congratulate the society is the acquisition 
of the valuable collections of Coleoptera and other orders of insects, laboriously 
gathered together during many years by Mr. Johnson Pettit, an old and valued 
member of the society. Having ascertained that he was willing to part with 
his collections, I at once entered into correspondence with him, learned the sum 
for which he would be willing to transfer them to the society, and obtained the 
sanction of the members of the council for the purchase. Mr. Pettit was most 
reasonable in his terms when he understood the destination of the collections, and 
allowed us to have them at about half the price he would have asked from a 
private purchaser. Mr. Moffat did good service in the transaction by visiting 
Grimsby first to report upon the condition, quantity, etc., of the specimens, and 
subsequently by superintending their packing and removal to London. It is 
expected that during the coming winter he will be able in his capacity as curator, 
to disposeof many of the duplicates by sale or exchange for the benefit of the society. 

I may turn now from the consideration of our own concerns to matters 
Entomological affecting the coiintry at large, and following the example of my 
predecessors in their presidential addreshes, refer to the work of injurious insects 
in the garden, orchard and farm. The most important insect pest that requires 
the careful attention of our farmers is the well-known Hessian 
Fly (Cecidoniyia destriwtor, Say) Fig. 1, which has made its 
unwelcome appeaiance in several parts of the Province. The 
attacks of this insect upon barley, rye, and wheat, are seldom 
noticed at first, as the creature is so minute and works out of 
sight, sucking the sap of the plant from the stem, but con- 
cealed from observation beneath the sheath of the leaf. Its 
depredations are usually made known by the breaking down 
and falling over of the plant caused by the injury to the 
stem produced by the insect. There are two attacks in the 
year, one in the autumn, when the maggots may be found 
en\bedded in the crown of the root shoots of fall wheat ; the Fig. i. 

other in the summer, when it lies under the leaf-sheath above the first or second 




joint of the stem. When fully grown these larvaa harden and turn brown, re- 
sembling " flax-seeds " in shape and colour, and in this stage are well-known to 
observant farmers. The tiny smoky-winged midges themselves, the parents of 
the destructive maggots, appear in April or May, and again in August, but are 
seldom noticed, except by entomologists, as they are so excessively minute, and 
require a lens for their identification. The eggs are scarlet in colour and are laid 
inside the leaves of the^ood plant. The most efibctive remedies for this pest are 
(1). The late sowing of fall wheat ; if this is postponed till abuut the last week in 
September the winged Hessian fly is gone before the young plant is sufliciently 
matured to receive its eggs ; (2) The careful burning of all screenings and other 
refuse from the threshing mill ; this will ensure the destruction of large quantities 
of the insect in the " flax-seed " state. It is well to do this whether the Hessian 
fly is known to be present or not ; (3). The burning of the stubble after the 
crop has been removed ; but if this is not practicable, it is well that the field 
siiould be harrowed in order to cause any fallen grain to grow^ at once and make 
what is called a " volunteer crop." This will be attacked l>y the fly as a suitable 
place for the deposit of the autumn eggs, and the brood thus produced can be 
readily destroyed by a later plowing after the maggots are hatched out ; (4) If 
a field is found to be infested, care should be taken to have such a rotation of 
crops that neither wheat, rye nor barley should be grown upon the same ground 
for at least another year ; (5). Good cultivation and plenty of manure will pro- 
duce a strong, healthy growth and enable many a plant to survive an attack 
that would be fatal to a less vigorous one. 

I have trespassed upon 3'our patience to mention these well-known remedies 
because the subject is of such vast importance, and constant iteration is required 
in order that our farmers may be made familiar with the methods of treatment 
that have been found most satifactory. While much can be done to ward ofi" the 
evil by an intelligent employment of these remedies, it is cheering to know that 
we do not entii'ely depend upon them for immunity, but that there are several 
minute parasitic insects which prey upon the Hessian-fly in its difierent stages, 
and in many instances prevent it from becoming a serious injury. During a recent 
visit to the central experimental farm at Ottawa, Mr. Fletcher show^ed me a num- 
ber of plants of barley that were attacked by the Hessian-fly, but in nearly 
every one that we pulled up we found a parasitic insect closely associated with the 
enemy and evidently doing good woi'k in its destruction. 

Another insect that has been attacking grain in man}' parts of the Province 
is the Grain Aphis {Sii>honop}iora avencc, Fab.) As everyone who is in the least 
degree observant must be familiar with the appearance and habits of plant-lice, 
it is unnecessary to enter into any description of this insect here ; it will suflice 
to say that it is found of different colours, green, black, yellow or red, and that 
it attacks first the leaves of the plant and then the flowers and tender young 
grain, often causing very serious damage. This year it has appeared in many 
localities in Ontario, but it was at once attacked by its insect enemies, notably 
by the larvte and beetles of various species of " Lady birds " {Coccineilidic), the 
grubs of Syrphus flies, and the Aphidius — a four- winged parasitic fly. These 
natural enemies speedily reduced the numbers of the plant-lice and prevented 
their attack from becoming serious. 

Cut-worms, the larva3 of several species of night-flying moths, Fig. 2, {Agrotis, 
Hadena, Mamestra) have been abundant in all parts of the country, and especi- 
ally injurious in gardens, but on the whole their attack has been much less 
serious than last year. This may perhaps be accounted for by the character of 




the season; the frequent rains durinnr the spring and early sumnicr causing a 

vigorous growth in tlie young plants 
and carrying them quickly beyond the 
reach of injury, while the wet weather 
would probably interfere greatly with 
the comfort of the Cut-worms and 
their ability to attack. The use of 
poisoned traps, as recommended by Mr. 
\f Fletcher in his address last year, has 

Pig 2. proved most eflfeetive wherever tried. 

I may repeat that they consist of loose 
bundles of weeds, clover or any succulent vegetation, which are tied together and 
then dipped into a strong mixture of Paris green and water, and scattered over 
the land three or four days before the crop is planted out or appears above the 
ground. 

The Tent-caterpillars (Clisiocampa) which are usually so abundant and so 
injurious to fruit trees in Sjiring and early summer have been remarkable for 
their absence or rarity, in all parts of Ontario. We hope, however, that all fruit 
growers and gavdenei's will be on the look out for them next spring and consign 
the webs and their inmates to a speedy destruction. 

The Fall web-worm, Fig. 3, {Hyphantria textor, Harris) has been 
exceedingly alnindant in all parts of 

the Province that I have visited this VJ O 

year. I do not think that this insect 
causes much serious injury to the trees 
it infests, as it comes so late in the 
season when the leaves have to a 
large extent dischar<]^ed their function 
as regards the growth and health of 
the tree, but it is a great eyesore 
with its unsightly webs, and should be 
got rid of by every tidy fruit-grower. 
Nothing is easier than to sti'ip otf 
the web and its living contents with i'ig- 3. 

the hands, or when out of reach, by 
means of a pole with a swab of any kind tied to the end. 

The larch saw-fly (Nematus Ericsonii), to which reference has been fre- 
quently made of late years, has not been nearly so abundant as usual in these 
parts of Ontario where it has hitherto prevailed. It is to be hoped that its 
natural enemies have multiplied to a sufficient extent to keep it in subjection and 
prevent its undue increase. 

The squash-V)ug (Coreus tristi.s, Do Geer), Fig. 4, has been very 

"^ / abundant and troublesome in many parts of Western Ontario 

this year. Where hand-picking and crushing under foot 

is impracticable, the insect may be readily destroyed by 

the application of a mixture of coal oil and sand, sprinkled 

i^l^^N ^ over the stem and leaves nearest the root of the plant. 

V ^y ' I have this year found a new insect enemy in the caterpillars 

-^ '^ »^ of the beautiful wood-nymph moth {Eiuiryas grata, Fab.) Fig. 5 

Fia. 4. represents* the caterpillar and moth. I have hitherto looked upon 

this lovely insect as an object of interest from its beauty and rarity, but this year 




'^.MllVVJ.V/lJl.liJ 



uj :Liii//i% 








Fig. 5. 



the caterpillars appeared in hundreds upon the Virginia creeper (Ampelopsis 
quinquefolia), which covers the front of our build- 
ing at Port Hope with its graceful foliage. No 
attention was paid to these creatures at first, but it 
suddenly became apparent that they were rapidly 
devouring the leaves, and rendering most unsightly 
what was before a beautiful mass of green. They 
began their work near the ground and proceeded 
upwards, devouring the leaves as they went. On 
the 9th of August I had the infested creepers 
sprinkled with Paris green and water. One appli- 
cation sufficed to exterminate the insects, and none 
were afterwards to be seen. I have mentioned this 
instance particularly in order to bring before you 
the great advantage of using Paris green as a 
remedy for almost all leaf-eating insects — except, of course, those affecting 
cabbage and similar vegetables which are used as food. A judicious applica- 
tion of a very weak mixture will be found most efficacious. Proper care 
must, of course, be exercised when dealing with so virulent a poison. Its 
use as a remedy for the apple codling-worm and the plum curculio has now been 
fully demonstrated, and any fruit grower w^ho will carefully follow out the direc- 
tions published in our annual reports will, we are confident, be amply rewarded. 
It is a subject of no little gratification to us that fruit-growers in England have 
been at last persuaded to try this remedy, and in every instance that we have 
heard of the experiment has been crowned with success. It required two or three 
years of persistent effort on the part of Miss Ormerod aided by Mr. Fletcher to 
overcome the insular prejudice against adopting anything new and seemingly 
dangerous. Now that a beginning has been made, we hope for great results in 
the immediate future. 

Before leaving this practical portion of my address. I wish to refer to a kin- 
dred, though not an entomological matter. I have noticed in many parts of 
Ontario an alarming increase of the fungus growth on plum and other fruit trees, 
commonly called the " black knot." An Act was passed by the Ontario Legisla- 
ture a few years ago ordering the cutting down and burning of all infe.sted trees, 
and imposing penalties for neglecting to do so ; but the law seems to be a dead 
letter and no one apparently dreams of enforcing it. It would be well for our 
municipal councils to instruct their path-masters and other officials to look after 
the blaek-knot and enforce the law wherever its provisions are neglected. If 
this is not done there will soon be no cherry or plum trees left in the country, as 
the disease rapidly spreads, and when once it attacks a tree it is almost hopeless 
to attempt a cure. 

Anothei- fungus disease to which I may call your attention is the " downy 
mildew " of the grape. It is exceedingly injurious and very prevalent. Fortu- 
nately it may be readily checked by the use of the " Bordeaux mixture," and 
other compounds which fruit-growers have employed with great success. 

Turning now to what I may call the non-economic aspect of entomology — 
though all investigations into the habits and distribution of insects have their 
practical bearing at some time or other — it is worthy of remark that butterflies 
have been extraordinarily scarce in Eastern Ontario this year. Whole days .spent 
in collecting in localities where they were usually abundant have resulted in the 
capture of nothing worthy of mention. It is possible that the unv/onted mild- 
ness of the winter, with its frequent clianges from freezing to thawing, and the 
absence of snow, may have occasioned a great destruction among the hibernating 



forms of diurnal Icpidoptera. I am the more inclined to give credit to this 
cause, as I found recently at Nepigon and Port Arthur, where the winter was 
quite as severe and prolonged as usual, buttertlies were remarkably abundant, and 
could be found in hundreds whenever the sun was shining. Among other inter- 
esting captures at Nepigon, which has now become a famous hunting-ground, and 
where the butterfly collector, careering in hot haste with net in hand after a 
specimen, is not regarded as an escaped lunatic, as he would be in most parts of 
the country, but as a scientist engaged in quite as praiseworthy an occupation 
as trout-fishing — among my captures I may mention a number of specimens of 
Plusia belonging to several iliflerent species. As I only returned a few days 
ajro I have not had time to at't them identified, but 1 have brought several of 
them here for inspection. They were very active indeed upon the flowers 
of thistles and golden rod, flitting swiftly from one to another in the 
hot sun. 

Since our last annual meeting many important additions have been made to 
entomolooical literature. Mr. Scudder's o-rand work on " The Butterflies of the 
Eastern United States and Canada" was completed last Sei)tember. It tbruis three 
lari^^e volumes, containing 2,000 pages and nearly a hundred plates and maps, about 
forty of which are coloured. It is truly a magnificent work and a monument of 
patient labor and careful scientific investigation. However much we may differ 
from the author on such vexed questions as generic nomenclatuie, the sequence 
of families, and the like, we must express our unbounded admiiation for his ability 
and learning, and the excellence of his work. The long pages of descriptive 
matter are enlivened by essays on all manner of subjects connected with butterfly 
life, written in a particularly charming st^de, and to each chapter is prefixed a 
stanza or two of poetry, so apt and so beautiful, that one is lost in wonder at the 
diversity and extent of the author's acquaintance with literature. This feature 
of the work renders it available for all lovers of natural history, even though 
they may take no special interest in butterflies. The author has published the 
work at a large pecuniary .sacriflce. The list of subscribers is strangely small, 
but we hope that erelong liljrarians everywhere will And out that without a copy 
of Scudder's butterflies their collection of books is very incomplete. , 

Self-sacrifice in the publication of entomological literature is the order of 
the day. A similar tale has to be told of the authors of the next two books that 
I wish to refer to. Mr. W. H. Edwards continues to i.ssue his lovely illustrations 
of the " Butterflies of North America." The coloured figures of these insects in all 
their stages are the most perfect and the most beautifully executed that I have 
ever seen. Nine parts of ihe third series have now been issued, and the tenth is 
almost ready ; but at what a cost to the author ! In order to accomplish this 
stupendous work he has been obliged to dispose of his collections and nearly all 
his books — a sacrifice that would be heart-breaking to most of us. 

The other work to which T referred is the Rev. Dr. McCook's " American 
Spiders and their Spinning Work," the second volume of which has just been 
issued. When complete the work will consist of three large (|uarto volumes, pro- 
fusely illustrated with wood cuts and some coloured lithographic plates. It is 
written in a most interesting manner, and while thoroughly scientific, is so 
popularly and clearly expressed that it may be read with ease and deliglit by 
any one who cares to learn aViout the strange habits and peculiar life-history of 
these singular creatures. When finished it will certainly be the most complete 
and perfect work on .spiders in the English language. In this case, too, the author 
is publishing at his own expense and does not expect to be reimbursed for his 



10 



outlay. All these works, I am glad to say, will be found in our Society's library 
and are available for the use of the members. 

Serial publications on North American entomology continue to be represented 
by the Tvans'ict'wns of the, Ainc/rican Entomological Society, Philadelphia; 
Psyche, Cambridge. Mass. ; Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Insect 
Life, Washington, D.C., and our own Canadian Entomologist, Another addition 
has been made to the list this year by the issue of Entomological News and Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. The working entomologist can hardly do without any of these 
publications ; each one occupies its own special field, and all are valuable and 
interesting. Our own magazine, now in its twenty-second volume, continues to 
be i.ssued with regularity, and, I am happy to say, receives contributions from all 
the most eminent entomologists in North America, and occasionally from others 
in Europe. 

The study of economic entomology has been making vast strides during the 
last few years, owing to the establishment of experimental agricultural stations 
in all the States of the Union, and the appointment in many of them of a skilled 
entomologist. The bulletins issued from these stations and the central depart- 
ment at Washington are too numerous lo mention in detail ; they are replete 
with useful information and interesting records of experiments and observations. 
That the work is eminently scientific is shown by the names of those employed, 
for iu.stance. Dr. Riley, Mr. Howard, Dr. Lintner, Professors Forbes, Cook, Smith, 
Fernald, Webster, Weed. These names, and many others, are familiar to us all 
a.s men of distinction in their several localities and departments. 

In our own country much valuable work is being done by Mr. Fletcher, the 
Dominion Enttjmologist at Ottawa, not only by his investigations and the pub- 
lished results, but also by the addresses which he gives in different places to the 
meetings of Farmers' Institutes. He is in this way diffusing throughout the 
country a knowledge of friends and foes amongst insects, and the best modes of 
encouraging the former and exterminating the latter. The result of his work 
must in coui'se of time be the saving of hundreds of thousands of dollars to the 
farmers and fruit-growers of the Dominion. 

In England Miss Ormerod continues her unselfish devotion to the cause of 
economic entomology. Her annual reports are full of very valuable information, 
and have done much good in the mother land. It is gratifying to find that this 
department of pi-actieal work is being developed also in other parts of the British 
Empire. We have received a useful report on insect and fungus pests from the 
Department of Agriculture at Bi'isbane, Australia, prepared by Mr. Heniy Tryon, 
of the QuetMi^land museum, and several numbers o( Indian Museum Notes, pub- 
lished at Calcutta by the Govei-nment of India Revenue and Agricultural Depart- 
ment. These " Notes " are edited by Mr. E. C Cotes, and contain a large number 
of most interesting and valuable papers, both scientific and practical, illustrated 
with excellent engravings. 

Before leaving this subject, I must not omit to mention the publication last 
autumn of a bulletin on the " Mediterranean Flour-Moth " (Ephcstia Kulniiella, 
Zeller), prepared hy Dr. Bryce, of Toronto, and issued by the Agricultural Depart- 
ment of Ontario. It is an excellent pamphlet and contains just what one wants 
to know aljout tliis new pest. The mischief referred to seems to have been 
stamped out, at least I have not heard of any further cases of attack in this 
province, and we may be quite certain that after the ex[)erience of last year, our 
millers will keep a sharp look out for the pest, and deal with it promptly should 
it show itself aLrain. 



11 



I feel now that I have trespassed quite lonfj enough upon your patience, 
and must bring my remarks to a close. Tiie prospects of our Society are bright 
and cheering ; we may well congratidate oursi;lvcs upon what has been accom- 
plished in tlie past, and look forward with pleasant anticipations to tlie future. 
Let each member work honestly and faithtnlly in his own special department, 
and let us all unite in upholding the interests of the Society, and doing all that 
we can to increase its usefulness, maintain its reputation and ensure its success. 



After a cordial vote of thanks to the President for his interesting: address 
had been duly moved and seconded, Mr. Fletcher was called upon to give an 
account of the meeting at Indianapolis of the Entomological Club of the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, to wliich lie ha<l been 
sent as delegate by the Society, and from attcMidinf; which he had just returned. 
Mr. Fletcher stated that it had been an exceptionally good meeting, attended by 
a larger number than usual of eminent entomologists and botanists, and that its 
discussions were remarkably interesting and useful. The full account of its 
proceedings will be found in a subsequent part of this report. 

The Rev. T. W. Fyles read a scholarly paper, entitled, " A Day in the 
Woods," which was highly appreciated by the audience. 

The reports of the Council, the Montreal Branch, and the delegate to the 
Koyal Society were read by the President. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

The Council of the Entomological Society of Ontario beg to pre.sent the 
following report of their proceedings during the past year: — 

The Society, they are happy to say, continues to prosper and maintain its 
usefulness. The membership is satisfactory and increased interest is being taken 
in its work. 

The twentieth annual report on Economic and General Entomology was 
sent to the Minister of Agriculture in December last, and was printed and distri- 
buted in the following May. As it has been for some time in the hands of the 
members of the Society, it is unnecessary to refer particularly to it. It consisted 
of 10 i pages, with .50 vvood cuts in illustration, and w.is quite up to the average 
in the papers which it contained. 

The Canadian Entomologist hfis beenregularly issued at the beginning of each 
month, and is now approaching the completion of its 22nd volume. It c^ntitmes 
to receive valuable contril)utions from all the leadin<x entomoloi^ists in North 
America, as well as from some in P]uropo, and is i*egarded by scientists as a 
highly important magazine in the department which it occupies. Tlie editor has 
found it necessary on two occasions recently to enlarge the number of pages 
from 20 to 24 in May and 28 in August, owing to the pressure upon his space. 

After the disastrous fire at the University of Toronto in February last, the 
Council decided to pi'csent to the library a complete set of the Canadian Ento- 
mologist ami the annual reports. 

Several valuable additions have been made to the library of the Society 
during the past year, among which may be mentioned Mr. S. II. Scudder's " But- 



12 



terflies of the New England States and Canada," which is now completed and bound, 
and the Rev. Dr. McCook's " Spiders and their Spinning-work," two volumes of 
■which have thus far been issued. 

In April last a meeting of the Society was held in London, with the presi- 
dent in the chair, at which plans were discussed for the formation of sections of 
the Society in other depai-tments of natural science. The memoiandum agreed 
upon at the time is herewith submitted for approval and ratitication. 

In consequence of the removal of Mr. E. Eaynes Reed from London to 
British Columbia, to take charge of the Dominion Meteorological Station at 
Victoria, it will be necesh^aiy to make some new arrangements for the care of the 
library and collections, and the performance of the (official work of the Society. 
The Council will submit a scheme for the fippointment of a permanent officer in 
the person of Mr. J. Alston Moffat, of Hamilton, which they trust will be found 
to work satisfactorily, and to increase the usefulness and prosperity of the 
Society. 

The Council desire to place on record their feeling of deep regret at the 
removal of Mr. Reed from this Province and the loss which the Society thereby 
sustains. Mr. Reed is one of the original members of the Society, and for more 
than a quarter of a century has been one of the most active and zealous of its 
officials, tilling at different times the positions of vice-president, secretary-trea- 
surer, librarian, curator and auditor. To him it is especially due that the library 
has grown to its present dimensions and value, and that so much progress has 
been made by the Society in many directions. The Council beg to thank Mr. 
Reed for his services in the past, and wish him all possible success and prosperity 
in his new and important sphere of labour. 

During the month of May last arrangements were entered into for the 
purchase of the large collections in Coleoptera and other orders of insects made 
by Mr. Johnson Pettit, of Grimsby. The packing and tran.sportation were super- 
intended by Mr. Moffat, and the collections are now safely deposited in the rooms 
of the Society''. 

In accordance with our long-established custom, a member of the Council, 
Mr. Fletcher, has attended, as representative of the Society, the meeting of the 
Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
which has just been held at Indianapolis, Ind. Mr. Fletcher will submit a report 
of its proceedings. 

The report of Mr. Lyman, the delegate to the Royal Society of Canada, and 
the report of the Montreal Branch, are presented herewith. The accounts of the 
secretary-treasurer have been duly audited, and will be laid before the Society. 

Tenders for printing the Cavadian Enlomologist have been procured from 
several printing offices in London and Toronto, and are now laid before the 
Society for consideration. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Council. 

CHARLES J. S. BETHUNE, 

President 



13 



REPORT FROM THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO TO 
THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

BY II. H. LYMAN, DELEGATE. 

As delegate from the Entomological Society of Ontai-io, it is again for the 
third time my duty to submit a nhort report of the work and progress of the 
Society during the past year, and I have mucli pleasure in saying that the Society 
continues to prosper and to maintain its high position among the scientific 
institutions of the Dominion and the continent. 

The monthly magazine of the Society, the Canadian Entomologist, has been 
regularly and promptly issued during the past year and fully maintains its well 
known high character. The volume for 1889, which was the twenty-first volume, 
contained the usual 240 pages of reading matter, and had also one plate. The 
contributors numbered thirty-four and the articles were quite up to the usual 
standard of interest. Owq new genus, thirteen n^w species and seven new varie- 
ties of various orders were described in the volume, which also contained the 
complete life-histories of four species and partial ones of eight others. A series 
of papers on popular and economic entomology were also published during the 
year. 

The annual report of the Society for 1889 to the Minister of Agriculture for 
Ontario has been published and contains many interesting papers of much 
importance to agriculturists, besides the usual report of the annual meeting 
and of the finances of the Society. 

The annual meeting of the Society was held in Toronto on September 3rd, 
■during the meeting in that city of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, which afforded our members the pleasure of meeting some of the 
distinguished entomologists of the neighbouring republic whose presence also 
added much interest to the meeting of our Society. 

Our members also enjoyed the pleasure of attending the meetings of the 
Entomological Club of the American Association, presided over by our then 
President, ilr. Fletcher. 

During the progress of these meetings it was resolved to form an " Associa- 
tion of Official Economic Entomologists " for the United States and Canada, 
which was accordingly organized and officers duly elected. 

This movement is likely to have a very beneficial effect in securing greater 
co-operation ara'>ng entomologists in official positions, and the annual meetings 
with the interchange of members' views cannot fail to be productive of much 
good. The library of our Society is in excellent order and was reported at the 
annual meeting as containing l,0o2 volumes. 

On account of certain provisions of " The Agriculture and Arts Act " of 
Ontario, recently passed, it was found necessary to make certain changes in the 
council of the Society, as the Act provides that all societies which receive aid 
from the Ontario Government must be governed by a board of directors who 
are residents of the agricultural divisions which they represent, the Entomolo- 
gical Society being permitted to group the thirteen agricultural divisions into 
five with one director for each. This Act will of course prevent any member of 
the Society residing out of Ontario iiolding any of the more important positions 
in the gift of the Society. 



14 



The following officers for the ensuing year were duly elected : 

President— Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D.C.L., Port Hope. 
Vice-President — E. Baynes Reed, London. 
Secretary -Treasu I er — W. E. Saunders, London. 
Librarian — E. Baynes Reed, London. 
Curator — Rowland Hill, London. 
Directors, Division 1 — W. H. Harrington, Ottawa. 
2— J. D. Evans, Sudbury. 

' '3 — Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 

' 4 — J. Alston Motiat, Hamilton. 

5 — J. M. Denton, London. 
Editor of the Canadian Entomologist — Rev. Dr. Bethune, Port Hope. 
Editing Committee — James Fletcher, Ottawa ; J. M. Denton, London ; 

Rev. T. W. Fyles, South Quebec ; Dr. Brodie, Toronto. 
Delegate to the Royal Society of Canada — H. H. Lyman, Montreal. 
Auditors — J. M. Denton and E. B. Reed, London. 

Early last month our Society, on the suggestion of the President, resolved to 
extend its field of operations by permitting the formation of sections for the 
study of other branches of Natural History, and sections have alreadj' been 
formed in Botany, Ornithology, Geology, and Microscopy, and joint field meetings 
of all the sections will be held regularly during the summer. This movement 
will, it is anticipated, strengthen the Society by bringing in many additional 
members. It is also hoped that arrangements may be effected to keep the rooms 
of the Society open daily. 

The Montreal Branch, of which I have the honour to be President, continues 
I am happy to say in a prosperous condition. A number of new members have 
joined during the past year, and the monthly meetings have been regularly held 
and have been usually well attended. 

Mr. Scudder's magnificent work on the Butterflies of New England, to 
which reference was made last year, was completed last October, and its issue 
marks an epoch in the history of North American Entomology. 

The placing by Parliament during the past session, of books which have 
been published for twenty or more years upon the free list, is a measure of great 
importance to entomologists, as it removes a very burdensome tax upon men 
whose studies are seldom remunerative in a pecuniary sense, and will tend to 
encourage the bringing into the country of many valuable works upon this science 
which would not otherwise have been done. 



REPORT OF THE MONTREAL BRANCH. 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the Montreal Branch was held at the 
residence of Mr. Lyman on May 23rd, 1890, at 8 o'clock, p.m. 

The following report of the Council was then submitted by the President : 

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MONTREAL BRANCH OF THE ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

The Council in presenting their report for the year 1889-90, can state with pleasure that the past year 
has been one of progress for the Brunch, no less than six new members having been elected during th» 
year. 

The names of those added to our roll are Messrs. Chas. Jackson, P. M. Dawson, H F. Baynes, 
Alfred tiriffin, G. M. Edwards, and W. C. Adams; but of these Mr. Dawson has recently left Montreal 
to pursue hib studien elsewhere. 



15 



I>iirinp the year ten meetingH havf hfcn held, one of wliich, vi/. : that in Jinie, held at th»^ reaidenca 
of Mr. Tifnholmt', in Cote St. Antoine, was primarily devoted to collecting nocturnal lepidoptera. 
Th»i following paj ers were read during the year : — 

1. The Ndrtli American Callinior(iha8 ; A Reply to Critics. H. H, Lyman. 

2. Some Insects injurious to the Oak ; F. 15. Caulfield. 

3. Notes on the Lepidoptera of Little Metis, P. Que. A. F. Winn. 
3. A Trip to Mount Manstield. H. II. Lym.'vn. 

6. Note on the Occurrence of Erebia Discoidalis at Sudbury, Ont. H. H. Lyman. 

6. Notes on some species of Coccinellidae found at Montreal. F. B. Caulfield. 

7. Entomology of Pittsfield, Mass. P. M. Dawson. 

8. Note on the occurrence of LepiseBia flavofasciata at Ormstown, P. Que. H. H. Lyman. 

9. Various notes on Coleoptera. J. F. Hansen. 

Comparatively little field work was done during the collecting teason of 1889, owing to the unugual 
scarcity of insects of those orders studied by the members, and though the pro«;pects for this season are 
not as yet very encouraging, we may hope that more will be done, especially with the increased member- 
ship of the Branch ; and it must also be remembered that oven in an unfavourable season good work may 
be done in discovering the preparatory stages and foodplants of insects where these are unknown, or only 
partially known, as was the case last season in regard to Grapta J. album, which was bred by two of our 
members. 

Submitted on behalf of the Council. 

(Signed) H. H. LYMAN, President- 

The Secretary-Treasurer then submitted the financial statement, shewing a 
balance on hand of S8.77. 

The reports having been adopted, the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : — President, H. H. Lyman ; Vice-President, F. B. Caulfield ; 
Secretarj'-Treasurer, A. F. Winn ; Council, E. C. Trenholrae and J. F. Hansen. 

The President then read an interesting paper, " Notes on Argynnis freya 
A. Chariclea, and H. Montinus," dealing with the difierences between these 
species and illustrating them by specimens. 

(Signed) E. C. TRENHOLME, 

Sec. - Treasurer. 



ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THE TREASURER. 

Rcceipti, 1S89-90. 

Membership fees 5229 53 

Sales of Entomologist 110 89 

" pins, cork, etc ^^^ ^ ^ 

Advertisements \o \ 

Government grant I'OOO 00 

Interest 1^0 08 

Balance from last year If LI^ 

$1,629 96 
Expenditure, lSSO-00. 

Printing ?m 76 

Report and meeting expenses ^^"* ^^ 

T •. 57 26 

Library 

Purchase of collectione, etc 318 52 

Expense account (postage, stationery, etc) 91 8d 

Rent «°«^ 

36 00 

Insurance 

Grants to Editor, Secretary and Librarian 200 00 

_ , . ,„ 107 69 

Cork, pms, etc 

^ , 163 90 

Balance 

$1,629 96 



16 



The President read the memorandum which was drawn up in April hist 
regarding the formation of sections of the Society in various departments of natural 
science, and after giving an account of the enthusiasm with which the project was 
taken up by the naturalists in London, he congratulated the members on the 
success of the movement and hoped that it would long continue. 

A paper by Mr. Frederick Clarkson, of New York, entitled " Observations 
from the top of a White Mountain coach," concluded the formal part of the 
meetino-, and was listened to with much interest. At the request of those 
present. Dr. Bethune gave an entertaining account of the admii-able work of Miss 
Eleanor A. Ormerod, the foremost economic entomologist of Great Britain, 
including pleasant reminiscences of his personal acquaintance with her. 

The meeting then proceeded to discuss the locality and arrangements for an 
outinor the next da3% and decided upon visiting the banks of the River Thames a 
few miles below the city, where there is an excellent collecting ground. 

Mr. Dearness, IMr. W. E. Saunders and Dr. Woolverton were next called 
upon to give a report of the procedings in the botanical, ornithological and 
geological sections respectively; their remarks were highly interesting and 
encouraging, and pi'oved that the new departure made by the Society is an 
excellent one and must greatly redound to its success and prosperity. 

After some congratulatory remai^ks by the President upon the admirable 
showino" of the Society for the past year, the meeting adjourned. 



A DAY IN THE WOODS. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

A day in the woods ! What delightful reminiscences do the words awaken 
— recollections of bad -nesting and nutting expeditions, and of 

" The days when we went gipsyinp: a long time ago." 

To the busy man, who loves business for itself, a day of relaxation can 
hardly be unwelcome ; but to the man who leads a busy life, not from choice, 
but from stress of circiuustances and for whom tho wilderness and the solitary- 
place have especial charuis, how delightful is it to escape from his accustomed 
haunts and " far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife," to look irito the fair 
face of Nature, and to listen with loving reverence whilst she tells of many 
thinsrs. 

It was with something akin to the feelings of such a man that on the 6th 
day of August last, I proposed to the young people at my house that we should 
have a day in the woods. The proposition was joyfully welcomed, a party was 
soon made up, the horse was harnessed, lunch baskets were packed, tin-pails for 
berryin<^ were stowed away and forthwith we started. We drove along the clitf 
road to St. David's and then took a by-road leading to St. Henri's. Soon we came 
to a reo-ion of sand. Wherever the turf was cut by the wagon-wheels sand 
appeared. With change of soil, a change of flora and fauna may be expected. 
The first thin^ that took my attention was the multitude of tiger beetles fre- 
quenting this green lane. A sandy tract in which ant-hills are numerous is the 
favorite hunting ground of the cicindelidai, and in such a tract the mining opera- 
tions of their larvae may be easily curried on. Amongst the beetles that I 
noticed on this occasion, was the blue-black cicindela with the yellow clypeus 




17 



(Clongilabris Say), the rich ni.sy-purple (C. purpurea, 01iv.),(Fig. 6), and the deep 
bronzed-green {G. iimlxiJls Kl.). My efibixs to capture some of 
these aroused the curiosity of some habitants who were working 
in an adjacent field. At first they looked with the utmost astonish- 
ment at my proceedings, and shook their heads at one another as 
much as to say, J^e is very far gone; but soon a light seemed to dawn 
in upon them and there was ageneral clearing up,thev came, in fact, to 
the conclusion that 1 and my party were bound on a fishing excursion 
to tlie Falls of the Etcheuiin, and that I was prudently laying in a 
supply of grasshoppers for bait And shortly afterwards, when I 
Fio. G. ' had occassion to speak to them, I received respectful greeting and 
attention as one who kneiu what he was about. Resuming our 
journey we came to a region of second growth balsams, broken in upon by poorly 
cultivated fields in which blue-berry bushes abounded, and by tracts of green vel- 
vety moss dotted over with young pines. As we entered this region the passage of 
our vehicle disturbed a butterfly. " There goes Neonymplia catifhus," I said, but 
in a moment the thoughts of the incongruities of time and place for this induced 
me to leave my wagon and go in search of the insect, and soon I had the 
great delight of securing for the first time, a living specimen of Debis Fortlandia. 
Gosse took this species many ^^ears ago at Coinpton, P. Que., and D'Urlan in 
Argenteuil county, on the River Rouge. It has since been taken by Mr. Caulheld 
and Mr. Winn on Mount Royal, and by Mr. Fletcher in the neighbourhood of 
Ottawa. The insect is, however, rare in the Province of Quebec. In the course 
of a few hours I took two others specimens, dilapidated females. I found that 
the ovary of one of these had been quite emptied, from the other I obtained by 
pressure five pearly- white eggs, large for the size of the insect. 

1 did not find D. Portlandia difficult to catch. It has the habit of flitting 
for a few rods, and then settling on the trunk of a tree a yard or two from the 
ground, trusting it would seem for security to the similarity of its colours to 
those of the lichens that cling about the balsam stems. 

In the glades and open fields Argynnis Aphrodite and Argynnis Atlantis 
were everywhere abundant, the latter being readily distinguished by their dusky 
beauty from their brighter companions. Whilst I was watching thes6 active 
fritillaries, a butterfly of a different form came into the field. It proved to be 
Grapta gracilis. It was the only one of its kind that I could discover. Another 
good butterfly that I took on this occasion was Thecla Titus. This insect appears 
to be very widely distributed in Quebec Province. I have found it on Mount 
Royal, at Oka on the Ottawa, in the Eastern Townships and at Quebec, but 
solitary, or in pairs only. 

Amongst the moths that showed themselves on this occcasion, I noticed 
two veryperfect specimens of that show3'-insect Arctia Saundersii,(Fig. 7), also the 
beautiful Plusias, SiDiplex and Frecationis. On the trunks of the trees 
Pretophora truncata was to be seen, and, 
of course, that ubiquitous insect Drasteria 
erecthea (Cram.) was constantly rising from 
the grass at my approach. The hour for 
luncheon having arrived, and my boy hav- 
ing kindled a fire and made the tea, the 
fruit gatherers were summoned and soon 
appeared laden with their spoils, raspber- 
ries, blueberries and the fruitof Amelanchier 
Canadensis (Torr. and Gr.), called by the Fig. 7. 

French-Canadians poires. We sat down under a spreading beech, and amidst such 

2 (EN.) 




18 



a beating of drums as the Queen of England holding high festival in Windsor 
Castle never heard, for it seemed as if from every tree Cicada canicularis was 
sounding its note. The tattoo of this insect increases in intensity for a while 
and then breaks off with a few disjointed beats. Now and then a sudden whir-r-r 
would bs heard and the dark body of the bug would be seen shooting like a 
bolt to fresh vantage ground, the transparent wings of the insect being invisible 
against the blue sky. 

After luncheon the most interesting discovery that I made was that of a 
species of Gelechia inhabiting galls on the white aster {Diplopappus umbdlatus 
Torrey and Gray). The galls were found well up the stems of the plant, from a 
foot to two feet above the ground, and were smooth and onion-shaped. The 
largest specimens were five-eighths of an inch across. On opening the galls I 
found in several a brown chrysalis resting upon a web stretched across the 
interior. At the bottom was some decomposed matter, and near the top a neat 
round hole bitten through to the outer skin of the gall. In others of the galls I 
found a number of white shining grubs, blunt at one end and tapering at the 
other. Their length was about one line. I counted ten of these in one gall, 
and they were evidently consuming the remains of their host. In some instances 
the grubs had spun up into light drab cocoons. 

In a few days I obtained from the galls four moths and two ichneumon flies. 
The latter were black with orange legs. The following is the description of the 
moths : 

Length of body four lines, expanse of wings eight to nine lines. 

Head white, eyes black, labial palpi recurved — first joint large and white, 
lower half of second joint white, upper brown with a white tip, antennae filiform, 
jight brown ringed with black. 

Thorax reddish chocolate in colour : fore-wings rich chocolate red with a 
white divided fascia near the hind margin, under side grey ; hind-wings pale 
silvery grey ; fringes grey with a faint brownish gloss. 

Abdomen golden yellow on the upper side of the three first segments, the 
rest light brown. 

These moths differ considerably from those figured and described by Mr. 
Kellicott in Vol. X. Can. Ent., p. 201, and from those described by Mr, Eiley in 
the First Missouri Report, p. 172. I would suggest for them the name of 
Gelechia gallwdijdopappi. 

The life of the Gelechia in its early stages is an interesting and sugges- 
tive one. The creature lives and toils in the narrow area of its prison-house, 
knowing nothing of the higher life and the glorious field for which it is des- 
tined, yet impelled by its instincts to make preparations for the change. 
Dire foes it has ; and can it be that some violationof instinct, some erratic course on 
the part of the larva lavs it open to the assaults of these ? We know not, but 
possessed by these, it fails to attain to that nobler state of existence — which 
things are an allegory, suggestive to us of joys for which we yearn and evils 
which we fear. 

Here as elsewhere this season I could not but notice the abundance of hairy 
caterpillars, Arctians of various kinds. A large proportion of these caterpillars 
had been overtaken with a strange disease — a sort of mange — and many had 
already succumbed to it. The warts upon the caterpillars had dried up, the 
bristles had blanched and loosened, the intestines had disappeared, and the outer 
frame of the insect had become spongy, the annules parted at a touch. The 
unfortunate insects were the prey of a fungus which has been identified by Dr. 



19 



Thaxter as Entomopht/iora grylii var aulica (Fres.) 1 am inclined to believe- 
that the intense heat following upon the long spell of wet weather that 
we had in early summer induced the disease. Such an epidemic amongst 
caterpillars I have not witnessed since the time — some years ago — that the larvae 
of Pier Is rap(V were swept away by thousands. 

Everywhere upon the choke-cherry bushes were to be found colonies of the 
little yellow, black-headed larva; of the Tortrix {Caatcia cerasivorana, Fitch). 
They bind the terminal leaves of the shoots together with a dense web, and carry 
on their operations under its shelter. 

Of the Coleoptera but few specimens presented themselves. I took several of 
CocchieUanovem-nvtuta (Hb.),(Fig. 8) and one handsome Leptura, dusky yellow 
with a distinct black cross on the elytra. This Mr. Mofiatt has 
identified for me as L. suhhamata (Rand). The order of insects that 
w;is most numerously represented on this occasion was the Hymenop- 
tera. Among the species I noticed were Bombus fervidus, (Cress), 
Bomhiis ternarms, (Say), Bombus consimilis, (Cress), Anthophora 
bomboides, (Kirby), Andrena nivalis, (Smith), Vespa media, (Oliv.), 
Odijnerus capra, (Sauss.), Eumienes frafenia, (Say), Grabro singularis, (Pack), 
HeibjchriDii violaieiiin, (Lepelle), Ichneumon grandis, (Brulle), /. latus, 
(BruUe), and the males of ITroceros cyaneits, (Fab.) 

By this time the sun was getting low in the sky, and the voices of my 
young friends were, I fancied, a little less jubilant than they had been earlier in 
the day, and feeling the wisdom of not driving pleasure into satiety, I gave the 
word for the return. Besides my captures, we took back with us a large pailful of 
raspberries, another of blueberries and a smaller one of poires. All of which were 
afterwards preserved. So we hope that in the dark days of winter we shall be 
reminded, frequently and pleasantly, of our day in the woods. 




Fig. 8. 



OBSERVATIONS FROM THE BOX OF A WHITE MOUNTAIN COACH. 

BY FREDERICK CLARKSON, NEW YORK. 

On a journey through the White Mountains of New Hampshire, en route to 
Bar Harbor, Me., the past summer, I observed the following Lepidoptera : At 
Franconia Notch, altitude 2,014 feet, P. Turnus was abundant, constantly fly- 
ing along the drive and in the woods bordering the road. At the Flume, altitude 
4,500 feet, by wet places on the road as many as fifty were found congregated 
apparently enjojnng the moisture. At greater elevations Turnus was rarely seen 
and above the timber line I failed to discover 
any Lepidoptera. At the Crawford Notch, alti- 
tude 8,134 feet, and through the Glen, Turnus 
was ever in sight, its brilliant yellow wings 
contrasting beautifully with the luxuriant 
green of these primeval forests. In thick 
woody places, and where the sun shone 
through in jjatches, the coquettish L. arthe- 
mis frequently appeared, ever alighting with- 
in your reach an<l ever darting away again 
■with hide and go seek playfulness. A. Aphro- 
dite with wings of "Silver bells and cockle shells" delighted the eye in its graceful 
flight along the road way between Jefferson and Fabyan, and C. philodice, 
(Fig. 9), rising with the dust at the horses' feet would encircle the coach, and 
then wander away to join its companions at tlie roadside brook. D. archippus, 




Fig. 0. 



20 



(Fig. 10), the universal beauty, though not numerous in the White Mountains as 
«arly as the 11th of August, was occasionally seen flitting from fli-wer to flower 



. ^^- 




%\if 



Fig. 10. 

with all its well known elegance and dignity of motion. In a small cabinet at 
the Hotel Waumbek, at Jefferson, there is a single specimen of Chionobas 
semidea, (Say), captured on the summit of Mount Washington. This butterfly, 
says Scudder, feeds on sedges and lives upon the summit of Mount Washington; the 
genus containing several species, is, according to Packard, found on Alpine sum- 
mits, and in the Arctic regions and on subarctic mountains. It must be a hardy 
insect to withstand the variable temperature of the mountain top. At the 
Summit House on Mt. Washington, the mercury on the 15th of July, at 5 a.m. 
stood at 47°, while a few days previous it was as low as 27°. At midday the power 
of the sun is felt, and the temperature is as high as that at a much lower altitude. 
The cabinet, already referred to, at the Hotel Waumbek, Jefl'erson, contains 
the following Lepidoptera, the greater part being captures made at Bethlehem, 
which is at an altitude of 1,4-50 feet : 

p. Turnns. S. Alope. 

D. Archippus. P. Cecropia. 

L. Misippus. T. Polyphemus. 

A. Aphrodite. A. Luua. 

V. Antiopa. E. Grata. 

G. Interrogationis. S. do. 

C. Philodice. M. Quinque-maeulata. 
P. Cardui. C. Piatrix. 

The Profile House, at Franconia Notch, has also a collection of Lepidoptera. 
The cabinet contains the following, all of which were captured in the vicinity of 
the hotel, altitude 1,054 feet : 

P. Tiirnus. P. Cecropia. 

V. Antiopa. A. Luna. 

P. Atalanta. S. Kalmiae. 

D. Archippus. S. Drupiferarum. 
P. Cardui. C. Ultronia. 

L. Arthemia. A. Nessus. 

A. Aphrodite. A. Octomaculata. 

C. Philodice. 

A stray setter followed our stage from Mount Washington to the Glen and 
Buo-gested an Entomological joke which I subjoin, and with which I close this record. 

What is the name of your dog ? 

Well, I call him Entomology. 

Rather a queer name for a dog, isn't it ? 

No, I think it singularly appropriate. 

Why, Entomology is a .science, and means a discourse on insects, in short, it is wholly and altogether 
a subject of insects. 

That's just the reason why I call my dog Entomology, for he is wholly and altogether a subject of 
insects. 



21 



MEETING OF THE SOCIETY IN APRIL. 

A meeting of the London members of the Entomological Society of Ontario 
was held in the rooms, Victoria Hall, London, on Friday evening, April 11th, 
1890 : the president. Rev. C. J. S. Bethune in the chair, Tlie following resolutions 
were adopted • 

That with a view of increasing the usefulness of the Society and furthering 
the stud}' of Natural History and the kindred sciences it is desiraMe to folh^w 
the method of the Canadian Institute and the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and permit sections to be formed for the various branches 
of Botany, Ornithology and Oology, Microscopy, Geology, and such others as may 
from time to time appear to be desirable. The basis proposed is as follows : 

1. All members of the sections shall be members of the Kntomological Society and be governed by its 
rules and regulations and entitled to all its privileges. 

2. Any five members may, with the permission of the Council, form themselves into a Section devoted 
to .some special branch, and organize the same, appoint officers and make rules for the meetings, etc., the 
same not being contrary to the rules of the Society. 

3. One-half of the ajinual fee of each member of a section shall be refunded by the Entomological 
Society to the Treasurer of that section for the use and benefit of the section. 

4. All members of the Society shall be free to attend anj' meeting of a section and take part in its 
discussions, but only those shall be entitled to vote who shall have signed the roll of that particular section. 

5. A member may elect to be member of one or more sections, but the one-half of the fees returned 
by the Society can only be paid to one section. 

That it is desirable in the interests of the Society that some one should be 
found who would keep the rooms open daily and be in charge thereof. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



ORGANIZATION OF SECTIONS. 

The following report is taken from the London Free Press, of May 5th, 1890 • 

A most enthusiastic meeting of Naturalists was held in the rooms of the Entomological Society on 
Saturday evening, for the purpose of organizing sections of the Society for the purpose of active work in the 
kindred branches of natural history. Sections were formed in Botany, Ornithology, Geology and Microscopy, 
with the following chairmen p?-o tan: — Botahy, John Dearncss ; Ornithology, William Saunders ; Geology, 
Dr. Woolverton ; Microscopy, Prof. J. W. l:iowman. Evenings were selected for organizing^ the .sections 
and the meeting then adjourned. The Botanical section met at once and elected officers as follows : — 
chairman, John Dearness ; vice-chairman, Prof. J. H. Bowman ; secretary. Dr. Sus.annah Carson. The 
following persons signified their intention of joiuing the section : — Dr. Jennie Carson, Mrs. W. E. Saunders, 
Miss Edith VfcMechan, Miss Fowler, Drs. Hedge and Woolverton, ^[essrs. E. l'>. Reed, A. McQueen, A. 
0. Jeflnry, ^. H. Craig, Saunders, J. Balkwill, Kelley, A. Craig, R. Elliott and R. A. Gray. 

The next meeting will be held on Saturday evening, 10th iust., at 8 o'clock, in the Entomological 
rooms at which it is expected there will be a large attendance of ladies as well as gentlemen. Mr. Dearnesa 
will give s^uggestions as to collecting and preserving plants, while the identification of plants collected dur- 
ing the week will be an item of sjiecial interest. The Ornithologica! section meet.s to-night in the Entomo- 
logical rooms and a general invitation is extended to all interested in rhe study of Ornithology and Oology 
to attend so as to make the organization complete at once and ready for the seasoa's study. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE A. A. A. S. 

The Entomological Club of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, assembled in the State House at Indianapolis, Ind., on Wednesday, 
August 20th, 1890, and began its regular sessions at 9 o'clock a.m., the President, 
Prof. A. J. Cook, Agricultural College, Mich., in the chair. 

There were present during the meetings: W. B, Alwood, Blaeksburgh, Va; 
Geo. F. Atkinson, Columbia, 8. C; W. S. Blachley ,; P. Carter ; Prof. E. ^\. Clay- 
pole, and K. B. Claypole, Akron, Ohio ; F. S. Earle, Ocean Springs, Michigan; 
S. G. Evans, Evansville, In<i.: James Pletcher, Ottawa, Ont.; H. Carman, Lexington, 
Ky.; Mrs. O. Hauney ; C. W. Hargitt, Oxford, Ohio ; Thos. Hunt ; John Marten, 



22 



Albion, 111.; Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt and Miss Augusta Murtfeldt, St. Louis, Mo.; 
W. W. Norman ; Prof. Herbert Osborn and L. H. Pammel, Ames, Iowa; R. S. F. 
Perry ; C. Robertson, Carlingville, Ind.; Prof. J. W. Spencer, Athens, Ga.; James 
Troop and Prof. F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind.; Dr. Clarence M. Weed, Columbus, 
•Ohio, and others. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 

The President, Prof. A. J. Cook, delivered the following address on teaching 
•entomology : 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Entomological Club. — I congratulate you 
that another year has passed, and our number has not been broken in upon by 
death. While our ranks have been much enlarged, no one has been called to that 
undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveller returns. I also congratu- 
late you upon the great mcremeut in our force of working entomologists. I think 
I may say, with no fear of contradiction, that no year in the history of America 
has been so remarkable in this respect as has the last. This is a cause for special 
felicitation, not only to entomologists, but to all our people. Ours is a tremendous 
country — by ours I include, of course, our Canadian brothers, for we, as scientists, 
know no line of separation — and to spy out the entire land needs an army of 
workers or observers, all trained to keen sight and ready apprehension. But 
more than this the magnitude of our country is fully equalled by the magnitude of 
the insect hosts, and to know all of these, with their full life history, requires an 
incalculable amount of closest research. But our business economy demands this 
for all our species : for so wonderful is the balance of nature, so close the relations 
of all species of life, that really we may hardly divide insects into those important 
and those unimportant in our agricultural economy. All are important ; and so 
from an economic, no less than a scientific standpoint, it is desirable that all such 
research be widely encouraged, and it is a most hopeful omen — the rapid increase 
of earnest and trained workers. I shall not in this address occupy time by giving 
the peculiarities of the season in respect to insects, nor yet call attention to inte- 
resting discoveries, like the importation of the Vedalia cardinalis, All these 
will be brought out in papers and discussions. I must, however, refer to the new 
association for the advancement of economic entomology, which was organized at 
Toronto a year ago, and which held its first meeting at Washington last Novem- 
ber. This meeting, under the Presidency of Dr. Riley, was a valuable one ; and 
that society promises much for the science of entomology, as well as for its 
economic development. It is also a matter of much interest that a new paper — 
Insect News is started at that great centre of entomology — Philadelphia — which 
will also do much every way for our science. This, with the very excellent 
periodical Insect Life, published by the Entomological Division of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, can but give new impetus to entomological research. In 
addition to these, we have an addition to Prof. Comstock's admirable work, which 
when completed will form a most valuable adjunct in the development of ento- 
mology. If we may judge from what we already have, this will be invaluable in 
every entomological laboratory. When the Society of Economic Entomologists 
was organized a year ago it was remarked by one of our first entomologists that 
that move sounded the death-knell of this Club. I then remarked that such 
ought not to be the case. That Society is to be composed only of those interested 
in economic entomology, and of course will only put emphasis in the direction of 
the practical aspects of the science ; this more or less of entomologists in a wider 
sense, and so will include those interested in practical entomology and also in 



23 



the science witlioiit relation to utility. The Club then may well continue. I 
believe it will live and thrive, and will be most helpful to entomologists and to 
our science. While the other Association will discuss economic questions, this 
Club will place no limit on either its discussions or its membership, only so far as 
entomology shall be its aim and purpose. No one doubts but that he who has a 
thorough training in the science of entomology will be far better prepared for 
practical work, and so there can be only the most cordial relations between the 
Association of Economic Entomologists and this Club. Indeed, many of our 
most active entomologists will be members of both. I have already stated the 
truism that only can he do the best practical work in entomology who is 
thoroughly well grounded in the general science of entomology. As we now have 
a great call for entomologists in our experimental stations, agricultural colleges, 
and as State entomologists, not to speak of the fact that every farmer and fruit- 
grower would be more succes.sful if he were well-informed in this science, it goes 
without saying, that there ought to be in training men for just such work. It 
seems to me that it needs no argument to show that our agricultural colleges are 
just the places where this training should be given. They were founded to teach 
those subjects which would be most serviceable on the farm. Entomology is one 
of the chief of these. Thus it follows that every student of agriculture should 
have a tho/-ough course in this science, with the practical aspect of the subject 
kept in the foreground. In thus presenting this science to large classes — I have 
from thirty to forty each year who study this subject in the course — the 
teacher will find some in each class who are specially fitted to succeed. They 
enjoy the study and work most earnestly just for the love of the pursuit. They 
have quick observation, and are very accurate and honest in all their work. It 
needs no prophet to bespeak success in this field for such students. Our agricul- 
tural colleges are just the places to discover the men who have great possibilities 
in this direction ; just the places to give the training that shall best fit men to do 
the most valuable work. It will be my purpose in the remainder of this address 
to describe the equipment for such work, and to explain the method which I 
believe will give the best results. Of first importance is a good library ; this 
should contain all the standard works, periodicals and monographs, so -that stu- 
dents who may decide to study any insect or genus, may. find what has been 
written on the subject. Of course this cannot be had at once, but it is so essen- 
tial that no effort should be spared to build up a complete entomological library 
at the earliest possible moment. Jrue the scientist should study things, not 
books, but he will find a wide use of books most helpful in his study. Next to 
a library, such colleges should have good collections, which are often of more 
value than the library. A small show collection, illustrating the families and 
orders, and the several stages of the most injurious species of the place as well 
as the groups of beneficial ones should be open to the public. This will be studied 
and appreciated by the practical farmer, who, as he visits the college, will find it 
helpful, and will also interest and stimulate the under-class men, who will thus 
have their attention called towards insects before they commence the regular 
study, which will not occur till they are well along in the course. Drawing, 
botany, microscopy, and French and German, if thoroughly understood, will be 
great aids to the student who commences the study of entomology. Thus this 
study will come late in the course and the show collection will be whetting the 
appetite of the under-class men from the time they enter college until they com- 
mence the study. I would also have what I call a student collection — this is a 
pretty full collection from the locality of the college. This I would hang upon 
the wall of the lecture room, which I would have dark, except when in use, so as 
to preserve the colour of the specimens. I would have this in rather small cases, 



24 



with glass in front and also back where it is desirable, as in case of Diurnals, to 
study both under and upper sides of the wings. This collection should show at 
least types of each group in all stages, from egg to imago, as well as nests, co- 
coons, etc. This is an object lesson ever before the student, is ever ready for us& 
by the teacher to illustrate his lecture, and is at the disposal of the students in 
naming their own collections or in closer study of any group. It seems to me 
such a collection should be in every college. Lastly, I would have a laboratory 
collection which should be a biological collection, and the fuller the better. This 
is in large, tight, glass-faced drawers. I use the Harv^ard case. This is for the 
use of teachers and post-graduates who desire to study further in the science. It 
is too valuable for general use by the student or to be kept to satisfy general 
curiosity. 

As I have before remarked, before the student commences the study of 
insects he should have had a good course in free-hand drawing, should have 
had instruction in the use of the micro-scope and in preparing microscopic speci- 
mens and slides, and if he has a ready use of German and French it will be very 
helpful to him in his study. It is also desirable that the student should have 
had a full course in botany. The students of our college have had three terms of 
botany, one devoted entirely to microscopic botany, before the}- begin the study 
of entomology. I consider this very valuable preparatory work. Entomology 
is very close precise work, and the laboratory work if carried on for a less space 
than three hours at a time is not satsfactory. But three hours of such close work 
is very wearying unless the student has had a fitting preparation. Thus I am 
pleased that our students have had vertebrate dissection with human and com- 
parative anatomy and physiology before they commence entomology. I know 
this seems the reverse of the natural method ; as nature proceeds from lower to 
higher ; vertebr&,te dissection is lighter and less trying to eye and brain than is 
the study of insect anatomy ; thus I am pleased to have Anatomy and Physiology 
of Vertebrates precede that of the Arthropoda in our course. In our college the 
student attends a course of sixty lectures on the anatomy and physiology of 
insects, systematic entomology and the economic bearing of the subject. These 
lectures are illustrated by use of models, the student's collection of insects, already 
referred to, by microsocopic preparations, mostly prepared at the College, and 
elaborate charts and drawings also prepared specially for our use. In connection 
with this course there are 36 hours of laboratory. Each student works three 
hours one day each week for twelve weeks. In this time they are able to study 
the internal anatomy, and to examine carefully and accurately one insect of each 
order. In connection with this several insects are traced to the genus by such 
keys as Leconte and Horn, Cresson, Williston, etc. Besides the above, each stu- 
dent makes a collection of from ten to twenty-five insects of each order, all neatly 
put up with date and locality label ; each order by itself and all labelled as far as 
time will permit. Many students succeed in naming a large number of their 
specimens. Each student is also required to mount insects in all the approved 
ways. Small insects mounted on triangular pieces of cardboard or rectangles of 
cork with silver wires, while the larvae are put in bottles of alcohol with rubber 
corks and also prepared by eviscerating and drjnng, while distended with air, in 
a heated oven. The studeirts are also encouraged to prepare biological collections, 
in which they preserve the eggs, larvaj after each moult, pupa, cocoon, imago of 
both sexes, and of various sizes and the several variations. Some of our most 
enthusiastic students work out several .such life histories, describing not only the 
separate stages, but the several parasites that work to destroy the insects. I 
regard this work as very valuable. It is excellent discipline for the mind and 
observation, gives accurate information of the most interesting kind, and arouses 



25 



enthupiasm for the study as nothing else can. It is such work as this that will 
tell for the future of entomological research, that will make entomologists, who 
will honour alike the fields of pure and applied entomology. But such study 
ought not and will not stop here. Post-graduates will avail themselves of the 
opporbunities which such laboratories offer. Last winter during our long vaca- 
tion — ours is an agricultural college and our vacations must needs occur in winter, 
when farm operations are largely at a standstill — I had ten special students of 
entomology in my laboratory, one from South Dakota, one from Indiana, one 
from Ohio, one from Japan, one from Wisconsin, and the others from our own 
State. Nearly all were college graduates. Six special students, all graduates 
from colleges, have spent the year in my laboratory in special entomological 
study as post-graduate students. It seems to me that such are the young men 
who are going to develop the entomology of our country. They are the young 
men who can and will do grand work in our colleges and experimental stations. 
These young men each take up some special family or genus of insects, to which 
they give the major part of their time and stud3^ They collect in all orders and 
give special attention to biological work, tracing the life histories of insects, 
identifying as far as possible the insects they capture and trying to become familiar 
with entomological literature, so far as they are able. The students are mutually 
helpful to each other. As the laboratory may be said to be a sort of perpetual 
Natural History, or more accui-ately Entomological Society, thus the students 
become familiar with the general laboratory work, in fact, they each become a 
factor in some degree in carrying the work forward. Here I will close by ex- 
plaining briefly the mode of our labaratory work, which differs in some degree 
from the admirable plan which Prof. Forbes explained at the Washington meet- 
ing of Economic Entomologists last November. Our labels give in compact space 
locality, date, accession and species number. The accession number agrees with 
a number — serial number — in our accession catalogue for the special year. Thus, 
ac. 400 shows that the insect or insects bearing that label were the 400th col- 
lected during that season. The sp. number is given as the insect is determined, 
and is the number of the insect in the catalogue which we use. Thys, sp. 25 is 
" Cicindela purpurea," as the beetle is numbered 25 in Henshaw's catalogue of 
Coleoptera. In case the catalogue is not numbered, as is the case with Cresson's 
list of Hymenoptera, then we number it. We have a column in our accession 
catalogue for date, collector, person who named the specimen, and also for remarks. 
This last column is wide, and in it we can usually write all neces.sary informa- 
tion which we received in the collecting. If we are experimenting with or stu<iy- 
ing the in-sect, our notes are kept on cards. These are numbered to agree with 
accession catalogue, and are kept in serial order until we know the species when 
we add the species number as well. We now index the card and place it in its 
correct alphabetical position in our card collections. Thus we can ver}' easily 
find our notes on any specimen, either by accession number or by the name of the 
species. This plan works well, and, it seems to me, is very economical in respect 
to time. Of course our students all see this .scheme and become familiar with 
its workings. 



HESSIAN FLY, WHEAT-STEM MAGGOT AND OSCINLS. 

Mr. J. Fletcher presented some notes upon injuries caused by the Hessian 
Fly, the Wheat-stem Maggot and an undetermined species of Oscinis. He said 
that the note was presented with tlic ohject of eliciting further information upon 
a subject which had proved of great interest to him. During the past season he 
had endeavoured to determine the number of broods of the Hessian Fly for the 



26 



Ottawa district, and had found, first, that the Hessian Fly, the Wheat-stem Mag- 
got and Oscinis were all found at the same time and in the same plant, and 
further, that, speaking generally, they passed through their stages contempor- 
aneously. Of the three the last had proved much the most destructive. From 
root shoots of wheat sown on the 14th of April he had bred Hessian Fly and 
Oscinis at the end of June, and a month later Meromyza had appeared. He had 
also noticed in some fields at Ottawa that a large • quantity of spring wheat was 
attacked by Hessian fly in the ground shoots or stools in the same manner as fall 
wheat is attacked in the autumn. It was frequently the case that on plants which 
had made from fifteen to twenty stools but one would be left, all the others having 
been destroyed by the insects. He had procured adult Hessian Flies at Ottawa dur- 
ing this season in the beginning of May, at the end of June, and in August, and they 
would probably appear again in September. He had not been able to find the 
Hessian Fly breeding in any of the grasses, and would like to know if others had 
done so. Meromyza and the Oscinis had been most troublesome pests in the ex- 
perimental grass patches at Ottawa, some grasses being almost exterminated by 
them. It was remarkable that the spring appearance of Meromyza had been so 
enormous as to have caused fear of a serious destruction of the wheat crop. As 
a matter of fact, however, there had been less injury, both to small grains and 
grasses, than for many years previously. This diminution he could only explain 
by the supposition that the eggs had been destroyed by some predaceous insect. 
The eggs must have been laid in large numbers, but there was very little evidence 
of the presence of the larvas, either in the standing wheat or barley, or in the 
root-shoots of barley. The Oscinis he had been unable to identify ; but, through 
the kindness of Mr. John Marten, of Illinois, he had learnt of some work which 
had been done by Prof. Garman in Kentucky, upon what was probably the same 
species. This, Mr. Marten said, had been doubtfully identified by Dr. Williston 
as 0. variabilis. 

-•S' Prof. Garman stated that he had studied what appeared to be the same 
species, and had prepared an article for publication. He also gave some notes 
upon the life history and anatomy of the insect. 

Prof. Osborn had taken at Ames, Iowa, numerous specimens of Oscinis, one 
of which closely resembled that exhibited by Mr. Fletcher. 

Prof Alwood had studied in Ohio an Oscinis infesting oats, and had pub- 
lished his results in Bulletin 13, Division of Entomology. He had found the 
eggs, from two to eleven iu number, were forced beneath the sheath of the leaf, 
and that just prior to pupation the larv?e gnawed through the epidermis and the 
pupa protruded so as to admit of the easy escape of the adult. 

Mr. Fletcher, referring again to Meromyza, stated that in many instances he 
had found the eggs deposited in the field upon the upper surface of the leaf some 
distance from the stem, and asked if others had observed this to be the case else- 
where. 

Prof. Garman had found that the eggs were laid just above the sheath, or 
sometimes pushed beneath it. 

Prof. Webster stated that the eggs of the Hessian Fly, had, in the spring of 
the present year, throughout Southern and Central Indiana, been deposited near 
the roots, the " flax-seeds " being found in that portion of the plant ; while in the 
northern part of the State the case had evidently been different, as the " flax- 
seeds " were there almost invariably located about the second joint. 

The Secretary read a paper by Mr. Edward L. Graef, of New York, upon 
the American Silk Worm Moths or Spinners, in which a serious attack upon the 



27 



shade trees of New York by P. cecropia was recorded, and the suggestion made 
that this and other species might he turned to account, if any means could be 
devised for manufacturing and utilizing their silk. As a stimulus to this indus- 
try, Mr. Graef generously offered a prize of fifty dollars for the best essay and 
model of apparatus for carrying this suggestion into effect. 



SECOND DAY'S SESSIONS. 

The Club met on Thursday at 8 a.m. Dr. C. M. Weed read an interesting 
paper upon the clover-stem borer, Languria miozardi. Fifteen species of plants 
were reported upon which the larva had been found feeding. ' This paper was 
discussed by Profs. Cook, Alwood, Osborn and others. 

Prof. Alwood spoke of tobacco insects, of which he was making a special 
study. He had observed a stem borer which was very injurious. 

Dr. Weed had learned of a tobacco root-louse in Southern Ohio. 

Prof. Garman spoke of the mouth parts of several species of some families 
of Thysanoptera, and stated that some recent studies had shown him that the 
figures published did not agree with his material. He then read the following 
paper, entitled " An Asymmetry of the Head and Mouth Parts of Thysanoptera." 

In a brief paper in the Bulletin of the Essex Institute I have recentl}' called 
attention to peculiarities in the structure of the head and mouth parts which set 
this group quite apart from other orders of Hexapoda. [This has no reference to 
affinities upon which, I believe, we are not prepared to pronounce until this and 
several other groups have been more completely studied.] In that paper it was 
claimed that the endocranium of the species examined was not symmetrical, being 
deficient on the right side ; that the labrum was one-sided ; that there was a 
developed mandible on the left side, with, at most, a rudiment on the right ; and 
that the mandibles of authors were probably lobes of the maxilLne. 

At the time the paper was written I had not examined sufficient iiiaterial to 
enable me to say whether the features pointed out were limited to certain species 
or were common to all members of the group. Since then many additional forms 
have been examined, all, however, belonging to the families Stenopteridse and 
Coleoptratidai, and in no case has there been found a departure in essentials from 
the structure of the head and mouth parts as they were described in the paper 
referred to. It is probably safe to assume, therefore, that the a.symmetry noted 
is characteristic of the.se two families at least. 

Of the group Tubulifera no representatives have been studied, I shall not 
be surprised, since this is the lowest of the suborders, if examples of Phlteothrips 
are found to be more nearly symmetrical. 

As an interesting fact, though in no way related to the main purpose of this 
commuuication, I may mention that the solitary mandible of Limothrips and 
Meianothrips is perforate, like the jaws of larval Chrysopa, of Dytiscid;e, and of 
Myrmeleon. In specimens of ColeoptratidaB examined, both labial and maxillary 
palpi are composed of three segments. 

Note. — Since my return to Lexington from the meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation I have secured a couple of very young Phheothrips. My examination of 
these is not completed, but I have succeeded in demonstrating the single jaw on 
the left side. The parts are greatly elongated, and remind one of the same 
organs in Hemiptera. The styliform parts are especially long, extending, when 



retracted, into the cranial cavity towards the eye, thence bending posteriorly and 
extending along the posterior wall of the head to the mouth opening. Both 
mandible and styliform parts are perforate (or possibly grooved). 

Two unmistakable tarsal claws are present in this genus. From their 
relation of position to the pads the latter would seem to be modified pulvilli. 

Prof Osborn was much pleased with what Prof. Garman had stated. He 
had also observed some of the points mentioned in a special study which he had 
made of these insects, and hoped Prof. Garman would publish his results as soon 
as possible. 

Dr. Weed presented a short paper on the oviposition of Listronotus lati- 
usculus. The eggs are laid in clusters of from live to ten upon the leaf stalks of 
Sagittaria variabilis, and are covered with small pieces of the epidermis which 
are nibbled off by the adult beetle. This was discussed by Messrs. Garman, 
Fletcher and Webster. 

Mr. Charles Piobertson, of Carlinville, 111., read a most interesting note upon 
the habits of the bee Emphor hombiliforrriis, which was originally described by 
Creason as a Melissodes, but Paton, in revising the genus, raised it to Emphor. 
This bee, it was stated, confines itself almost exclusively to Hibiscus, chiefly 
H. lasiocarpus. The appearance and habits of the bee were described. It was 
stated that in collecting these bees it is important to catch those flying around 
the plant without alighting, as these were generall}" the males, whi'st those visit- 
ing the flowers for honey and pollen were the females. On August 5th, when 
walking along a dam with water on one side, he had noticed a female standing 
upon the water ; she then flew to a bank, and he observed that she was carrying 
water to facilitate the excavation of hard ground, into which she was burrowing 
to build her nest. Sometimes one pellet of earth would be taken out after such 
an application of water, but at others three or even four. An interesting dis- 
cussion followed which was participated in by Messrs. Osborn, Cook, Weed, 
Fletcher and others. 

Prof. Osborn read the following note "On a Peculiar Form of Coleopterous 
larva ": Eleven years ago, while a student in college, I found a peculiar form of 
larva boring in the twigs of ash trees, and it was described at the time in the 
students' journal at the college (The Aurora, May, 1879, page 5.) under the cap- 
tion '•' A Grub With Legs on its Back." The description is as follows : " The speci- 
men was found boring in the pith of a small twig on an ash tree near the road 
west of the college, apparently beginning at or near the tip of the twig and work- 
ing downward. Numerous twiffs were found that had been inhabited in this^ 
way, but only one specimen of the borer was found — this about a quarter of an 
inch long, quite slim, and nearly white. Its great peculiarity consists in the dis- 
position of its locomotive apparatus. The first three segments following the head 
are provided with the usual pair of legs, each in the normal position — that is, on 
the ventral surface. The following six segments are provided each with a pair 
of pro-hgs, similar to those found on many caterpillars, but, strange to say, these 
are arrang'i-d upon the dorsal surface, exactly the opposite of the usual arrange- 
ment, while the number six is different from either the caterpillars, where thei-e 
are four or five, or the saw-fl}' larvcc, which have eight. The remaining three 
segments have no propellers whatever. The beauty of this arrangement, for the 
conditions of the borer, can at once be seen, for it has as much foot-hold above as 
below. Placed upon a flat surface it could make no advancement, but wriggled 
awkwardly about, evidently seeking its double foot-hold. Placed between two 
thin plates of glass, it moved rapidly, using all its legs, and going with equal 



29 



facility backward or forward, eitlier side up. If provided with some support afc 
one side it was possible for it to travel by means of the legs on its dorsal surface 
alone." 

During the present season an example of a similar larva has come to my 
notice, specimens being iirst observed by Prof. L. H. Pammel, occurring in the 
stems of Hcilanthus. Their posset^sing similar locomotive organs upon the back 
called to mind the peculiar larvu' noticed years ago. They difl'er, however, some- 
what ill colour as well as in the plant on which they occur, and I find that they 
attacked voraciously dipterous larva; that were living in the same stems. 
Whether the}' are normally carnivorous remains of course to be determined, but 
there can be no question of their attacks upon these larva-, and apparently with 
the intention of obtaining food from them. These specimens are of a light blui.sh 
colour, possessing pro-legs upon segments 4-9, inclusive, and a pair of tubercles 
on the ventral portion of the anal segment, as well as a dorsfd tubercle on the 
terminal portion of the same segment. In general appearance there is a striking 
resemblance to the Languria larva, as shown in figure exhibited by Dr. Weed, 
but in his drawing there is no indication of the dorsal feet. 

The Club convened at ^ p.m., and considered the following resolution : — 

Ecsolvcd, That it is the sense of the Chib that the meetings of the Association of Economic Entomo- 
logists and of the Entomological Club would both be benefited by holding such meetings, if posriible, at 
the pame time and place as the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

After discussion by Messrs. Fletcher, Osborn, Cook, Alwood, Weed and others, 
the resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The Secretary read a paper by Prof. D. S. Kellicott, of Columbus, 0., upon 
the " Preparatory Stages of Enstrotia caduea." He had collected the larvaj upon 
Nuphar advena at Rives Junction, Michigan, in 1876. From the.se he had bred 
a moth, after wai'ds named by Mr. Grote B. caduea in the Canadian Entomolo- 
gist, Vol. S, p. 207. During July of the present year he had again collected the 
insect at Corunna, Michigan, and had succeeded in breeding and describing all the 
stages, which were submitted herewith. 

The larval- found in 1870 were feeding in the fruit but those studied duriner 
this summer were found upon the leaves. If these latter were floating, the larvae 
were expo.sed on the upper surface, in other cases they were beneath or concealed 
in folds. A different habit of swimming to that of Arzama obliquata, wdiich 
pi'ogresses by horizontal undulations, was noted. E. caduea swims strongly, but 
by an entirely different motion. The posterior third of the body is bent down- 
wards like the tail of a crayfish and then quickly pushed backwards, thus driving 
the insect ahead by jerks. 

Discussed by Messrs. Weed, Webster and others. 

Prof. Cook reported having bred Agrotis G-nigruin through all its stages 
upon black currant, the eggs having been laid in a cluster upon leaves of that 
plant on 1st June — the perfect in.sect appearing on the 1st of August. 

Prof, H. Osborn read a note on the " Period of Development in Mallophaga." 
The habits of the species of Mallophaga render accurate observations upon the 
time required in development of the eggs a matter of considerable dilBculty. 
While in some of the species upon very common birds it is possible to get an 
abundance of material, in other cases the opportunities for obtainini:^ such mate- 
rial are very rare. But in the most common species the difficulty of determining 
the exact time of deposition of eggs, and then of keeping individuals in such 
conditions as to insure a normal development, makes positive observations diffi- 
cult. This being the case, any observations which may add to our knowledge of the 
subject seem of interest, and the present note is offered as one such contribution. 



30 



The species chosen in the present case is the Nitzschia pulicare, which is 
almost invariably to be found in abundance on the common chimney swift 
(Chcetura pc/«.^(/irt.). This bird is an abundant resident of the building in which 
my laboratory is located, and being readily obtained on occount of its tendency to 
fly in at the windows, I suggested to ^Ir. P. H. Rolf's, a graduate student in 
biology, that he attempt the rearing of larvre from eggs with a view to determine 
length of developmental period in connection with studies of its embryology. 

For this first purpose he secured on two separate occasions a number of the 
eggs, and kept them, part in a tight paste-board box, which was kept warm by 
the heat of his body, the others were enclosed in cotton-plugged tubes under a 
hen that was kept in the laboratory at the time for incubating eggs for embryo- 
logical work. Of the first lot, all kept in pocket, secured July 27th, two eggs 
hatched August 4th, live between August 8-13tli, one August ICtb, the last giving 
twenty days, the longest period. 

Of the second lot secured, August 3rd, six hatched between the 8th and 
13th, four hatched August 14th (three in box and one in tube), two August 15th 
(one in box and one in tube), part not hatching, and the longest period in this 
case being thii-teen days. 

Assuming that those requiring the longest time had been deposited but a 
short time before the experiment began, we should have from fifteen to twenty 
days as the ordinary time required for the eggs to hatch for this species. 

Mr. F. S. Earle presented some interesting notes upon the injurious insects 
of the season in Southern Mississippi. Diahrotica 12-punctata was a very 
abundant insect, and in addition to its well known food plants, it had been a 
serious pest to peach trees and cabbages. Leaves of the latter, bitten by the 
insect, at once decayed from the point of injury. Cut-worms were very 
destructive in gardens, and cucumber and melon vines were much injured by a 
plant-louse. Potatoes had been much attacked by a black flea-beetle, and the 
tomatoes by the boll-worm in the fruit, and on the leaves by the si)hinx larvae. 

Prof. Cook would like to hear the experience of those present as to a prac- 
tical remedy for the attack of the boll-worui upon the fruit of tomatoes. 

Prof. Osborn said that Mr. Tracy had tried arsenical mixtures with some 
success, and also had attracted the perfect insects to light. 



SOME EXPERIENCES IN REA.RING INSECTS. 

Miss M. Fi. Murtfeldt read the following paper : 

In rearing insects, as with many other enterprises in life, we climb the ladder 
to success by the rounds of successive failures, having in many cases to exhaust 
an almost infinite range of " how not to do it," before arriving at its happy 
converse. 

Many and great are the disappointments of the entomologist ; bnt does he 
succumb ? Never ! What single point in the biology of a species has been 
relegated to the absolutely undiscoverable ? I do not know of one, no matter 
how obscure the subject or how little advance has yet been made in the direction 
of its elucidation. 

" Hope springs eternal " in the breast of the entomologist, and patience and 
perseverance have in him their "perfect work," until Nature relents, or is 
caught " ofi" guard," and the secret, so carefully hidden, is revealed. 



81 



I am tempted to enumerate some of the discouraging circumstances encoun- 
tered by the biologist in this field. 

Among the Lcpidoptera, a majority of the Bombycidce, Geometridce and 
Noctuii I cc adaiit themselves readily to the conditions of the rearing cage. They 
accept tlio food provided and make the best of it, even aftei* it lias heconie a 
little dry, which must sometimes occur when tlie caretaker is pressed for time. 
They thrive in the closer and darker air, and take such exercise as they require 
within their narrow walls of glass and wire-cloth, and when the metamorphic 
impulse comes, they contentedly weave their cocoons in the corners of their 
prison, or bury themseves in the two or three inches of cemeterial earth in the 
bottom of the cage, and safely pass those mysterious transformations which 
give to this class of beings their ])re-eminent interest. 

But there is a great deal of individuality, or rather, specificality, in insects, 
and not infrequently specimens of larvro are found for which the collector taxes 
his ingenuity in vain to provide. Not the freshest of leaves, the cleanest swept 
earth or the most well-aired of cages wiil seem to promote their development. 
They wander about the cage with an exhausting activity that pathetically 
suggests a realisation of their imprisoned condition. They nibble languidl}'' at 
their food, and aimlessly spin mats of web in inconvenient places, over the cracks 
of the door or cover, for instance, and, before long, comes the morning, when 
they are discovered dead and discolored in the bottom of the cage, and no more 
of them to be obtained until another season. Or perhaps the cocoons are spun or 
the transformation to pupa- .safely effected under ground, and the entomologist 
has full confidence that in due time he will obtain the much desired imago, and, 
when it may be expected, watches hourly for its emergence, and is rewarded by 
the appearance of an Ophion or a swarm of Tadiina flies, or of some still 
smaller enemy, whose existence he did not even suspect. 

Again, the collector may be obliged to delegate his cares temporarily to- 
another, who, unused to the almost constant supervision necessary, sutlers the 
precious larva to starve, or, by an oversight, tosses it out with the withered 
leaves, or crushes it in the hinges of the door, or, still more aofrravatinjj, thought- 
lessly raises the cover and allows some long looked for imagine to d^rt out and 
escape through an open window. All that he will remember for the benefit of 
the person chicfiy concerned, will be that it was a moth and " seemed something 
peculiar." As the entomologist cannot afford a separate cage for each species, 
and as he had probably put his choice unknown in with some well known forms 
of which he wishes simply to increase his duplicates, he probably grasps at the 
hope that the escaped insect was one of the latter, and so defers the full realiza- 
tion of his loss until weeks and months have pas.sed and all his expected species 
have emerged, and then he hopes for better success another year, and finds " life 
well worth living " for this and similar reasons, which only an ardent naturalist 
can appreciate. 

In some respects too much care is as subversive of success as too little. For 
instance, the very natural curiosity which the student feels to exannne into the 
state of the insect after it has been buried for a short time in the earth. So he 
sifts the soil in his cage; and though he handles it with all caution, the frail 
earthen cell in which the treasure is enclosed falls in pieces, and the poor cater- 
pillar in complete helplessness squirms in the loosened earth. Despairin,t.,dy he 
tries with clumsy fingers to re-inclose it in the fragments of its cell, or attempts 
to form a substitute by packing the earth so that it may not be smothered. In 
vain. In ninety-nine cases in a hundred he never sees the imago. 

While the hardy pupa? of most noctuids will bear any amount of handling, 
and by their activity will beat hard the earth about them at any time, a few 



32 



species absolutely resent the least disturbance. I think that for seven or eight 
successive years Dr. Riley and I tried in vain to obtain the imago of a beautiful larva 
found every autumn in greater or less numbers on Gmq^hai ium, <\nd occasionally 
on the Asters and some other GomposiUe. Not being able to associate it with 
its species we designated it the " pretty cut-worm." It was Dr. Riley's practice 
to have the earth in his cages sifted occasionally during late autumn and winter 
to see how the pupa? were faring, and to have each species collected into its 
particular coi'ner or side of the cage, which was designated by the label on the 
door. 

But in the case of this particular species this orderliness was fatal. After 
Dr. Riley w^ent to Washington, I resolved on the " let alone " policy. I put the 
larva3 into a cage with clean earth with an admixture of sand which I dampened 
slightly and only at considerable intervals during the winter, kept the cage in a 
very cool place, and the next summer was rewarded with several fine specimens 
of Mamestra legitima, my only disappointment being that it was a species by no 
means uncommon. 

With me Scopelosoma sidus behaved in an almost equally capricious manner, 
but was, after many trials, finally reared by adopting the same methods as with 
legitima. I now make it a practice to sift or change the earth in my cages only 
in the spring and autumn before the hibernating pupa3 are formed. Of course, 
if I wish to note pupal characteristics, I have to run the risk of the disturbance, 
but this is only occasional. I have found that frequent dampening wdien the cages 
are kept in doors, is also detrimental, and that hibernating larvse and pupse are 
far less likely to suffer from drought than from dampness. 

In rearing the Micro-lepidoptera — in which I have an especial interest — 
various tactics must be pursued, and the imagination is often vainly taxed to 
suggest a provision which the delayed changes and general unrest of the insect 
plainly call for. 

Under natural conditions it is very difficult to keep track of these small 
creatures. The leaves or dowers or fruits on which they may be found feeding 
on one day will be deserted by the next, and during the darkness they will have 
betaken themselves to parts unknown, the most assiduous search failing to 
discover them. In the rearing jar some species adapt themselves very kindly ; 
others will crawl about for days spinning threads of silk over sides and cover 
and finally dry up without effecting their transformations. 

An accident to which the student is liable, and against which he can with 
difficulty make provision, is to have the larva, which he has perhaps just 
described and figured, escape. How often have I taken up a bottle in which I 
had been rearing a particularly precious unknown, and found a tiny hole in the 
muslin cover, or perhaps a little fiap cut at the edge of the bottle, telling only 
too surely of the loss and delay which a further examination verified. The 
annual brooded species which appear in the spring are the betes noir of the 
Micro-lepidopterist, especially such species as pupate on or just beneath the 
surface of the ground. They have to be cared for during the long, hot summer, 
as well as the autumn and wdnter, and to keep the safe middle course between 
the Scylla and Charybdis of drought and of the dampness which would promote the 
equally fatal mould, requires most careful attention. The annual brooded species 
which later fold or mine the leaves, or feed in the fruit capsules of various plants, 
or bore the stems, are comparatively easily reared, with a few exceptions. It 
was a number of years before I succeeded in obtaining the moth from an inter- 
esting larva which fed in the capsules of Fentsteraon. This was owing to the 
peculiar change of habit during hibernation. After eating all the seeds from 



•S'3 



both divisions of the capsule, it would thorou<;hly line one all with silk, after 
cutting an aperture for escape, and ensconce itself, as might reasonably be 
supposed, for its winter's sleep. But no; the neatly lined cell was only a tem- 
porary abode, which, during the inclemency of mid-winter, was to be deserted 
for an entirel}- different one. Whore, in the state of nature. I have not yet been 
able to discover. In my rearing jars it perished, year after year, to my inex- 
pressible disappointment, until finally I wintered a nund)er out of doors in a 
small wire cloth box closed with a cork. From this collection I at last obtained 
the moth — a beautiful Conchylis — from a larva that had bored into and trans- 
formed within the cork. But for two or three years I had only the sin^de 
specimen, and next to the aggravation of utter failure I rank the pos.session of 
an unknown unique. It may be new, and if sent to a specialist he will generally 
feel somewhat aggrieved if you reserve the right of description and furthei- 
impose upon him the duty of returning the specimen. Then there is the danger 
of its destruction, either in the mail or express, to be braved, and yet, so long as one 
does not know the species, or be assured that it is new, one never can take full 
satisfaction in having bred it. 

Last year I had the satisfaction of obtaining nearly a dozen imagines of the 
Conchylis in question by providing a number of bits of pith and cork in which 
the larvas bored after their desertion of the cap.sules where they had fed. 

Whenever I can make satisfactory arrangements for keeping track of them, 
I winter my Micro-larvse and pupa) out of doors. Such species as here the pith 
of stems are very easily cared for, and leaf miners and webbers I enclose on the 
surface of the ground, in some sheltered situation, under wire sieves or covers, 
bringing them in in the spring in order to have the little moths emerge where they 
can more easily be chloroformed or transferred to the cyanide bottle. 

I must confess that I have never had signal success in rearing such species 
of the TeniJtredinidre as transform under ground. I have in mind more 
than half a dozen species — the larv?e of which are most interesting — of which I 
have so far failed to obtain the imagines, in spite of my utmost care. 

The eaf and root-feeding beetles have always developed satisfactorily for 
me, but the Cerainhycid'e, which feed on growing wood, have given me much 
trouble, and, in many cases, failed me utterly. 

Orthoptera require but little care, as also do leaf-feeding Hemiptera, but the 
Cannibal species of both the.se orders are moi'e difficult to cater to, and often 
refuse a diet that one would think would be irresistible. This is especially true 
of the carnivorous bugs which I have found require large space and ample 
provision to preserve them from fraternal rapacity. 

With the aquatic orders I have had but little opportunity for experiment, 
but think they must furnish many very interesting subjects. 

I believe that costly insectaries are being constructed by many entomologists, 
and no doubt will afford room for much thorough study of forms and habits. 
But such costly appliances are not absolutely necessary, and .sometimes make 
observations more difficult than when the conveniences are more primitive. 

A secure enclosure, fresh food, fresh air and clean water in the bottles are 
almost the only requisites in rearing the herbivorous species, and the more 
constantly the cage or jar is under observation the more thoroughly of course 
are the history and habits of the species revealed to us. When I wish to know 
all about a species, I keep the cage or jar on one corner of my desk and watch 
its occupant in the intervals of other work. 

3 (en.) 



34 



I cannot liope that I have conveyed much information in these notes ta 
those who have gone over the same ground, but I am at least sure that I have- 
recounted some of the experiences of every biological student of insect life, and 
can S3'mpathise in his disappointments and appreciate the satisfaction of his 
successes. 



THIRD DAY'S SESSION. 

The Club met on Friday at 8.30 a.m. Dr. Weed presented a short papei' or> 
the habits of Lixus concavus. 

As reported in the bulletin of the Ohio Experimental Station, Mr. Alwood 
had found this insect injuring the stems of rhubarb. During the past summer 
he had bred it from all parts of the stem of the common curled dock. 

Prof. Alwood stated that he had observed the larvae of Gortyna nitela eating 
those of Lixus. 

Dr. Weed read a paper upon the habits of Psephenus Lecontei. 

Prof. Webster and Mr. Fletcher also spoke on the habits of this beetle. 

Prof. Hargitt read a note upon a large foliaceous gall which destroyed the 
tips of the stems of various species of Solidago at Bloomington, Indiana. In 
many instances as many as ninety-nine per cent, of the flower stems had been 
destroyed. 

Prof. Hargitt read a note upon the Canker Worm. He said : " My attention 
was drawn to an orchard near Oxford, Ohio, which, for three or four years, had 
been seriously affected by this pest. In May, 1890, I went to examine the 
orchard and found it thoroughly over-run by the larvae, many of the trees being 
actualU' dead, and several-others in a very weak condition. The orchard, viewed 
at a distance, had the appearance of having been burned, the leaves being brown 
and dead. The trees were most attacked upon the outer rows, particularly 
those adjoining a wood. I recommended spi-aying with one of the arsenites, but 
it was too late for the present season. I observed several small birds in the 
orchard actually engaged in feeding upon the larvae, amongst them the cedar bird, 
blue bird, summer warbler, chipping sparrow and field sparrow." 

Prof, Hargitt also read a note upon Cermatia forceps. He had found that 
this Myriapod had become abundant in houses and the college building at Oxford, 
Ohio, during the past two or three years. He had experienced the same difficulty 
in keeping the insects alive in captivity, as was mentioned by Dr. Lintner in his 
4th lieiiort. He had succeeded in keeping them for several days and inducing 
them to take prey by keeping them in dark quarters in a tin canister during the 
day. When so confined they had fed freely u])on house-flies, and other insects 
supplied them. 

Prof. Webster spoke of the predaceous habits of G. forcep.s, and its special 
fondness for the Croton-bug (Ectobia (jermanica). 

Mr. Fletcher had observed the insect when visiting Mr. Howard at Washing- 
ton, D. C, who had described to him its remarkable habit of capturing the 
Croton-bug by springing over it and thus encaging it beneath its many curved 
leys. He was of the opinion that those who had failed to keep this insect in 
captivit}' had done so from omitting to supply a sufficiency of moisture, and 
thought thai Mr. Hargitt'.s success in the instance mentioned, where the insect 
wasj put in a tin can, was more due to this cause than to the darkness. My7'ia- 
pods are general found in damp, dark places. 



.So 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 



The Club proceeded to elect oflicevs for the ensuing year. Prof. Cook, the 
retiring I'residt'nc, congratulated the members upon the harmony which had 
existed throughout the sessions, and was glad to find that, altliough some old and 
pessimistic members of the Club had predicted that it had run its course and 
would soon flicker out like a sfient candle, he was glji<l to find that the present 
meetings ha<l not onl}' been the best attended for many years, but that the 
discussions and papers had been equally interesting to those of any meeting 
which he had had the pleasure of taking part in. He wished the Club every 
success and trusted that it would grow stronger and stronger every year. .The 
following officers were elected : — 

President, Prof. Herbert Osborn, Ames, Iowa. 

Vice-Presi'lent, Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt, St. Louis, Mo. 

Secretary, Dr. C. M. Weed, Columbus, Ohio. 



CONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF INSECTS. 

Prof. Osborn, at the invitation of the President, introduced the subject of 
the use of contagious diseases in combating injurious insects. He said that he 
had already published a paper in the Tiansactions of the Eastern Iowa Horti- 
cultural Society for 1S8G, pp. 400-405, upon the subject ; but that it was of such 
importance that he desii'ed to hear it discussed by the members of the CluU. 
He first mentioned the well-known fungus and bacterial diseases which attiick 
insects, as Muscadine, Grassen or Jaundice, Pebrine, Flachcrie or Ehiccidity, 
Foul-brood of Bees, Fly and Grasshopper Fungus, and the White-grub Func-us, 
and called attention to the fact that we were already able to control those which 
atlect important domestic species, as Silkworms and Bees, and that to some 
extent at least we are able to control those available as agents in destroying 
injurious species. After considering the various conditions Umiting the appli- 
cability of this means, he drew the tbllowing conclu.sions : — 

(1) That there are diseases amply sufficient as a basis foi- economic work 
the bacterial forms giving the most promise for all cases where early results are 
desired, while those due to fungi, so far as present knowledge goes, pro])at"-atiuo' 
slowl}-, can only be used as slow but efficient checks to injurious forms, the 
most that we can do with them being to introduce them in localities wheie 
they are not alread}' found. 

(2) That the diseases can be controlled to the extent of preserving the 
genus for a season and transporting them from place to place to use for inocula- 
tion, l>ut that their .spread in nature will be affected by conditions beyond 
control, while only such insects as occur gregariously, or live in mingled hosts, 
can be attacked to advantage. 

(3) That the cost of application wo\ild prevent its adoption except in certain 
forms. 

(4) That we must consider this method of contending with insects at best 
as but one of a number of profitable methods to be used in certiun cases where 
other methods are insufficient, and to supplement ether n.ethods when it can 
be done to advantage. With this end in view, the diseases of insects are wortliy 
of the most careful study, and will not, he thought, disappoint the investigator 
in their final results. 



36 



Mr. Fletcher thought that the chief difficulty with regard to these fungus 
diseases was their cultivation so that they might be available at the time when 
needed. One trouble with him had been carrying them over the winter. 

Prof. Hargitt spoke of a fungus disease which had attacked the canker 
worm. 

Prof. Cook thought the greatest difficulty in .naking use of contagious 
diseases for the destruction of insects was the fact that the insects which it was 
desired to treat were not always in a susceptible condition. 

Prof. Garman thought that although fungus diseases were difficult to 
introduce, bacterial diseases would probably be more controllable. 

The meeting adjourned till 5 o'clock. 



VARIOUS INSECTS. 

Prof. Atkinson spoke on the "Injurious Insects of Alabama." A bud worm 
had been extremely injurious to young corn, piercing the central shoot and 
destroying its growth. Diabrotica li2-punctata had also been injurious in the 
same manner ; and, if there were not sufficient food in the stem, the larvae 
descended to the roots and tunnelled out irregular channels on the surface. They 
pupated in the ground. A new attack had been observed on the " Irish potato," 
viz., by the Cabbage Plusia, which had attacked the leaves. The same insect had 
been very injurious to cabl)ages. In the southern part of the State more had 
been done by the Plusia than by the cabbage worm. At Mobile farmers had 
complained that 50 per cent, of their melons had been injured by a worm. 
Scolytus rugidosus had been very abundant at Auburn in the spring, attacking 
trunks which appeared to be perfectly sound. Onions had been badly injured 
by a species of Thrips. Another species had also been injurious to cotton plants. 

Prof. Cook stated that he had also seen a Thrips injuring onions in Michigan. 

Prof. Webster stated that he had studied Scolytus rugulosus and had found 
that it invariably attacked trees which were injured. In a single instance, where 
the beetles had commenced operations on a sound tree, he found that they 
afterwards left it. 

Prof. Cook made some remarks upon the effect of mild winters upon insect 
presence. He had found cut-worms and saw-Hies very abundant in Michigan 
durinf the present season. He had also bred a new borer from the black currant, 
i.e., the small longicorn beetle Hyperplatys maculatus. He had also found that 
the larvae of Aegeria typuliformis had been largely destroyed by a fungus 
oTowth like that of the white grub. The leaves of cherry, pear and quince had 
been badly attacked by the larvjB of saw-dies, but they had been easily kept in 
check by applications of road dust. 

Dr. C. M. Weed presented a paper upon the " Oviposition of Dectes spinosus 
upon Amhrosia trifida." He also gave some account of the insect, in all its 
stages, from specimens which he bad bred. 

During the meeting a most interesting set of photographs was exhibited by 
Prof. Webster, showing a likeness of Thomas Say, his birthplace, the house where 
he lived during the greater part of the time he was writing his works, his tomb 
and an autograph. Prof. Webster had a few sets of the photographs struck off 
when his own were printed and is willing to let entomologists have them at the 
actual cost of production. 



37 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGISTS. 

The second annual meeting of the Association was held at Champaign, 
Illinois, in room G of the University of Illinois, ])eginning November 11th. The 
following otlicers and members were present during the meeting : 

President, C. V. Riley, Washington ; 1st Vice-president, 8. A. Forltes, Illinois ; 
2nd Vice-president, A. J, Cook, Michigan ; Secretary, John B. Smith, New 
Jersey. J. M. Aldrich, S. Dakota ; W. B. Alwood, Virginia ; G. F. Atkinson, 
Alabama ; M. H. Beckwith, Delaware ; James Fletcher, Ottawa, Canada ; 
Lawrence Bruner, Nebraska ; H. Garman, Kentucky ; C. P. Gillette, Iowa ; F. W. 
Goding, Illinois ; C. A. Hart, Illinois ; F. L. Harvey, Maine ; L. O. Howard, 
Washington ; John Marten, Illinois ; Herbert Osborn, Iowa ; F. H. Snow, Kansas ; 
H. E. Summers, Tennessee ; Roland Thaxte'r, Connecticut ; F. M. Webster, Indiana ; 
Clarence M. Weed, Ohio ; C. W. Woodworth, Arkansas ; E. F. Goff, Wisconsin. 

Several others interested in entomology, not members of the Association, also 
attended the meeting, giving an average attendance of about 20 at every meeting. 

The secretary read his report and submitted some letters for action by the 
Association. 

On the motion of Prof. Cook it was decided that an assessment of 2.5c. should 
be made from each member attending the meeting to defray the necessary 
expenses. 

The committee on co-operation (Profs. Riley, Cook, Forbes, Comstock and 
Lintner) reported progress and was continued. 

The requisites of membership were discussed and Drs. A. S. Packard, D. S. 
Kellicott and Messrs. J. M. Aldrich, E. V. Wilcox, C. A. Hart and A D. Hopkins 
were placed on the list of active members. Mr. E. W. Doran was elected an 
associate member, 

The constitution was amended by striking out the provision allowing special 
meetings to be called at the request of members. 



SECOND DAY'S SESSION. 

On November 12th 29 members were present, including some ladies, and the 
Hon. P]dwin Willits assistant secretary of agriculture for the United States. 
The president. Prof. Riley, delivered his annual address on " The Outlook in 
Applied Entomology." This address was a masterly effort and was intently 
listened to by all who had the good fortune to hear it. It will be published in 
full in the pages of Insect Life. 

Mr. James Fletcher, of Ottawa, spoke in high terms of the paper. He said : 
" You have drawn our attention to the fact, Mr. President, that this is the most 
remarkable meeting of economic entomologists which has ever met together, and 
I feel sure, sir, that everyone present will agree with me that your address is one 
of the most remarkable we have ever had the privilege of listening to. You have 
covered so much ground and spoken upon so many subjects on which we know 
you to be the highest authority, not only from the exceptional advantages you 
possess from your official position, but also from the experience you have gained 
from earnest and close attention for a quarter of a century to this si)ecial subject 
which we have gathered together to-day to discuss, that if we heard nothing else we 
should be well repaid for the trouble of attending this meeting. This great know- 
ledge makes yon facile princej^s the most eminent living economic entomologist — a 
title to which, on account of the work you have done in developing the science of 
practical entomology, no one will dispute your claim. The present meeting 



l)eing a joint one of the Association of Economic Entomologists and of the Entomo- 
Jogical Committee of the U. S. Experiment Stations leads me to make these 
remarks, because probably the question which is most engaging the attention of 
many of us at the present time is whether any good purpose will be served by 
maintaining both of these organizations. We know that the Committee of the 
Experiment Stations must meet if the directors ot stations order it ; but I feel 
confident that the necessarily limited number of entomologists in that committee, 
even if every station eventually employs such an officer, cannot do such good work 
for the science and give them equal opportunities, to those offered by an organiza- 
tion of the nature of the Association of Economic Entomologfists, which will include 
many eminent men who are excluded from active membership by the rules of the 
committee. I refer to such men as Prof. Riley and his assistants, Dr. Packard, 
Mr. French, Dr. Lintner, and hosts of other economic entomologists in the United 
States as well as the Canadian entomologists ami many others who would be 
pleased to join in various parts of the world. I submit to the meeting that there 
is room for good work fi-om both of these organizations and that it would be 
extremely ill-advised to let either of them drop to the ground for each should be 
of the greatest assistance to the other. I believe, too, that to no one can the 
Association be of more use than to the Experiment Station Entomologists, and 
therefore they should make everj' effort to sustain an association at the meetings 
of which they must always have greater freedom than they can have in the com- 
mittee, where the proceedings will always be sulject to a certain degree of 
restraint, both as to the time allowed for discussion and the subjects brought 
forward. The Entomological Committee is specially a meeting of the Entomo- 
logists of the Experiment Stations and any one else will always, to a certain 
extent, feel himself an outsider no matter how cordially the hand of friendship 
may be extended to him. The president has stated that he does not care where 
the work is done so that it is carried on vigorously. This is probably the case, 
and the gentlemen I have mentioned have very little to learn from the meeting 
compared with the advantages whicli will accrue to us from having such men 
present at the meetings. I cannot help thinking that we shall make a serious 
mistake if we allow an organization to drop which will ensure us their sympathy, 
attendance and services and will at the same time form a bond of union between 
the economic entomologists of the whole world. 

The address was also highly complimented by Prof. Cook, who spoke of the 
advantage of co-operation between the Association and the Committee of the 
Experiment Stations. He suggested some ways in which these two organizations 
could be mutually beneficial. 

Prof. John B. Smith thought there was no necessity to have two bodies 
composed of nearly the same members meeting on the same days and at the same 
place and covering the same ground. He strongly advocated an effort being 
made to gain from the Association of Agricultural Colleges the same advantages 
for the entomological committee as were at present offered by the Association of 
economic entomologists. This, he thought, would be of advantage to station 
workers, at least, as it wonld give them a recognized place in the official body of 
Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. 

Dr. C. M. Weed thought that there was some misunderstanding as to the 
status of some of t\v\ gentlemen who had been mentioned. The Canadian 
Experiment Station was represented in the main body and its officers have the 
same rights and standing in committees as have those of the other stations. The 
Department of Agriculture is equally represented both in the main body and in 
the committees. 



39 



In reply to Prof. Smith, Mr. Fletcher said that there was no intention of 
always having the meetings of the Association of Economic Entomologists at the 
.same time and place as the Committee of the Association of Agricultural 
Exi'jerinu'nt Stations. The place of meeting would he decided annually. As to 
covering tl»e sauie ground, if the Association of Economic J^ntomologists continued 
to exist, it would draw into its niemhership entomologists from all pai-ts of the 
world while the committee could only contain the entomologists employed at the 
various experiment stations. In answer to Dr. Weed he was sure that others 
than experiment station entomologists would always feel themselves to a large 
extent outsiders. 

Prof. A. J. Cook of Michigan, read a paper on " Work of the Entomologists in 
Expoi'imeiit Stiitions," in which he gave his iileasof the manner in whicli bulletins 
should be prepared and detailed his own method of reaching the agricultural 
public. 

There was an interesting discussion on these subjects participated in by 
Messrs. Woodworth, Harvey, Weed, Smith and Aldrich. Dr. Weed spoke of the 
plan of furnishing articles to the manufacturers of the plates known as " patent 
insides," which get a lai'ge circulation in rural pnpers. 

Prof. Smith thought the best way to reach farmers was attending and deliver- 
ing addresses at farmers' institute meetings. 

There was considerable discussion as to tlie advisability of using old and 
well known information in bulletins. It was, however, generally conceded that 
this was necessai-y so as to make the bulletins of the greatest use to agriculturists. 
Frequently well known insects appear in destructive numbers and it is necessary 
to give their complete life history. 

Prof. J, B. Smith spoke on " Fertilizers as Insecticides," giving his experience 
with Kainit, and muriate of potash. He spoke highly of their use against cutworms 
and species of aphides which worked beneath the surface of the ground. 

Prof, llilej'^ gave so'.ne of his experience with ashes and other materials con- 
taining potash. Mr. L. O. Howard read a valuable and extremely interesting paper 
on " The Habits of Pachyneuron," which demonstrated the good work which is 
being done by the entomologists of the Division of Entomology at Wa,shington, 
The cjuestion of breeding these and other hymenopterous paraisites was discussed 
by Messrs. Howard and Harvey. In answer to questions from Messrs. Harvey, 
Fletcher, Cook and Summers, Mr. Howard frave instructions as to the best method 
of rearing, mailing and mounting specimens. 

Mr. Smith read some notes on the Plum Curculio in which he gave the results 
of some observations upon eggs laid in apples. He found that the larvoe came to 
maturit}'- only in such fruit as fell from the tree. He was therefore of the 
opinion that it was necessary for it to be in a state of partial decay. He had 
found the characteristic injury and larvas of the curculio in the young fruit of 
ATtielanchier CaiKidniais. He pointed out the importance of collecting and des- 
troyiuL' all fallen fruit. 

This subject was spoken on by Messrs. Beckwith, Harvey, Gillette, 
Woodworth, Cook and Fletcher. Prof. Smith gave al.so " an experience with the 
Ro.sebug," giving an account of serious injury by this insect in Southern New 
Jer.sey during the past season. All remedies tried had proved of no avail on 
account of the enormous numbers of the beetles. He had used pyrethrum, copper 
fungicides, kerosene emulsion, tobacco, whitewash. The greatest measure of 
success had followed the use of a " slodge soap." He believed the only remedy 
for grapes was to bag the bunches. 

Messrs. Howard and Alwood male remarks on this subject and the meeting 
adjourned. 



40 



THIRD DAY'S SESSION. 



On November 13, there was a morning meeting of the association ; 21 
persons present. The president announced that the first business of the meeting 
would be the election of officers for the ensuing year. The following were elected : 
President, Mr. James Fletcher, Dominion Entomologist of Canada ; 1st Vice- 
president, Prof. F, H. Snow, Kansas ; 2nd Vice-president, Prof. Herbert Osborn, 
Iowa ; Secretary, Mr. L. 0. Howard, Washington, D.C. 

The advisability of all members of the association sending their bulletins to 
other members was brought up and there was a unanimous expression that this 
should be done. This will not only be a means of apprising each of what others 
are doing, but will act as a bond of union amongst the members of the 
association. 

It was decided after some discussion to hold the next meeting of the associa- 
tion at Washington, D.C, beginning just before the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

The constitution was amended by striking out the word " official " in the 
title, and an amendment was submitted abolishing the distinction between official 
and non-official members as to rights and privileges. 

Prof. Smith read a paper entitled " Some questions relating to Aphides."" 
Great stress was laid upon the value of the poriferous system of the antennae of 
the winged forms in distinguishing species. Only by these characters could the 
adults of Aphis mali and A. maidis be separated. The poriferous system of a 
wingless viviparous female of any species was always like that of the larval form 
— from this Prof. Smith considered that the process known as " gemmation " was 
a case of true reproduction by larvae. 

The matter was discussed by Messrs. Webster, Howard and Osborn who- 
agreed with this pretty generally accepted theory. 

Prof. C. P. Gillette read a paper — " Notes on the Plum Curculio and Plum 
Gouger," in which he detailed his observations relative to the egg-laj'ing habits 
of the two insects. Mr. Lawrence Bruner spoke on " beet-root insects." The 
increased area under sugar-beet in the State of Nebraska had rendered a study of 
the insects attacking this crop a necessity He gave a list of all the species he 
had found attacking the plant. 

Mr. Fletcher asked if any practical remedy had been devised for the 
Anthomyian fly which mined in the leaves of beets and mangolds. 

None of those present had had any experience with the insect in injurious 
numbers. 

Mr. Howard asked whether the European pest of the beet-root (Silpha 
Opaca) had be enobserved by Mr. Bruner or any one else as occurring in America. 

Mr. Bruner had not noticed it. 

Mr, Fletcher expressed interest in the life-history of the Collops beetles and 
asked if anything was known concerning them. He had only taken them when 
sweeping grasses. Prof. Smith had taken them on Solidago. 

Mr. Smith related his observations on "an invasion by the Clover-leaf 
Beetle." This had ajipeared in great numbers in New Jersey during the summer 
but was entirely exterminated Ity a fungous disease. 

Mr. Howard mentioned a similar attack in Penn.sylvania where the insect 
had developed a fondness for timothy (Phleum j^ratense.) Specimens were sent to^ 
Washington and caged over this grass, upon which they were observed to feed. 



41 



Mr. Woodworth iiientioneJ tliat he had observed in Arkansas three epidemics 
amongst insects which were so severe as apparently to extenninate the infested 
species : one of these was the tomato worm. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether Fhi/tonomitu nigrirostris had been observed as 
injurious to clover. He had frequently found the larVcO feeding on the heads of 
clover as well as the characteristic cocoons. He had found it in many parts of 
Canada, but upon one occasion, as recorded in his report for 1884, it was 
injuriously abundant atDalhousie in New Brunswick. Mr. Gillette also spoke on 
insects injurious to clover. 

Prof. Smith gave an account of some experiments with preservative tiuids. 
He had found a mixture of equal parts of acetic acid and alcohol very satisfactory 
both in regard to preserving form and colour of delicate insects. 

The subject was earnestly discussed by all present as being a su])ject of much 
importance. Mr. Woodworth gave as a method which he had found satisfactory 
for larviD, to kill in water heated to 90° centigrade : leave from 1 to 5 minutes ; 
then put in alcohol 35° 1 to 2 hours, 50° from 6 to 8 hours, 75° for 24 hours or 
more and then to absolute alcohol. This would usually preserve perfectly and 
was a recognized process for hardening and preserving for histological purposes. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether in the case of large larvas it was necessary to 
puncture the epidermis so as to allow the preservative fluid to penetrate. 

Mr. Woodworth answered that this was not often necessary. 

Mr. Fletcher spoke of a large series of the larvae of Sphinx chersis which he 
had taken during the past summer upon various species of Fnixinus. They varied 
so remarkably in colour that he was al)le to separate about 40 which showed 
difiereut markings from the usual glaucous green to a rich vinous purple with 
yellow epidermal dots. He had placed them iu a jar of 35° alcohol and had 
found that those at the top were very much discoloured and that those lower 
down were less so, those at the bottom being of good colour. On placing some 
in stronger alcohol the discoloration was intensified. He thought the discolora- 
tion was due to the gradual decay of the central portions of large larva), but could 
not understand why those at the bottom were less discoloured than thdse at the 
top of the jar. 

Prof. Forbes stated that he used the method described by Mr. Woodworth in 
his laboratory and found it fairly successful. It does not preserve greens well, 
but browns are preserved and the markings are well shown. 

Mr. John Marten said that hot alcohol was a convenient way of preserving 
specimens by this method and that it answered equally well as killing in hot water. 

Prof. Forbes read a " Summary history of the corn plant louse." This was 
an intensely interesting paper ami gave the results of continued observations for 
some years by Prof. Forbes and his assistants. It gave the life-history both 
above and below the ground. The relations existing between the aphis and the 
ants which were always found in company with it were explained and suggestions 
for remedies based on these observations were made. 

The discussion on the paper was postponed until the next session. 

At the afternoon session 18 persons were present. The president called for 
discussioa of Prof. Forbes's jiapei. Messrs. Howard, Riley, Fletcher and Forbes 
discussed the points brought forward and the difHculties of getting at accurate 
and final results were brought out. The question of possible relationship between 
the apple plant louse and the corn plant louse was discussed by Messrs. Riley 
and Forbes. 



42 



Mr. Howard asked whether Prof. Forbes considered his experiments with the 
apple plant louse were satisfactory. 

Prof. Forbes thought not entirely but they were the best they could do under 
the circumstances. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether the habits of different broods in species which 
migrated from one |>lant to another were not very different and therefoie difficult 
to experiment with — as, for instance would the hop inhabiting form of Phorodon 
humuli live upon plum if placed there artificially and vice versa. 

Prof. Riley thought it would not. It is very difficult to do artificially what 
nature does in her own time and in her own way. Sometimes an insect will not 
colonize upm a plant at a certain season, to which at another time of the year it 
migrates naturally. He asked if the experiments made upon ihe root forms were 
done carefully as there are many species which resemble each other which have 
root forms. 

Prof. Forbes stated that great care had been taken in carrying out the 
experiments. 

Prof. Forbes read a paper " On the life-history of White-grubs, with descrip- 
tions of new stages." Ciirreut mistakes with regard to the lite-histories of these 
injurious insects were pointed out. Several species of Lachnosterna were observed 
to reach the imago state in the autumn instead of in spring as usua lly stated and 
the differences between groups of larvae were pointed out. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Smith, Howard, Forbes and Riley, who 
confirmed many of the points made in the paper. 

Mr. C. A. Hart read a carefully prepared paper on " The life-history of Wire- 
worms," in which he drew particular attention to distinguishing characters by 
which these larvaj might be divided into groups. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Cook, Gillette and Bruner. 

Prof. Cook had found that one crop of buckwheat will not prevent injury the 
next year. 

Mr. Fletcher gave some " Notes upon Injurious Insects of the year in 
Canada." Cut- worms of various kinds had been locally abundant. Agrotis turris 
had been destructive in gardens to flowers and vegetables. Hadena arctica and 
H devastatrix had injured fall wheat and grasses in the spring. He was more 
than ever in favour of the poisoned trap remedy for cut-worms. Agrotis fennica 
had injured clover. The caterpillar of* Pierls rupee had been very troublesome, 
but was easily destroyed with pyrethrum powder diluted with four times its 
quantity of common flour or slaked lime. 

Plutella cruciferarum had also done much harm to cabbages in the 
North-west Territories and British Columbia. This is much more difficult 
to destroy with pyrethrum than the last named. The Cabbage Root-maggot 
had attacked cabbages severely, but had been successfully destroyed by 
syringing about half a cupful of hellebore tea round each root and then 
hoeing the soil well up round the stem. He had made some interesting studies 
of the Hessian fly which agreed in the main with those published by Prof. 
Forbes in a late bulletin. Spring wheat sown in the end of April had been 
attacked at the root in the same way as wheat is injured b}'^ the autumn brood. 
From the same wheat plants he had bred the Hessian fly, the Wheat Bulb-worm 
and Oscinis variabilis. Insects injurious to fruit trees had been represented by 
the Plum Curculio, the Codling Moth, the leaf roller of the apple and the Canker 
worm. All of these had been successfully treated with Paris green. Observa- 



43 



tions on forest insects had shown him that tlie hvrge ceranibyciil larvse from eggs 
laid early in the season produced the perfect insects the next year ; but those laid 
late passed two years before coming to maturity. He had taken a female of 
MonohdinmiLS confii><o)' with the abdomen filled with eggs as late as the middle 
of September. The attacks of NeiwUiis erlchsonli on larches in the Provinces of 
■Quebec and New Brunswick were described. 

Prof, Webster asked whether A (jrotis fennica had been observed feeding on 
cereals. 

Mr. Fletcher had found that it fed primarily on clover, but when occurring 
in numbers is almost omnivorous. Asparagus beds, raspberries and strawberries 
were injured and some young forest trees grown in nursery rows and of various 
species had hail the terminal buds destroyed. 

Prof. Cook had found the larvne to eat everything. It had attacked blue 
•grass and timothy severely. He was not positive about its attacking grain but 
believed it would. 

Prof. Smith, speaking of the best way to use pyrethrum powder, said that be 
had found it most satisfactory in water. 

Mr. Beckwith had found it could be used most satisfactorily with lime. 

Mr. Fletcher asked whether the dry powder was not as a rule better than the 
•water mixture. He had found it so in his experience. 

Prof. Cook and Prof. Gillette had found it so also. 

Prof. Summers found that the difficulty with water mixtures was to make 
them adhere to the plant : he asked whether the addition of soap would make 
them stick better. 

Mr. Fletcher said it would on such plants as threw off liquids by reason of a 
waxy secretion on the leaves, as the cabbage, etc., etc. 

Prof. Cook asked whether Mr. Fletcher .still made up his cut-worm traps in 
bundles. lie had found it most satisfactory to put a supply of poisoned vegeta- 
tion on a platform waggon and then pitch it off with a fork, 

Mr. Fletcher answered that he did and not only that but he found that it paid 
for the extra trouble to cover tlie bundles with shingles which kept them from 
drying up so soon. He warned those who advised this remedy to mention that 
the cut-worms do not lie under them in sight, but burrow beneath the soil and 
are not seen unless looked for. They sometimes wander off to a distance of two 
or three feet. 

Prof. Cook confirmed this. He used clover largely. He sometimes sprayed 
a patch with poison as it stood and then mowed it and used it as traps. 

Mr. Fletcher had found that clover was not the most satisfactory plant for 
him at Ottawa. It is frequently not far enough advanced in the early spring 
when needed and did not hoM the poison well. He always recommendeii ony 
succulent plant and was careful to tell farmers that they could use almost any 
weetl growing about their fence corners, He had found Le pull am V'lrginicixm, 
pepper grass, a very attractive plant. Ghenopodiam albitm, lamb's quarters, is 
also greedily eaten by cut-worms ; but it is difficult to make the poison a<lhere to 
it. For such plants it is necessary either to dust them with dry powder after 
damping them or to rub up some soap in the water. 

Prof. Cook had found mullein to be a most attractive plant for cut- worms. 
The meeting adjourned to meet again next year at Washington. 



44 



KITCHEN-GARDEN PESTS AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

In writing on insect pests I have not hoped to tell of any new discoveries. 
My object has been to present in a concise form, for the use of husbandmen and 
hous waives, such particulars as I have thought might be interesting and useful 
to them. I have wished to do my part towards the making of the annual reports 
of the Entomological Society of Ontario handy repertories of practical informa- 
tion. 

I shall in this paper tell of kitchen-garden pests, grouping them as flies, lice, 
beetles, butterflies and moths. 

Flies {Order, Diptera). 

The Radish Fly (Anthomyia raphani. Harris). — This fly appears in the 
end of June and the beginning of July. It is rather less than half an inch in 
expanse of wings. Its colour is ash grey. The wings are transparent wioh a 
yellowish tinge at the base. The halteres or balancers are yellow. The face is 
silvery. The eyes are copper-coloured. The insect lays its eggs on the stems of 
the radish near the ground. The newly -hatched maggots penetrate the swelling 
roots, enlarging their mines as they grow and filling them with frass, rendering 
the radishes quite unfit for food. When full grown the maggots leave the root 
and change to pupae in the soil. The full grown maggot is about a quarter of an 
inch long, truncated at the end and gradually tapering to a point at the head. 
This is furnished with a pair of black nippers. At the truncated end of the 
creature may be seen the outer prolongations of the two main tracheae, and round 
the edge of it a number of teeth or tentaculae. The general colour of the maggot 
is shining white. 

I have found that radishes sown on rich soil as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground — at Quebec, as soon as the snow disappears, that is to say in the begin- 
ning of May — will generally attain a gi'owth of an inch and a quarter in diameter 
before they begin to show the operations of the maggot. I have this year made 
three sowings. The fii-st, in May, was a success. Of the second, made early in 
June, about half of the radishes were fit for the table. Of the third, made in the 
end of the month, hardly any were eatable. They grew to a large size, but were 
bored through and through by the maggots. These were operating as late as 
October. On the 21st of November I had a number of roots dug up from under 
the snow. They contained no maggots, but showed recent traces of them and 
holes at the lower side where the creatures had made their exit into the soil. 

The remedies that have been suggested against the radish fly have been such 
as by their foul smell are likely to drive the fly away, carbolic acid, gas-lime, etc. 
I have not much faith in such protectives. It seems to me that those who would 
raise late radishes must do so in frames covered, not with glass, but with fine 
netting fastened to slats. 

The Onion Fly {Phorhia ceparum, Meigen). — This fly (Fig. 11) also 
appears in June. It is ash-coloured and is set sparsely with black 



45 




hairs. It has an interrupted dorsal stripe on the abdomen. The wint^s are 
clear. It measures half an inch in expanse of wings, and a quarter of an 

inch in length of body. The mother Hy 
lays her white oval eggs on the edge of 
the sheath of the onion, near the ground, 
seldom depositing more than six on one 
plant. The eggs liatch in a few days, and 
the maggots, which in general appearance 
resemble those of the radish fly, work their 
way downward, inside the sheath, to the 
bulb. Having devoured one bulb they will 
pass on to another. They may often be 
found chistered on the outside of the bulb. 
It takes them a fortnight to attain their 
growth, and in another fortnight the perfect 
Hies api)ear. While the onions are yet very 
young soot and wood-ashes should be scat- 
tered over the bed as a preventive, and 
where the maggots are really working hot water should be applied to the bulbs 
with a watering can. This will destroy the maggots without injuring the plants. 

For a more full account of this pest see Dr. Bethune's excellent article on 
" Remedies for Noxious Insects," in the Society's lOth annual report. 

The Cabbage Fly {Anthomyia brassiccc, Bouche). — The cabbage fly is ash- 
grej^ The male has three black longitudinal lines on the thorax, a black dorsal 
line on the abdomen, and black bands at the edges of the segments. In the female 
the lines on the thorax and the bands on the abdomen are wanting. 

The female fly lays her eggs at the junction of the lowest leaves with the 
stem. The larvte eat the rootlets and penetrate the main root and the stock. 
The plant speedily withers away. In wet seasons especially the insects are often 
very destructive. 

It has been recommended as a preventive that, at the time of planting, the 
roots and stems of the cabbage plants should be dipped in weak lye of ashes. As 
a remed}' Dr. Lintner tells us (1st Annual Report of Injurious and other Insects 
of the State of New York. p. 190), " Watering the plants with lime-water has 
been found to be of service in killing the larvae." 

The Root Fly {Anthomiyia radicivm, Linn). — The male of the root fly has 
the thorax on the upper side, marked with three black longitudinal stripes and 
three grey ones. The abdomen has a black dorsal line and is crossed with black 
lines at the sutures. The female is lighter in colour and much resembles A. 
braasicce, but it has three fuscous longitudinal lines on the thorax. She lays her 
e(:fg'i in the crown of the turnip or other root. These hatching, the ochre-coloured 
maggots work down into the bulb. When full grown they leave the bulb and 
pupate in the earth. The flies appear in the spring. 

The use of superphosphate as a manure will preserve the turnips from the 
attacks of the fly. 

The Beet-Leaf Mixer {Ghortophila betarum, Lintner). — This is a small 
tly, expanding four-tenths of an inch only. The bod v colour is gre}'. The thorax 
has three dusky stripes. The wings have a brownish tinge ; and the legs are 
black. It appears in June, and lays its beautifully reticulated eggs on the under 



46 



surface of the leaves. The larv;\3 work in the leaf, between the upper skin and 
the lower, consuming the parenchyma. The^' are, when full grown, a quarter of 
an inch long, translucent in appearance, pointed at the head, which is furnished 
with black nippers, and truncated at the other extremity. To pupate they leave 
the plant and enter the soil. Tlie pupa-case (pupariura) is chestnut brown. From 
it the tly escapes in about twenty days. (See Dr. Lintner's 1st Annual Report- 
on the Insects of New York State.) 

The method of dealing with this insect is plainly to break oil the affected 
leaves and to crush them under foot, or throw them into boiling water. 

Lice {Order, Hemiptera). 

The Bean Louse {Aphis faboe t). — A few years ago I found on some Mazagan 
beans that I was growing in my garden at CowanNville, a cluster of plant lice. 
They were lead-coloured and rather large. I had read of the marvellous increase 
of the Aphis, and I resolved to let these specimens on my beans live out their 
life and have their own way. The consequence was, that in a lew weeks the 
whole row of beans — and it was a long one — was blackened with Aphides. This 
was quite in accordance with Reaumur's statement that one aphis can produce 
about 90 young ones, and that in live generations the increase from the one will 
amount to 594;,90i),OOO. As the season went on great numbers of the larvae of one 
or two species of Lady -birds (Coccinellidae) appeared on the scone and worked 
great havoc amongst the hosts of the enemy. 

In dealing with a pest such as this, watchfulness and promptitude are re- 
quired. The tirst clusters of the aphis should be picked off and destroyed. 

The Cabbage Louse (Aphis hrasKicce, Linnaeus). — This insect is often very 
abundant. It is found on the under side of cabbage leaves, and has a whitish, 
mealy appearance. 

Dusting lightly with flour of brimstone has been recommended as a remedy 
for it. 

Beetles {Order, Coleoptera). 

The CoLOR.\r>o Potato-Beetle (Do7'?/y?/ia?'rt decem-lineata, Say). — This, the 
well-known Potato-Beetle (Fig. 12) needs no description. Under its normal con- 




FiG. 12. 
ditions, on the slopes of the Rocky Mountains, it fed upon the wild potato, Sola- 
nam rostratiivi. Access to the cultivated plant gave it that increase of vitality 
and fecundity which has rendered it so formidable a foe to the gai'dener. - ^^^^^ 



47 



or the S()lanace;p, or Ni<jhtsliade family, to which the potato belongs, there 
arc ill North Ainei-ica six genera, not counting the South American genus, 
Petuniii, now so largely cultivated in Hower gardens. They are (I) Solanuni, 
Nightshade; (2) PhijsalU, Ground Cherry; (:]) Nkandiu, Apple of Peru; 
(4) Ihjosvijamus, Henbane; (")) Datum, Thorn-apple; ((j) Nicutiana, Tobacco! 
The tirst of these includes the potato, the e^^g plant, and the tomato, all of which 
are eaten with avidity by the beetle. When stinted of its favouiite supplies, the 
insect turns to such other members of the family as may grow within its reach. 
The tobacco plant is attacked by it, and I have found it also upon Fhysalis and 
Datura. 

It would seem that the forced vitality of the species is now diminishing. 
There is a narrowing down apparently, 1st, as to the number of broods, 2ndly as 
to the number of individuals. Professor Claypole, of Akron, Ohio, brou'dit the 
diminution in the former case, under the notice of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, at the Minneapolis meeting. He said : — " This 
insect (the potato beetle) came as usual in middle Pennsylvania in the early sum- 
mer. I was compelled to use poison as in previous years. In the latter portion 
of the summer I observed, and noted at the time in the Canadian Entomologist, 
that there was no second brood, or that it was so small as to pass unnoticed. It 
was my intention to watch in l!S83 in order to deteiinine if this second brood 
was again missing ; but to my surprise, in 1883 there was almost no tirst brood." 

In the neighbourhood of Quebec, late plowdng, by disturbing their hiberna- 
cula, has desti'oyed great numbers of the beetles, and the lingering winter lias 
retarded the ap})earanee of the survivors, so that the first brood of the year has 
been both late and comparatively weak in numbers. For the last two seasons I 
have not had occasion to use Paris green on the early potatoes grown in my f'-ar- 
den, but later-planted field crops have called for an application of the drug. The 
decrease in the number of perfect beetles appearing in the fall has been very 
marked. 

The Three-Lixi:d Potato-Bketle {Lema triUneata, Olivier). — Tiiis is a 
buff-coloured lieetle, (Fig. 13) having three black stripes on the wing coV^ers. Its 
length is a quarter of an inch. It appeals in June, and attacks 
the potato plants. It lays its yel- a 

low eggs in small clusters, and in ^ ^ 

a fortnight the larvjie appear (Fig ^^M^^^|l| ^k 

l-i;). The3' are of a dirty yellowish v>jyS37>7^ (f^ 
grey, and are generall}^ seen with a ^'^'-^v- !•• 

thick coating of excrementa on V^- i'^ - ■ ■ ^ 

their l)acks. This filthy covering ^^i^^^^Av^ifcE^/K^pa -ri 
is believed to serve for a defence ^^^^*^^f^<5^^ | 

against their insect enemies, and as a protection ^^^''^'^C 

also from the heat of the sun. In about another ^K c 

fortnight the insects bury themstdves in the *'*^- ^^- w 

ground and form cysts in which to undergo their pupal change. In a fortni<'ht 
more the perfect beetles appear and lay their eggs for a scc<md brood. 

Paris green applied in the usual way is the remedy for these pests. 

■ The Cucumber Beetle (Dlabvotlca vltfafa. Fab.). — Tiie cu aimber jbeetle 
is about two lines in length. It is yellow, and has a black head, a id three black 
lines running ahmg the wing-covers. The larvje fetdonthe roots, and^the perfect 
insects on the tender leaves of the cucumber, melon and squash. 




Fig 18. 




48 




Fig 15. 



To destroy the larvae water the plants with soapsuds, and to cheok the oper- 
ations of the beetle sprinkle the leaves with hardwood ashes. 

The Striped Flea-Beetle {Haltica striolata, Illiger). — This minute beetle 
(Fio-. 15) is black, with a buff stripe on each wing cover. It 
is beautifully formed, highly polished and very lively. It 
hibernates in the imago state, and comes forth early in 
spring to lay its eggs, and to enjoy itself at the gardener's 
expense. Its favourite food plant is the turnip. . 

Lime water has been used successfully against its English 
congener. To disappoint the " flea " sow late. 

The Ash-Coloured Bllster-Beetle {Mo.crohasis unicolor, 'Kirby). — In the 
Eastern Townships the Windsor beans and potato vines are often infested with 
an ash-grey beetle of about three-fifths of an inch in length. The ash colour is 
owino- to a soft down which rubs off leaving the surface black. This beetle is 
one of the Cantharides, and is as efficacious for medical purposes as the " Spanish 
Fly." It may be easily shaken into a pan of scalding water, and afterwards dried 
for medical use. 

Butterflies and Moths (Order, Lepidoptera). 

The Cabbage Butterfly (Pi e^^is rajyce, Linnaer>s). — That destructive pest the 
cabbage butterfly (Fig. 16 the male, fig. .17 the female) was first taken in Canada 
by Mr. Wm. Couper of Quebec. This was in 1860. The insect had probably 
been cast upon the shores of the St. Lawrence in the larval or pupal stage, with 
refuse cabbages from the steamships. We are indebted to Mr. Scudder for a full 
and most interesting account of the after progress of the species on this continent. 
From this account it ap})ears that in 1866 it had spread to Cacouna, where it was 
taken by Mr. Saunders, to the Eastern Townships, where I captured it myself, 





Fig. 16. 



Fig. 17. 



and into the State of Maine. In 1867 it reached Montreal. In 1868 a fresh im- 
portation by way of New York was made. The story runs that a German 
naturalist in that city obtained chrysalides from Europe, and that the imagos 
issued from these during his absence, and escaped through an open window. The 
in.sects spread in ever widening curves, both from New York and Quebec, till, in 
1871, the two hordes met. In 1876 they had spread over the whole of Western 
Ontario. In 1881 they covered the country from the seaboard to Texas, Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Lake Superior ; and by 1884 they had been met with on the shores 
of Hudson's Bay and at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. 

Pieris rapce may be readily distinguished from the less common native 
white (Pieris oleracea, Harris) by the black spots upon its wings. The female 
may be constantly seen in the summer months hovering over the cabbages, curv- 
ing its abdomen and attaching its eggs dispersedly upon the plants. The larvae 
are green irrorated with black. They have the habit of lying along the ribs of 
the leaves where they are not readily seen. 



49 



Dr. Lintner recommends sprinkliiiij witli water lu'ated to l.'!0 Falir. and up- 
wards (1st An. Rep. p. 59). 

The Carhage Plusia (Plusia hrassiccr, li'ihy). — This insect has at length 
invaded the Province of Quebec. It has been taken at Metis by Mr. Winn. Its 
numbers will probably increase. The fore wings of tlie moth are brownish gre}', 
and have yellowish, indistinct, transverse lines. In the centre of eacli fore wing is a 
silvery, horse-shoe-like mark, witli a silvery spot beyond it at the lower side. 
The hind wings are yellowish, with smoky hind margins. The male moth is fur- 
nishetl with conspicuous abdominal side tufts of a golden hue. 

The larva is a half-looper, having only twelve legs. Its head is small and 
tlat, and the body is gradually enlarged from it to the anal segment, which appears 
as if abruptl}^ sliced off. In colour the caterpillar is translucent pale green, marked 
with (lelicate longitudinal white lines, and with white spots. In each of the latter 
is set a short daik hair. 

The pupa is of a pale colour, yellowish or green, and is enclosed in a slight 
cocoon. 

Besides the cabbage, the turnip, lettuce, celery and tomato afford food for 
this pest. 

An application of hot water as recommended in thi' previous case, is prob- 
ably the best remedy for the assaults of the insect. 

The Cut- Worm Moths. — These are a numerous family, including species be- 
longing to the genera, Agrotls, Mamestra, Hadena, etc. They may be grouped 
as climbing and surface cut-worms. It is with the latter I am for my present 
purpose, more particularly concerned. I shall give a short account of a few repre- 
sentative species of these, and for further particulars would refer the reader to a 
valuable paper written by the late Mr. G. J. Bowles, which may be found in the 
Societj^'s Annual Report for 1879. 

The Devastating Dart-Moth (Hadena devastatrix, Brace) — This moth 
is one and three-fourths inches in expinse of wings. The fore wings are 
dark brownish gray, and have several whitish transverse lines. Near the hind 
margin is a row of arrow-headed black spots pointing towards the base of 'the wing. 
The hind wings are light brownish grey. The thoi-ax is dark grey like the fore 
wings and the abdomen is of the same colour as the hind wings. 

The caterpillar, (Fig. 18) known as the " Glassy Cut- Worm," has a translucent 
.- _, _ .- glassy-green body, a Venetian-red head, and a dark- 

le brown cervical shield. It has a few .scattered spots 

^>*''T*NirrCV^->>»''*^J^''' V on each segment — each spot being furnished with a 

single hair. The caterpillar hibernates in the soil, 
and, coming out early in the spring, commences its 
destructive work upon the newly-planted cabbages. 
It feeds only at night, and lies hid in the soil, near 
the root of the plant, during the day. 

The Barred-Arches Moth {Hadena arnica, Harris). — This beautiful moth 
expands about two inches. The ground colour of its fore wings is rich Spanish 
l)rown. Near the hind margin is a broad, wavy, bluish-grey band, and near the 
base of the wing is a narrower and darker wavy band. The reniform stigma (kid- 
ney-shaped spot in the middle of the wing) is large and distinct. The hind wings 
are ash-coloured, clouded on the outer margin. 

The caterpillar which is called the " Yellow-headed Cut-worm," is of a smoky- 
brown colour, and the head, cervical shield, and anal plate are yellow, or chestnut- 
coloured. This creature cuts off the young corn helow the surface of the ground. 
4 (EN.) 





50 



The Lance Rustic Moth {Agrotis telifera, Harris). (Ypsilon, Rott). — 
Harris was the first to describe this fine insect, which 
measures an inch and a half in expanse of winj^s. 
(Fig. 19.) The fore wings are brown, daik along the 
costa and through the middle. Near the hind margin 
is a light-brown band, and at the base of the wing is 

a light-brown patch, shaped like the head of a fish ^^yj' v>^' 

with the mouth open. Pointing outwardly from the ■^' wt^ 

)-eniform stigma is a black lance-shaped mark. The |» 

hind wings of the moth are pearly white shaded Fig. ly. 

with brown. 

The caterpillar known as the " Greasy Cut-worm," is dull leaden brown, 
spotted with shiny black. Its dorsal and side lines are yellowish. The creature 
is highly destructive to corn, tobacco, tomatoes, etc., cutting the plants an inch 
above the groinid. 

The Clandestine Owlet Moth {Agrotis dandestina, Harris). — In expanse 
of wings this moth measures an inch and three- quarters. It is a very sober- 
coloured moth. The fore wings are dark ashen. In them the orbicular and reni- 
form stigmata are connected by a black line. The hind wings are dirty brownish- 
white, darker towards the hind margin. The fore part of the body is chestnut 
brown. The moth received its name from its retiring habits and attempts at 
concealment. 

The caterpillar (Fig. 20) is called the " W-marked Cut-worm." It is yellowish 

^tmmf. gi'<^.y ill colour, lined with yellow, and finely sprinkled with 

#^^ /- -^ dark spots. On each side of the back, upon the abdominal 

^^-'\ f% segments, is a row of l)lack velvety marks, 'these marks, 

^^ J when viewed from the front, are sufTfrestive of the letter W 

in,. \j^. — hence the couimon name of the creature. 

Nothing in the way of vegetables seems to come amiss to this cut-worm ; 

beans, .young coin, cabbage, pumpkins, etc., all are eagerly eaten by it. It has the 

habit of dragging its food under stones or into the ground, that it may feed upon 

it at leisure. 

The methods to be pursued for protecting garden crops from the cut-worms 
appear to me to be these : — Because the caterpillars pass from plant to plant over 
the surface of the earth, and will not ascend a friable mound corn sJiould be 
" j)lanted in the hili." Around each newly-planted cabbage a ring of salt should 
be placed, a few inches from the sten). The larv?e will not pass over this, and 
the salt will act as a fertilizer. Whenever a plant is found to be nipped off, the 
cause of the damage should be dug for at the root with a knife or pointed stick, 
and when found, destroyed. Crowing corn, cabbages, cauliflowers, tomatoes, etc., 
should be earthed up several times during their period of growth. 

" The Husbandman's Own Insectide." Take plants of " poison poke," 
(Veratrum viride, Aiton) roots, stems and leaves, cut them into manageable lengths, 
make a decoction — a sap-kettle will be useful for the purpose — let the liquor cool, 
and then apply with a sprinkler or water-can. This will be found useful where 
the application of Paris green would be dangerous. 

The gardener has a multitude of insect foes to contend with, but prompt and 
intelligent applications of preventives and remedies are very sure to be rewarded 
with success against them. 



51 



AN OTTTRREAK OF THE ARMY WORM IN MARYLAND. 

HY .1. ALSTON .MOFFAT. 

It in seldom that wo get an account of a retnarkable occurrence in any 
Uepartinent of life from a reliable eye-witness so com[)etent to convey to others 
the facts seen by himself as is to be found in the following extracts taken from 
the report given by Mr. W. H. Ashmead to the United States (Jovcrnmeut, through 
the Entomological Department at Washington. 





Fig. 21. Fig. 22. 

Although Leacania wnipuncta (Fig. 21, the moth; Fig. 22, the caterpillar,) is a 
permanent resident in Ontario, and is frequently found quite abund mt, it has 
never been reported as attracting special attention from its destructive effects on 
farm products here ; and yet there does not appear to be any reason why it may 
not at some time do so. 

The army worm has caused great loss in the Maritime Provinces, whilst in 
New York State and Massachusetts, where the climatic conditions must very 
closely resemble our own, it has been at times particularly destructive, whole 
fields being utterly ruined by it. Mr. Scudder made a calculation from what he 
saw, that there must have been at least two million worms to the acre, destroying 
an entire field in ten or twelve days. Therefore Mr. Ashmead's vivid description 
of the tremendous power of a combined attack of these despised creatures, should 
arouse those interested to the terrible possibility that may be awaiting them, and 
to guard them.selves as much as possible against it, for it is a well known fact 
that slovenly farming is a great source of encouragement to all kinds of pests. 

The army worm had a jjublic reputation long before the moth, which o-ave 
lise to the destructive hordes, was certaiuly known to be the parent of all the 
mischief. It was about the year 1861 that the late Prof. Fitch unmistakably 
traced the connection between the two, and since then, by the careful industry 
of others, its life history has been well worked out, but previously many 
unfortunate moths had to bear the blame for that of which they were not guilty ; 
and even yet the justly dreaded army worm is at times reported to have made its 
appearance and causes great consternation in a locality, where, if the nature and 
habits of diflerent in.sects were better known, it would be readily seen that the 
army worm, at any rate, was not to blame, and that the fright had been caused, 
not so much from the attack, as from a want of a knowledge of how to distino-ui.sh 
between things that differ. If this had been possessed there might have been 
ample evidence to show that there was no cause foi- alarm, as it was not in thu 
nature of that particular form to do any injury. 

On one occasion I had an opportunity of witnessing an occurrence which 
forcibly illustrates this very condition of things. I had gone on a visit to the 
countrj about the end of wheat harvest, when a hot and dry s[)oll was pruvailinw 
and all vegetation was. more or less, exhibiting the etfects of it, by a rustj tincre 



to the green. Amongst the first things that I heard of was that the whole locaUty 
was overrun by the army worm, that they had eaten up every green thing and 
were now devouring the Canada thistles for want of something better, and what- 
ever "was to become of the crops next year they did not know. On the tirst 
opportunity I made personal observation — sure enough the thistles gave ample 
evidence that they had been greviously ill-used, many of them with every leaf 
gone and nothing but the bare stem left, and caterpillars everywhere. In one 
locality where the road allowance ran between two farms with snake fences on 
each side, there was, on the one hand, an old pasture Seld, very brown and deso- 
late to look at, on the other was a summer fallow, which had in places a luxuriant 
growth of Canada thistles, and I saw the worms crossing the road, in single and 
double tile, in colums and squares, platocms, companies and battalions of them, and 
a toilsome march they had of it, especiall}^ when crossing the road-bed, which 
was deep with hot dust, leaving the dried up pasture field and all making direct 
for the fallow, apparently with a full knowledge of the fact that there was food 
to be got when they reached it ; and I observed that the thistles in the fallow 
were being visibly reduced day by day. But it turned out that this all devour- 
ing host which had been causing such consternation in that locality, was composed 
entirely of the larva3 of Pyrmneis cardui, or the thistle butterfly ; and no doubt 
but they had rigidly confined themselves all the time to their own natural and 
proper diet. In due time they disappeared and nothing was heard of them 
afterwards. 



The following is Mr. Ashmead's account of the outbreak of the army worm 
above refei'red to ; 

In accordance with Professor Riley's instructions, on May 31, accompanied 
by Mr. Albert I. Hayward, of the Maryland Agricultur-al College, I started for 
Salisbury, Wicomico County, and Princess Anne, Somerset County. Md., to make 
such observations on the army worm (Leucania unipitnda), then depreiiating in 
the vicinity of these places, as the limited time at our disposal should permit. 

During our journey we ascertained, in conversation, that the worms were 
most numerous in the immediate vicinity of Princess Anne, and we took the most 
direct route for that place. 

As we approached our destination we began to see the effects of the worms' 
work ; just before entering the town we passed by a large field of corn, owned 
by Mr. H. H. Deshields, containing about twelve acres, that had been devastated 
by them, and only a few green plants could be detected here and there in the 
field. 

This field was in marked contrast with another corn-field adjacent, which 
had been saved from attacks by ditching, as recommended in the third report of 
the U. S. Entoinological Commission. Another thing observed was that this field 
was flanked behind with a wood that evidently prevented their ingress that way, 
whereas the former was contiguous to grass and wheat fields, in which the worms 
are said to originate. 

Just before entering the town we passed another ten-acre corn-field, owned 
by Mr. John L. Lormer, that but a short time previously'' presented a most pro- 
mising apj)earance, but which to-day is completely " cleaned out " by the worms. 
It may be worthy of record, as the theory has been advanced that insects originate 
in just such places, that in an adjoining field were three old hay-stacks. Contrary 
to our expectations we found the reports of their numbers not at all exaggerated, 
and the damage done is even worse than we anticipated — the wheat, corn, barley 
and timothy of many of the farmers being totally ruined by them. 



5.S 



One of tlu' most interesting places for observation we visited was that of 
\Vm. J. Porter, a practical antl eiiorL,fetic farmer, who, althouLjh he has fought the 
worms most vigorously, Juis suffered severely from tiieir attacks. By means of' 
ditching and by burning straw, he has been able to save part of his crops, but 
several of his fields of corn, timothy and wheat, were already ruined. He 
reported the worms much less numerous than the}- had been, but we saw many 
thousands in his fields. 

During our rambles Mr. Porter took us to one of the ditches he had dug to 
keep the worms out of a large corn-field. In this ditch he had sunk every two 
or three 3'ards apiirt, deeper pits, where we found the worms two and three inches 
deep, and the rest of the ditch was black with the dead and living worms. From 
the dead a fearful stench arose in such strength as to attract the buzzards, which, 
as we viewed the scene, were proudly sailing overhead. 

Mr. Porter informed us that the worms always originated in the wheat and 
old grass-fields, and durincj the morning hid themselves from observation, never 
appearing in numbers until after 3 o'clock p.m., which accorded with our own 
observations and with those of the other farmers visited. 

They ate up the timothy and corn clean, and after devouring the blades 
of the wheat congregated, three or four together, on the heads ; after devouring 
several of the lower grains they ate the husks and nipped off the upper portion 
of the kernel of the rest, thus almost entirely destroying it. If the grain is well 
advanced and somewhat hard it escapes destruction ; but as most of the wheat 
visited was still in the milk the destruction was great, and not less than 75 per 
cent, of the crop had been already destroyed. 

Although several parasites are known to prey upon the worms, and we kept 
a sharp lookout for such, none were seen except a few cocoons of an Apanteles 
which were discovered, together with the worms, under old trash and logs in a 
wheat-field. A few were gathered and forwarded to the Departnient, some of 
which have since hatched, and proved to be Apanteles militaris, Walsh. 

On a neighboring farm, owned by Mr. Z. Rouch, almost as much damage had 
been done by the army worm as on the former place. A large corn-field and a 
field of timothy were totally ruined. A wheat-field, farther advanced tlian that 
of Mr. Porter's, was less seriously affected, although it did not escape entirely, the 
blades of the wheat and the young timothy being entirely eaten up by them. 

It w^as on this place that we saw the effects of the worms on barley. Quite 
a large field already in head was completely ruined. 

In the afternoon we visited probably the largest farm In the county, that of 
the Hon. D. N. Dennis, comprising 500 acres or more. 

No better place existed for the proper study of the pest, as the worms were 
swarming in all the fields by the millions, and we had hit upon the ]iroper time 
of day to see them most advantageously, 4 o'clock p m. The ground was literally 
black with the crawling worms. Mr. Dennis had made no special efforts to 
destroy them, although, like some of his neighbours, he had surrounded some of 
his fields with ditches in an attempt to keep them out of adjoining fields, I 
believe it would have been quite practicable to have destroyed many thousands 
with poi.sonous washes, or, as Mr. Potter did, by burning straw in the ditches, as 
the bottom of the ditches were black with worms. 

This farm is divided by a central lane, on either side of which are fields of 
wheat, corn, grass, oats, etc., and in passing through this lane we found the worms 
(|uite plentiful, crawling almo.st invaiiably in the direction of the prevailing 
wind. 



54 



One of the first fields we passed was an immense wheat-field already in the 
head, and the worms could be plainly discernible on the ground all through it 
and on the stalks and heads. The worms having already devoured the young 
timothy and other tender plants usuallj^ found growing there, the blades of the 
wheat, the husks, and a goodly portion of the kernels, evidently could not find 
sufficient food and were now migrating to pastures new, the sides of the field 
being black with moving hosts seeking more nutritious food. 

These, as well as all the others observed, were moving in a south-westerly 
direction, the direction of the prevailing wind. They were apparently in all 
stages of growth, from little fellows not more than a quarter of an inch long to 
the fully matured larvae, and all got over the ground and every obstacle in their 
way with the most surprising rapidity. The fences, posts, and other obstacles in 
their way were no obstruction to their migratory instinct, or their seai'ch for 
food. The fence rails and posts were often covered with crawling worms, some- 
times not less than a dozen worms being found on the top of a single tall post, 
while others were seen going up on one side as others were going down the 
opposite. Some specimens were even found under the loose bark on the posts 
and rails, where they had probably crept for shelter. One specimen thus found 
was in the jaws of a large hairy spider, Salticiis sp. 

Adjacent to this wheat-field was a large field of timothy, containing 17 acres, 
the blades of which had been cut oft' by the worms as clean as cattle could have 
done. Mr. Jones, the overseer, informed me this field would have harvested not 
less than three tons of hay to the acre, but now it would not pay for the cutting. 

At one side of this field, the side next the wheat, the worms had congregated 
in countless numbers, every square foot having not less than 30 to 50 worms. 
The worms were now coming out of this field and going into the adjoining wheat- 
field and crossing the lane into the opposite fields in great numbers, and it was 
here that we observed a flock of the common English sparrows and a few robins 
picking out the smaller worms and feeding on them. Mr. Jones informed us the 
Englitih sparrows had been thus busily engaged all the past week, and it gives us 
pleavSure to record here this fact in favor of the despised bird. 

Some distance off from this field was another one of wheat, containing prob- 
ably 20 acres, in which the worms were even more numerous, and they had 
already sufficiently injured it to render the crop unprofitable to harvest. A deep, 
broad ditch had been dug along one side, and it was now, about 5 o'clock p.m., 
black with worms. It seemed to us a pity that these worms were not killed, as 
many of them were able to crawl up the sides and escape into adjoining fields. 

Facing this field was a large corn-field of probably 75 acres, of which 50 
acres had already been destroyed, and there was but a slight chance that any of 
the corn still left would escape, although by ditching an etibrt was being made to 
save it. Of the 50 acres destroyed SO acres had already been replanted, and in 
the newly plowed portion the worms were seen moving about in all directions, 
having just entered it from the adjoining wheat ; it is probable that most of these 
will die of starvation or from the effects of the hot sun in the middle of the day. 



55 



TORTOISE hep:t[j<:s. 

liY F. 15. ('AILFIKLI), MONTREAL. 

The tortoise beetles as they are called, from tlieir resemblance in shape to a 
turtle or tortoise, belonj::^ to the great family of leaf eating coieoptera, the Ghry- 
807nelid(C, but were formei-ly classed as a distinct family, the Cassidadce, a term 
signifying a helmet, the fore part of the thorax generally projecting over the 
bead like the front of a helmet. In the members of this family the body is 
generally of a broad, oval form, flattened beneath, convex above. The antennae 
are short and thickened at the tip, presenting somewhat the appearance of a club. 
The head is small and generally hidden beneath the overlapping edge of the 
thorax, and the legs are very short, not extending much beyond the margin of 
the wing covers, so that the resemblance to a tortf)ise is really striking. The 
larvce of many kinds of insects are protected from the burning sunshine and the 
attacks of their enemies by a coat of hair or pricklj^ spines, or else conceal them- 
selves beneath leaves or in crevices during the hotter parts of the day, but the 
insect.-^ in question adopt an entirely different plan, and shelter themselves beneath 
umbrellas, covered, not with silk or cotton, but with a mass of their own excre- 
ment. 

In most of these creatures the body resembles the perfect insect in shape, 
being broad and flattened, but they differ in having a row of spines on each side 
and in being provided with a tail, and a very remarkable tail at that. Thi.s 
instrument resembles in form a fork, with a rather thick, rounded handle, from 
which project two long prongs. This forked tail is curved over the creature's 
back, and upon the prongs and lateral spines the excrement is heaped until a mass 
almost as large as the creature's body is accumulated. Our Canadian species of 
tortoise beetles belong to three genera — Physonota, Coptocycla and Chelymorpha. 
Physonota hdifLnthi, Rand, lives on the wild sunflower (Helianthus), and soon 
after these have leafed out in spring, such of the bctles as have survived the 
winter gather upon them. They are now of a bright, golden-green colour, and are 
exceedingly beautiful, gleaming and flashing like gsms in the sunshine. Soon 
after this the eggs are deposited in an irregular cluster, covered with a gummy 
exudation which hardens on exposure bo the air. This cluster is placed on the 
upper surface of the leaf, and near the tip just whei-e it tapers to a point. 

The larvaj are oblong-oval in shape, and when full grown measure nearly an 
inch in length. The (jeneral colour is dark olive jjreen, and on the back are three 
short yellow stripes, that in the centre being a little the longest. On each side 
is a row of ten simple spines. When undisturbetl these slug-like larvie keep the 
tail curved over the back, and both body and tail are constantly wet with .semi- 
tiuid excreta, so that the form of the creature can hardly be seen. From the 
middle of July to the end of August these larvie change to chrysalids, and by the 
end of the latter month and during September the beetles emerge, and may be 
found resting qiiietly on the leaves of their food plant. They are now dressed in 
a coat of sober black, irregularly sj)otted with creamy white, very pretty little 
fellows in a neat evening dress, but very different to the magniticent marriage 
garment worn by their parents amidst the fresh green leaves and glowing sunshine 
of the early summer. 

The beetles appear to eat very little, but the larv.T are hungry creatures, 
eating numerous holes in the leaves, and when abundant almost stripping the 
plants. 



56 



When young the larviB are of social habits, and huddle closely together, the 
heads all in the centre, surrounded by a ring of curled up tails, presenting a most 
curious appearance. When nearly full grown they separate and scatter over the 
plantrf, each one shifting for himself. The perfect insect measures about five- 
eighths of an inch in length. 

The species belonging to the genus Goptocycla are smaller than Physonota, 
and differ somewhat in some of their habit.s. The eggs are deposited singly on 
the leaves, and when the larvae moult, the cast skins are slipped into the forked 
part of the tail, whereas the larvae of Pysonota leave their discarded garments 
sticking to the leaves. 

The golden tortoise beetle, Goptocycla aurichalcea, Fab. is very common on 
the Morning Glory, and often disfigures and injures it by eating holes in the 
leaves. They also attack the sweet potato. Prof. Riley states that they are often 
sufficiently numerous to destroy whole fields of this esculent, and they are especi- 
ally severe on the plants when fre.shly transplanted from the hotbed. When 
freshly emerged from chrysalis the beetles are of a dull orange color, but in a few 
days this tint changes to bright gold color, when they present a most beautiful 
appearance as they glisten in the sunshine. The larva resembles the beetle in 
general shape, being broad and flattened, but on each side there is a row of sixteen 
barbed spines; it is of a dark brown colour, with a pale shade upon the back. 
Prof Riley says that it carries its falcifork directly over its back, and the excre- 
ment is arranged in a more or less regular trilobed pattern. 

The mottled tortoise beetle, Goptocycla guttata, Oliv., is also common on, and 
injurious to, the morning glory and sweet potato. It varies considerably in 
colour, some specimens being very dark — almost black, others are mottled with 
black and gold, and occasionally examples are found altogether of the latter colour. 
The larva is green, bluish on the back. Prof. Riley states that it carries its dung- 
in' irregular broad masses, often branching out into long shreds and ramifications. 

Another species, the clubbed tortoise beetle, Goptocycla clavata, Oliv. is found 
on the true potato. It is given in the Society's list of Canadian beetles, but so 
far as known to me, has not been found in the Province of Quebec. 

The " .shell " of this species is thin and semitransparent, with patches of 
darker color, some of which extend to the margin of the wing-covers. I have 
seen no description of the larva. 

Ghelymorpha arrjus, Licht., is of a dull, yellowish -red colour, ornamented with 
nineteen small black spots, six on the thorax and thirteen on the wing-covers. 
It measures about three-quarters of an inch in length. Packard states that " the 
larva differs irom that of Goptocycla aurichalcea, not only in its greater size, but 
the body is thicker and narrower, the head is freer from the thorax, and the 
spines are simple, not spinulated. The body is yellow and less protected by the 
cast skin. When about to transform the larva attaches itself to the leaf by a 
silken thread, a few segments from the end where the end of the body of the 
future pupa is situated. It is .45 of an inch long. The pupa is broad and 
flattened, dark and spotted with yellow, and covered with a whitish powder, 
causing the yellow j)ortions to appear more prominently ; along each side of the 
abdomen is a row of five spines, and there are four spines on the anterior edge of 
the prothorax ; it is .40 of an inch in length." He further states that he has 
found it in all its stages on the silk-weed late in July and early in August, and 
in one instance in Salem it occurred in abundance on the leaves of the raspberry. 

I have myself found it in all stages on the morning glory at Montreal some 
years ago, but have not met with it recently. 



57 



Tortoise Iteotles may be destroyed with Paris green, Init as they often hide 
beneath the leaves, they are not so easily killed as the (Colorado potato beetle. 
The plants should be closely watched when set out in spring, as at this time the 
beetles are comparatively few in number, and could be killed before the eggs are 
deposited, which would save much future trouble and expense;. " An ounce of 
prevention is worth a })0und of cure." 

Tortoise beetles appear to be remarkably fi-ee from parasites. 1 have bred 
numbers of Physonota heliantJti, but only raised one parasit(\ a small dipterous fly. 



QUEBEC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS PLUSIA. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLE8, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Following are the characteristics of the genus Plusia : — 

Imago, antenna? setaceous, thorax and abdomen crested, fore-wings acute, 
curved on the hind margin, glossy, and of ten ornamented with metallic markings. 
Larva, loops somewhat in walking, having twelve legs only ; attenuated 
anteriorly ; feeds exposed on low plants. 
Pupa, inclosed in a slight cocoon. 

Insects belonging to the genus Plusia may be readily distinguished by the con- 
spicuous crest which they bear on the shoulders, the tufted abdomen, and the bill- 
hook shaped curve of the inner margin of the foie-wings. These are more or less 
striking in them all. Some of the species are very abundant, individuals of them 
may be seen in our gardens, even in the hot sunshine, hovering over the blossoms 
or passing from plant to plant with easy rapid motions. 

The largest, and I think the most beautiful of our Quebec species is 

P. halluca (Gey.) Fig. 23, which is one and 
three-fourths inclies in expanse of wings. 
The splendid bronze-green of its wings, 
shining with the richest gloss of satin, will 
make it known to the veriest tyro \\\ 
Entomology. 

P. Putnami (Grote) may also be 
readily distinguished by its burnt-sienna 
coloured fore-wings with their golden apical 
streak, and theii two central golden spots, 
sometimes united. 
P. thyutiroides (Guen.) is very rare in the Province of Quebec. To those 
who are fortunate enough to meet with it, it may at once be known by the 
patches at the base and inner angles of its fore-wings, which are of a delicate 
pink, resembling in colour those on the wings of the English " peach blos.som 
moth " (Thyatira hatis). It is to these that the insect owes its name. The only 
specimen I have was taken at Cowansville in the Eastern Townships. 

P. mortuorv.m (Guen.) also may be readily known. Its fore-wings are dark 
brown api)roaching to black. They are embellished with silvery lines and washes 
near the hind margin. Extending from the base to the centre of the wing are 
conspicuous plume-like silvery-white markings. This is one of the smallest 
.species in the genus, expanding about one inch and a quarter. 

The fore-wings of P. ampla (Walk.) are ash-brown with a rosy tinge. 
Extending from the inner margin to the middle of the wing is a well-defined 
dark-brown velvety patch, the inner side of which has a deep curve and is finely 
outlined with gold colour. 




58 



It has a 




n 



Fig. 24. 



In P. vindisignata (Grote) the fore- wings are dark ro.sy-grey with numerous 

brown zig-zag lines. In the centre of the wing is an obscure bronzy-green figure, 

resembling a 8 or an 8 laid on its back. 

One of the finest insects in the genus is P. himaculata (SteY>h.). In expanse 

of wings it measures an inch and three-eighths. Its fore-wings are rich rosy-brown 

variegated with dark markings and with a patch of chestnut red in the centre. 

In thts patch are tw^o golden spots, the upper somewhat resembling the letter v. 

I have noticed that the Eastern Township's specimens of this moth are larger and 

brighter than the more northern specimens. 

P. precationis (Guen.) is one of the most common species we have. Its 

fore-wings ai-e of a rich purple brown with a golden sheen. They have a few 

pale wavy streaks, and a distinct silvery y in the middle of each. 

In P. simplex (Guen.) Fig. 24 the fore-wing is of a dark ash-grey. 

brown apical dash, and a brown shade on the inner 

margin. This shade is separated from the ash-grey 

base and basal portion of the costa, by a fine white - , _ 

line, which joins the inner arm of the silvery y-like ^ 

central mark. 

In P. falcifera (Kirby) the arms of the y are long 

and attenuated, and the tail lacks the terminal knob 

that is characteristic of Precationis and Simplex. 

Falcifera has rosy-brown fore-wings strikingly marked 

with curved and dentated rosy-white lines, having 

dark brown finer lines imposed. I captured several specimens of this insect at 

Corao, P. Que. They were hovering over flowers on a sunny afternoon. 

P. hrassico' (Riley, Ni Hubn) has been taken at Metis, P. Que., by Mr. 

Winn. This moth Fig. 25 expands 
about one and a half inches. It has 
dark greyish-brown fore-wings, with 
irregular, pale yellow cross lines, and 
in the centre a silvery u or horse-shoe 
like maik followed by an oval silvery 
dot. The underwings are yellowish 
clouded towards the outer edge. 

Of P. mappa (G. & R.) only a 
few specimens have been taken in the 
Province of Quebec. The insect may 
be known by the numerous dark brown 
wavy lines upon its tawny fore-wings. 
In the centre of each of these wings is 
a silvery u, or horse-shoe-like mark, 
followed by a dot or annulet. 

P. U-aureu7)i (Boisd.) is a small 
species expanding one and one-fourth 

inches. Its fore-wings are dark brown, and bear in the centre a^golden or silvery 

mark resembling a squat capital iV. On the fore-wings also are several irregular 

transvei'se golden or silvery lines. 

Besides Balluca we have two species that have no metallic spots in the 

middle of the fore-wing, P. rr.rea (llubnei), and P. ccreoidcs (Grote). In the former 

the wings are dark bra.ssy-browu and in the latter, pale brassy-brown. Both 

have darker transverse markings, .^reoides has also, near the hind margin, a pale 

brassy transverse band. 




59 



Table of Quebec Species ok the Genus Plusia. 

1- — Having white or metallic markings in the middle of the fore-wings. 

A. Having y-like markings in the middle of the fore-wings. 

a. Having two goMeii marks as if the tail were cut off from the y. 

PuTNAMi, M'hieh has a golden apical streak. 

BiMAOULATA, which has a brown apical streak. 
/>. Having the y complete. 

1. Tarsi of front legs banded brown and white. 

Falcifera, which has no knob at the end oF the j. 
Precationis, which has the tail of the y knobbed. 

2. Tarsi of the front legs plain. 

Simplex. 

B. Having markings of other forms in the middle of the fore-wings. 

a. Like N. U-Aureum. 

b. Undulating, like a small snake. Ampla. 

c. Like the figure 3 lying on its back. Viridisignata. 

d. Plume-like. Mortuorum. 

e. Like a small v followed by a dot or annulet. 

1. Having pink spots on the wings. Thtatiroides. 

2. Having tawn}- wings. Mappa. 

3. Having greyish-brown wings. Brassic.k. 

ih — Having no metallic markings in the middle of the fore-wings. 

A. Having the wings glossy-green. Balluca. 

B. Having the wings glossy-brown. 

a. Dark brown. ^Erea. 

b. Light-brown. ^Ereoides. 



ORIGIN AND PERPETUATION OF ARCTIC FORMS. 

BY J. ALSTON MOFFAT. 

The subject of Arctic Forms is one of special interest in biology, and the 
frequent reference to it in natural history literature, keeps it constantl}' before 
the reader, and has made the theories concerning the origin and preservation of 
such forms well known, whilst to us as entomologists, it is of the rery first im- 
portance in our etiorts to obtain correct knowledge concerning the geographical 
distribution of insects. Grant Allen says . — 

"On or near the summit (^f Mount Washington, a small community of butter- 
flies belonging to an old glacial and Arctic species still lingers over a small area, 
where it has held its own for eighty thousand years that have elapsed since the 
termination of the great ice age. This same butterfly is found in two other 
localities on tliis continent; Long's Peak, Colorado, is eighteen hundred miles 
distant; Hopedale, Labrador, is probably a thousand miles away ; in the intervening 
districts there are no insects of the same species. Hence we must conclude, that 
a few butterflies left behind in the retreating main-guard of their race, on that 
one New Hampshire peak, have gone on for thousands and thousands of years, 
producing eggs, and growing Irom caterpillars into mature insects, withou.t once 
atfecting a cross with their cone:eners." 



60 



I learn from the writings of Mr. W. H. Edwards, that the name of that 
butterfly is Chionobas Semidea{Ssiy.) The description given by Mr. Sciidder of its 
terrible struggle for existence, tends to arouse one's interest in it, and -draws out 
one's sympathy for it, as we contemplate the dreary and joyless life it is doomed 
to lead in its inclement home, so opposite to what is considered to be the typical 
life of a butterfly. Grant Allen's conclusion is in perfect harmony with the 
theories prevailing on tliis subject, but there is another view that can be taken of 
it, which appears to me to be more in harmony with nature and observation, 
although it may spoil the romance, and give less play to the imagination ; and 
that is the one contained in the well-known principle of the power of envii'onment 
to modify the external appearance of living forms, and their ability to accommo- 
date themselves to altered conditions. 

To illustrate the principle that I wish to apply in this case, I shall draw upon 
Mr. Edwards's article on " Pieris Bryonise and its derivative forms," to be found in 
Papilio, for June, 1881. He says : 

" The species, of which Bryonige is one of the forms, is known as Napi> 
having in Europe three manifestations, Bryonise, Napi, and Napaeae ; the last of 
these was until recently regarded as a distinct species." Then quoting Dr. 
Weisman who says of Bryonise : " This is to a certain extent the potential winter 
form of Napi. This type Bryonise, in polar regions is the only form of 
Napi. Brj'-oniee produces but one generation a year, and must, then, 
according to my theory, be regarded as the parent form of Napi." He then states 
that in the Alps and Jura, Napi .swarans everywhere, and cro.ssing takes place, 
which causes variability in Bryonige, but in Lapland Napi is never met with ; so 
Bryonia? preserves its constancy, and concludes thus : " Pieris Bryoniae should be 
elevated to the rank of a species, and ordinary winter and summer forms should 
be designated varieties Napi and Napaeae." Then Mr. Edwards, after a description 
of the markings of tlie various forms, says, " There are therefore the three forms 
under which the species manifests itself in Europe, Bryonise, Napi, Napseas ; of 
which Bryonise may be considered the present form." Now to get myself into 
harmony with nature, I have to reverse this order. We all know that 
butterflies are lovers of the sun ; and that they are most numerous in kinds and 
examples in warm countries where they flourish most luxuriantly, the conditions 
being more contjenial to them. Therefore the natural inference is, that butter- 
flies would first aj)pear on this scene of life, in localities that were most favourable 
to them, and spread from these into those that were less so. We are all familiar 
with the restlessness of butterflies, and with what eagerness they will investi- 
gate every spot, seemingly with a determination to establish themselves there if 
possible ; they succeed if the conditions are at all favourable, and some of them 
succeed even where the conditions are most unlikely. Now as Bryoniae is a darker 
form than Najii, and Napaeae being lighter still, and taking the result of Mr. 
Edwards's experiments in this direction as a clue to some of nature's methods in 
this matter, which goes to show that cold has the effect of darkening the colour 
of some kind-s, I infer that Napaese was the first to appear and to spread into a 
locality with a cold winter. This acting on the chrysalides, Napi appears as the 
spring form, and Napaese as the summer one. As the distribution goes on it 
reaches a yet colder climate, where Napaeae disappears and Bryoniae is the spring 
form, with Napi as the summer one. Pushing yet onward it gets into a locality 
where the sea.son is too short for two broods, when the single brooded Arctic and 
Alpine Bryoniae is alone to be found, and consequently constant, and there does 
not seem to be the slightest reason to doubt, that if every Bryoniae was swept 
out of Europe in one season, their place would soon be filled from the warmer 



61 



■ plains below, and that they would be just as true BryonifB as those of the present 
— the result of the iulluence of climate on an iniprossionable or<5'anisni, and the 
power of that organism to accommodate itself to altered conditions. 

Now, then, let us return to our poor old friend Semidca, whohas been having 
such a weary time of it on top of Mount Washington, for the last eighty thousand 
years. J do not know the form of Cliionobas that Hies on the plains of New 
Hampshire. I am dealing with one of the laws of nature that controls life, a far 
more reliable guide to correct conclusions, than the changeable external appear- 
ance of insects. But whatever they may be like, or by whatever name they may 
be called, 1 am <|uite confident, that upon investigation one of them will be 
found to stand in the same relation to Semidca that Napi does to BryonisB, and 
will be found capable of pushing its way up Mount Wasliington and to be modi- 
fied by the changed contlitions, and by the time it has established itself on the 
top it has become true Semidea; so that if at any time Semidea had been obliterated 
from Mount Washington by the severity of the conditions, and it would seem 
little short of a miracle if it never has been, its place could yet be tilled from 
below. 

Then there is Semidea in the Mountains of Colorado. The Chionobas of the 
Colorado plains, will undoubtedly be different-looking from those of New Hamp- 
shire au<l discerned by liearing different names, and from one of them the Semideas 
have come which are found on the mountains ; the same principle governing 
one as the other. We turn to Labrador and the same principle is at work there, 
only the conditions for the production of Semidea are obtained without the neces- 
sity for the elevation. So that from Labrador within the Arctic circle, to Long's 
Peak, Colorado, an unbroken chain of that species extends across the 2,800 miles 
that lie between, every link of which may differ somewhat from the one next 
to it, according to the conditions in which it lives, and be entitled to a distin- 
guishins:^ name, yet all united by the laws of consanguinity. At these three points, 
Labrador, Mount Washington and Long's Peak, Colorado, the conditions being the 
same, like results are produced and Semidea is the natural outcome. And according 
to Mr. Edwards, when specimens are brought from these widely separated locali- 
ties and compared, they are not known io differ by a scale or a hair. . I see that 
Mr. Scuddei' does not consider the Labrador form quite the same as the others, 
if so it would indicate that the conditions are not quite identical. 

Mr. Edwards inform us that the Satyrinse are a very numerous family, with 
many genera, these having numerous species, which I take as an indication that 
they are sensitive to external influences and readily modified thereby, and pro- 
bablv a full series might exhibit the fji-adations to be sliicht. 

This, then, is the view I take of the way in which Arctic forms have been 
originated and perpetuated, and the principle at work in producing them is 
that which has been so carefully elaborated with such a wealth of illustration 
and knowledge of facts by WalkiCvi in his Island Life ; only he calls the forms 
produced by changed conditions "species" instead of varieties of a species, a 
mode of using the term that is ever liable to lead to confusion and misun- 
derstanding. 



02 



FULLER'S ROSE-BEETLE.— (^?'a/7iii/ws FulUri, Horn). 

BY JAMES FLETCHER, OTTAWA. 

From time to time couiplaiiita come to us of injuries done to greenhouse 
plants by some insect which gives abundant evidence of its presence, by the 
nibbled state of the leaves ; but which is seldom detected. When such com- 
plaints are received, it is suggested that a light be taken into the greenhouse and 
search made at night. In most instances the culprit is found to be a small brown 
snout-beetle, shown at Fig. 28. This is known as Fuller's Rose-Beetle. There is 
no doubt that this insect is far commoner than is generally supposed. Its habit 
of feeding at night and hiding during the day time, added to the protection 
afforded it by its colour, saves it from detection until it attracts notice by its ex- 
cessive numbers. 

This is a comparatively new enemy, having only been described in 1876, 
when Dr. Horn named it after Mr. A. S. Fuller, who first brought it to his 
notice. It had however, been sent to Dr. J. A. Lintner, State Entomologist of 
New York, two years previous to that date. 

A good deal has been w^ritten in different journals and reports upon the best 
way to overcome this pest ; but it still keeps turning up in new localities every 
year, and is now reported as a greenhouse pest from the Atlantic to the Pacitic 
coast. 

Accounts of its life-history and habits are given in the Annual Report of the 
United States Entomologist for 1878, and Dr. Lintner's report for 1885. From 
these accounts we find that this insect injures greenhouse plants of many kinds; 
but its favourite food is undoubtedly the rose, and after this perhaps various 
kinds of lilies. The injury done by the mature beetle is how- 
ever slight, compared with that of the larva (Fig. 26), which 
is a thick white legless grub, when full grown ^ of an inch 
in length, the body curved, w^rinkled above and flattened be- 
low, covered with .short tawny bristles. Head yellow with 
^ -=■- dark, black-tipped, sharp mandibles, with which it consumes 

Fig. 20. the young rootlets of various greenhouse plants, and by the 

destruction of these fibres with which the plant takes its 
food, soon destroys the vitality of the plant. Prof. Riley says :— (Ann. 
Rep., 1878, p. 256). " The mo.st serious injury is done by the larvai, which feed 
principally upon the more tender rootlets and thus attack the plant in its most 
essential parts. I have had a quite healthy rosebush totally destroyed in three 
weeks' time, by about three dozen of the larvae, which w^ere placed in the pot con- 
taining it." When plants are attacked at the root by larvae they have generally 
a characteristic appearance. The new wood is weak and spindly, the colour is 
unhealthy and very few flowers are produced. When this is the case they seldom 
recover. I have seen plants of which everj^ one of the young rootlets were 
destroyed, and which threw out new roots close to the surface ; but these never 
did much good, and florists tell me that it pays better to throw away such plants 
and replace them with young, vigorous bushes. There is frequently much care- 
lessness amongst florists in not appreciating the serious nature of an introduction 
of this pest into their premises, and it is not at all uncommon to see plants 
destroyed by the larvre, simply pulled out and other healthy plants set in the 
.same soil. This of course is a great mistake, and is a practice which should never 
be followed. When roses are grown under glass in the usuaHvay, viz.: — in beds, 
if the soil is found to be infested by the larvjie of this insect, it must all be 






(iS 



removed and fresh soil put in its place. There are several instances on record of 
rose-growers having given up the cultivation of this (jueen of all flowers, on 
account of tlie attacks of this insect ; but this is not necessary, if they will learn 
something of its life-liistory and ai)ply remedies accordingly. Prof. Riley has 
worked out the life-history and finds that the eggs are laid in Hattentd batches of 
from 10 to GO, the individual eggs being smooth yellow and ovoid and about one 
nnllimetre in length. They are laid by the female at tlie base of the plant just 
above the ground, and are generally pushed between the loose bark and the stem, 
or are laid between the earth and the main stem, just at the surface of the ground. 
They are so firmly glued together and to the place where they are deposited that 
they can only be detached Avith difhculty. After about a month the eggs hatch 
and the active Ifttle larvie at once burrow down into the ground and begin their 
work of destruction. When full grown they turn to pupje, Fig. 27, from which 
the mature beetles emerge in about three weeks. The pei'fect 
beetle, Fig. 28, is a brown weevil, a little more than j of an inch in 
length, with a short thick snout and long slender anteiniai or feelers, 
bent abruptly in the nuddle. The wing-cases are indistinctly striate, 
and bear rows of large punctures and minute hairs. A whitish ^'"g- 27. 
stripe runs along the sides of the thorax and half way down the sides where 
it terminates as an oblique white dash, reaching to the middle of each wing-case. 
Prof. Riley says : " The parent beetles, like most other snout beetles, live for a 

■■ ' considerable time, as I have kept them in confinement for 

nearly three months. They are nocturnal in hal)it, being quite 
active and feeding only after dusk. They shun the light during 
day-time and hide under the leaves or cling tightly to the 
Fig. 28. branches or in some fork near the base of the plant, always in 

such })osition as not easily to be observed. They drop to the ground when 
disturbed, draw up their legs and ' play possum,' remaining motionless for some 
time and looking very much like a small lump of dry earth, the colour adding 
greatly to the resemblance. This habit of simulating death upon disturbance is 
common to many other insects of this family. They feed upon the leaves, but do 
more injury by severing them than by the amount of foliage consumed.", 

" The beetle seems to be purely American, and the genus Aramigus was in fact 
erected for it and another species (A. tesselatus), of about the same size, but of a 
.silvery white colour, with faint green hue, which I have found in Kansas upon 
the well-known 'resin weed.' The beetle belongs to the .same family, and is 
pretty closely allied to a well-known European beetle, Otiorliynchus sulcatics, 
Fab., which is larger and darker in colour, and is also very injurious to green- 
house plants, as well as to some grown out of doors. This species akso occurs in 
this country." The last-named beetle has been taken by Mr. Harrington at 
Sydney, Cape Breton, but has never yet been reported as an injurious insect in 
Canada. 

Remedies. — Prol)ably the most satisfactory remedies for this pest are those 
which are directed towards the destruction of the mature beetles. As stated 
above these are very retentive of life. They can, however, certainly be con- 
(piered by constant watchfulness and by keeping the plants in the house where 
they occur frequently sprayed all the time the perfect beetles occur with weak 
arsenical mixtures. Paris green of the strength of 1 lb. to 300 gallons of water 
is strong enough to destroy the beetles and will not injure the plants if kept well 
mixed all the time it is being used. Mr. Alderman Scrim, of Ottawa, an exten- 
sive grower of roses and other plants for winter cut-flowers was very successful 
in trapping the beetles by means of the small bamboo canes commonly u.sed by 
florists for supporting potted plants in greenhou.'^es. These were cut so that there 



64 



was an open joint about three inches in length at the top. Into this chamber so 
formed the beetles would crawl to hide during- the day, and were easily and 
tjuickly crushed by pushing a small rod down the cane every morning witliout 
removing the cane. In this way Mr. Scrim destroyed large numbers at a time 
of the year when it was inconvenient to renew all the soil in his rose-houses, 
i^rof. Eiley quotes in his 1878 report from an account written by the late Mr. 
Peter Henderson, of New York, of the work of this beetle. After stating his 
belief that the failure of many to grow roses is due to the unknown presence of 
the larv;e at the roots, he says as follows: " Mr. John May, the gardener in charge 
of Mr. Slaughter's rose-growing establishment at Madison, New Jersey, which is 
probabb"^ the largest in the vicinity of New York, has given great attention to 
the rose bug, his roses for four or five years being much injured by it ; but by 
persistent efforts in destroying the perfect insect, he has now got entirely clear 
of it." 

Experiments to destroy the larvtt^ and pupjB in the ground by means of bisul- 
phide of carbon were unsuccessful. 

Prof. Riley having discovered the habits of the insect as to the deposition of 
its eggs suggested the value of placing traps, composed of rags, tape or paper tied 
round the stems of the plants or round short sticks placed close to the plants. In 
these the females would lay their eggs. The eggs take about a month to hatch, 
and by scalding the rags at short intervals all the eggs would be destroyed. If 
the plan of tying rags to sticks be adopted these can be dipped in scalding water 
and again replaced at once without untying the rags. 

With this as with most of the other injurious insects the most important thing 
is for the florist to recognise the serious nature of the attack and the necessity of 
carrying on the war unceasingly until every appearance of the enemy ceases. 



HYMENOPTERA PARASITICA. 

I'.Y W. HAGUE HARRINGTON', OTTAWA. 

In his excellent work entitled a " Synopsis of the Families and Genera of the 
Hyraenoptera of America, north of Mexico," Mr. E. T. Cresson gives the following 
concise statement of the general characters of the order Hymenoptera. 

Wings four, membranous, the posterior pair almost always smaller than the 
anterior, with com]3aratively few nervures. 

Mouth mandibulate, and with a lower lip or tongue, sheathed by the 
inaxillie. 

Tarsi generally 5-jointed, rarely 3 or 4-jointed, very rarely heteromerous. 

Abdomen of the female furnished with a multivalve saw ovipositor, a borer, 
or a sting. 

Larva vermiform and footless, except in the Phyllophaga and Xylophaga. 

Pupa incomplete and inactive. 

Keeping these definitions in view it will be seldom difficult even for those 
who are not entomologists to decide whether a certain insect belongs to the 
Hvmeno})tera. Many flies (order Diptei'a) have a close superficial resemblance to 
species of Hymenoptera, but they may at once be distinguished on an examina- 
tion of the wings, of which they invariably have only tvjo. 



65 



Again insects may be found vvitli four nienibranous transparent wings, as 
dragon flies (onler Pseuiloneurt)i)tera) or cicadas (ortler Heniiptera), but in these 
orders the wings have a great number of nervures, or veins, forming a close net- 
work, and in all hemipterous species (bugs) the mouth is transformed into a pro- 
boscis, and lacks the mandibles or jaws common to Hymenoptera, and which are 
very apparent in large species like the bees. 

We are informed that the abdomen of the fenuile is furnished with a saw 
ovipositor, a borei', or a sting, and the order can be roughly divided into three 
sections based upon these dill'erences in the sexual organs. The first section may 
be st\ded Phyllophaga (leaf-feeders), and contains the well-known saw flies, the 
larvae of which are caterpillar-like and possessed of feet. The second section 
includes the Xylophaga (wood-feeders), generally known as horntails, the larvae 
of which infest the trunks of trees, and the Parasitica (parasites) to which belong 
the long-stings and numerous allied forms. The third section Aculeata (sting- 
bearers) contains the bees, wasps, ants, etc. 

Of the first and third sections as above indicated I have in former reports 
treated briefly, and I will now endeavor to outline the Parasitica, which consti- 
tute almost the entire second section, and which by reason of their great number 
and complexity of structure will make my task a difhcult one to undertake in a 
single paper. 

The section Parasitica contains at least half of the described species of our 
Hymenoptera, and the number of undescribed forms must be very large, as many 
of them are extremely minute and require more careful collecting and study than 
many entomologists can devote to them. They are divided into several families, 
of which some contain a large number of genera and species, and which will be 
briefly treated of in systematic order. 

CYNIPID..E. — This family contains a moderate number cf small species (often 
minute) and is divided into two sections, one containing three and the other two 
subfamilies. The species contained in the first section are in the larval state 
chiefly producers of galls, or dwellers therein, instead of being truly parasitic in 
their mode of life. There is reason to believe, however, that the few species 
which constitute the first subfamily (Ibaliinee) are true parasites upon the larvte 
of wood-boring insects. The principal Canadian species is Ihalia miacidipennis 
Hald., which occurs somewhat rarely on maple and beech. The structure of the 
insect is such as to attract attention, for though of moderate size (hardly three- 
fourths of an inch in length) it is still the largest of our Cynipidffi, and is easily 
distinguished by its strongly compressed or knife-shaped abdomen. Within the 
abdomen, which constitutes merely a sheath for it, is coiled a delicate ovipositor, 
much longer than the insect itself, with which it deposits its eggs in the decaj'ing 
trunks of the beech and maple, where the larvae when hatched probably exist 
upon other insects infesting the wood. 

The subfamily Cynipin;i; contains species producing galls upon plants. The 
trees most subject to their attacks are the various species of oak ; the galls occur- 
ring upon them and the insects produced therefrom being in themselves a suffi- 
cient study for an entomologist. Some of the galls, such as the oak-apple, are of 
enormous size as compared with the minute grub which occupies the central cell 
therein, and which by some mysterious influence upon the growth of the plant 
structure causes this wonderful abnormal development. The various species of 
roses are also very liable to the attack of these insects, the galls chiefly occurring 
being large potato-shaped ones upon the loots, oval woody enlargements of the 
stems and clusters of pea-shajjed swellings upon the leaves. Although various 
plants, including the raspberry and blackberry, are subject to the.se attacks there 
is not space to enumerate them here. 

5 (en.) 



bb 



The subfamily Inquilinffi as its title indicates contains species which are 
inquilines or guests in the galls of the preceding species, which in structure and 
appearance they closely resemble. 

The truly parasitic species of the Cynipidse are comparatively few in 
number. 

EvANiiD.E. — The species belonging to this family are easily distinguished, as 
the abdomen is attached to the disc or base of the metathorax, instead of to the 
apex as in the other families. The species found in Canada belong chiefly to the 
genus Aulacus, the members of which frequent decaying trees, in which they may 
be found ovipo^^iting. We have also two species of Foenus — insects with a curious 
sickle-shaped abdomen — of which one {F. incertus) has a short ovipositor, while 
the other {F. tarsatorius) has a very long one. They may frequently be seen 
flying about trees, telegraph poles, etc., examining and entering insect burrows 
and crevices, and also upon golden-rod and other flowers in autumn. They are 
said to be parasitic upon certain bees. The species of Evania, which have curious 
hatch ed-shaped abdomens, are said to infest cockroaches. 

TRIGONALID.E. — This family contains only one genus (Trigonalys) and the 
four species therein are of rare occurrence and not as yet recorded from Canada. 
Habits unknown to me. 

ICHNEUMONiDiE. — This family is a very extensive one and contains our largest 
SiJid best know^n parasites. It is divided into five sub-families of somewhat equal 
size. Of the sub-family Ichneumonina3 there are more than two hundred species 

credited to the tj^pical genus Ichneumon, and 
^-N^ ^^—^ of these at least lifty occur in the vicinity of 

Ottawa. These ichneumons are somewhat 
wasp-like in form, but more slender ; our largest 
species (/. grandis) is sometimes an inch in 
length, but some of the smaller species are less 
than one-third of an inch and the averagfe size 
is about two-thirds. The ovipositor is short 
and retracted within the abdomen so as to be 
rarely visible, but the females may be dis- 
tinguished by their stouter abdomens, and 
frequently by the antennas being rolled, while 
those of the males are longer and straight. 
The anterior wings have a small pentagonal cell 
called an areolet, which occurs also in many 
other Hymenoptera, (see wing of Cryptus, 
Fig. 29) althoiigh the areolet is incomplete, 
triangular, rudimentary or wanting in many 
genera. Many of the ichneumons are entirely black (or with a few white 
markings,) others have the abdomen red, others again are banded with black 
and yellow, or are ferruginous with black markings. They are parasites of the 
caterpillars of our butterflies and moths. The genus Amblyteles contains a num- 
ber of species almost identical in appearance with those of the preceding genus 
and of similar habits. Hoplismenus is distinguished by having pointed tubercles 
or spines upon the metathorax. A common and well marked species is H. 
morulus, which is a parasite of certain butterflies. The genus Trogus contains 
a few large species of which T. exesorius, a yellow species with smoky wings, is 
a common parasite of the caterfrillars of our Black Swallow-tail butterfly, 
Papil'io asterias. 

Cryptin^e. — Cryptus, the typical genus of this sub-family, contains species 




Fig. 29. 



G7 




• very similar in shape and colouring to those of the preceding siih-farnily, hut 
of smaller si/e and having the ovipositor exserted and womotimes ([uite long. A 
common species is Cryptas extrematis which I have 
fre(|uently bred from the cocoons of our large moth 
Telea poh/phemus. Figure 2[) shows the female and 
Figure 30 a cross-section of the moth's cocoon, indi- 
cating how the cocoons of the parasite lie side by side 
within it closely packed. The genus contains a great 
many species, as does also the genus Phygadeuon, 
the species of which differ chiefly in having the 
ovipositor shorter. The genus Hemiteles contains small ^''<^- ^^• 

species with incomplete areolet, which are said to be secondary parasites ; i.e. 
parasites of parasites, while the species belonging to Pezomachus are wingless 
and ant- like in shape and may be found upon the ground or on foliage. 

Ophionix.K. — The species included in this sub-family usually have the 
ovipositor short, and they differ from the rest of the Ichneumonidie in having 

the abdomen compressed laterally, so that it 
becomes sickle-shaped. Some of the larger 
form« show this in a marked degree. The 
typical genus Ophion contains large yellow 
insects of which some are very abundant. Our 
largest species is Ophion macruricTn (Figure 31) 
which is a parasite of the caterpillar of the 
large American silkworm moth (Telea poly- 
phemiis). The larva of the ophion is a large, 
stout grub, which when full grown spins a 
dark brown cocoon which almost tills the 
cocoon of the moth, and from which the fly 
emerges by cutting a circular door at one end. 
0. hilineaturti infests the White Miller moths, 
Fig. 31. while 0. purgatum (which has two yellow 

specks in one of the cells of the anterior wing) is a parasite of the army worm. 
Thyvrodon morio is a fine insect of nearl}^ the size and shape of 0. riKicruruTn, 
but of a deep black colour, with dark, smoky wings and j^ellow antenna^. The genera 
Exochilum and Heteropelma contain a few large species of the same general 
appearance, while Opheltes glaucopterus might be mistaken for Ophion 
macrurum, except that there is an areolet in the anterior wing and that the 
terminal segments of the abdomen are black. This fine species has been l)red by 
my friend Mr. Fletcher from the cocoons of 
Cimbex yl7)ie7*icrty? a, the great Willow Sawfly.* 
Anomalon and Campoplex contain a large 
number of species of moderate size, with the 
abdomen long and very thin. They are 
parasites of caterpillars, such as the de- 
structive Tent caterpillars, and they do good 
service in keeping down such pests. 
Another large genus of very beneficial species 
is Limneria, but in this and the remaining 
genera of the sub-family the species are mostly 
small. Figure 32 shows Thersilochufi cvnotra- 
cheli a parasite of the plum weevil. In Banchus the scutellum is often armed 
with a sharp spine. 

• Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XIX, p. 80. 





Fig. 32. 



68 



TryphoniN-E. — In this and the following sub-family the abdomen instead of 
being compressed laterally and thus being more or less knife-shaped, is cylindrical or 
flattened vertically, especially the basal segment, which instead of forming a 
slender petiole, is in the majority of genera attached to the thorax by its 
full width. In the present sub-family the ovipositor is short and not exserted. 
There are a number of genera, of which Mesoleptus and Tryphon are the most 
important, but without figures it would be difficult to satisfactorily describe any 
of the species. Euceros is distinguished by its flattened antennae and Chorin?eus 
by having one or two segments of the abdomen longitudinally keeled above, as 
in the genus Rhogas of the Braconidse. 

PlMPLiN^E. — This sub-family contains many fine species, including the largest 
and most striking of all our Hymenoptera. The structure of the abdomen is 
generally as in the preceding sub-family, but the exserted ovipositor is usually 
at least half the length of the abdomen, and not unfrequently is much longer 
than the whole body of the insect. This development of the ovipositor is due to 
the fact that the victims of those species in which it is very long are usually 
wood-borers, dwelling in burrows in the wood or under the bark of various trees 
and apparently secure from the attacks of the enemies of more exposed species. 
Arotes contains several handsome species ; black, with markings of yellow or 
white, and with the ovipositor about the length of the insect. I have found them 
ovipositing in dead hickory, infested by Saperda discoidea, etc. Of Rhyssa there 
are five species recorded from Canada, of which R. persuasoria is also found in 
Europe. This is a large species, the female (with ovipositor) being 2h inches in 
length. The general colour is black, with white markings, but the legs are 
rufous. Provancher states that this species is an especial parasite of the large 
pine-borers, Monohammus confasor and M. scutellatus. I have not recognized 
the species at Ottawa yet, but have a male apparently belonging to it from Rev. 
G. W. Taylor, of Victoria, B.C. The closely allied genus Thalessa contains the 
giants of the Parasitica, those large species popularly known as " Long-stings." 
Two species, atrata and lunator, are common, while three others, which may be 
perhaps varieties, are recorded. The specific name of Thalessa atrata signifies 
that the species is black, and this is true of the female, with the exception of the 
"head, the antennae and portions of the legs. The male, however, has the legs 
almost entirely yellow, the thorax much varied with the same colour, and the 
abdomen much lighter than that of the female. A large female measures fully 
an inch and a half from the head to the tip of the abdomen, beyond which the 
ovipositor extends five inches. The legs, wings and antenna) are developed in 
proportion, so that the motions of the insect are active and she flies strongly. The 
-size of these insects and their curious method of oviposition (egg-placing) have 
made them objects of nmch interest to entomologists. Their larvae are parasites 
(feeding externally) of the grubs of the wood boring " Horn tail " called Tremex 
columha. I am sorry that space does not permit me to give a fuller account of 
their habits, which have been very carefully worked out by Prof Riley. In T. 
lunator, which is a somewhat smaller species and more variable in size, the thorax 
and abdomen are largely marked with yellow. To those who wish to observe 
these insects I may say that they can generally be found about old maples and 
beeches in midsummer. 

The genus Ephialtes contains several fine species having the abdomen 
tuberculate along the sides and the ovipositor as long as the insect itself. E. 
irritator, which I have taken on dead hickory in June has the abdomen and legs 
red, but other large species such as gigas and occidentalis are black, with the 
•exception of the legs. 



69 




Fig. 33. 




Fig. 34. 



Pimpla, the genus from which the sub-fainily takes its name, contains a lunn- 
ber of very useful species of which P. roiKimHitor (Figure ^^) is a great aid in 

checking tlie ravages of the 

Forest Tent-cater] )i liar. I 

observed it to be very abund- 
ant in 1889. This species has 

the segments of the abdomen 

margined with white, but in 

our other species the thorax 

and abdomen are entirely 

black. The legs, however, 

as in this species, arc usually 
red, and more or less variegated with black and white. 
Our largest species, P. pedali:^, also an enemy of 
Clisiocampa, has the legs red, with the exception of 
the hinder tibi.B and tarsi, which are black, while P. 
pterelas, which can be bred in large numbers from 
pods of iris infested by the beetle Mononychus vulpeculus, has its legs entirely 
red. A very closely allied species P. annulipes (Figure 34) is said to be a parasite 
of Carpocapsa pomonella, the Codling moth, whose larva? do such enormous 
damage to our apples. 

Differing from Pimplas chiefly in colour are two yellow species belonging to 
the genus Theronia. In Victoria, B.C., in May, 1888, I observed T. fulvescens to 
be very abundant and as it is a parasite of the western Tent-caterpillar, which 
was then in immense numbers, I have no donbt that the insects were then 
engaged in the good work of depositing their eggs in the obnoxious caterpillars. 
The species which occurs here is called Theronia melanocephala from its black 
head, and I have bred it from cocoons of Halesidota maculata. 

The sub-family contains many other genera, some of which, as Xorides, 
Xylonomus, Ecthrus and Odontomerus. include large handsome species. 

Stephanid^e. — This family only contains two genera, and the- American 
species described are only four in number. They are rare in collections, and none 
are yet reported from Canada I think. In appearance they much resemble some 
species of the next family, and having long ovipositors are probably parasites of 
wood-borers. 

Braconid.k. — The described species of this famil}^ are not so numerous as 
those of the ichneumonid^e, nor are they so large, but they include many inter- 
esting forms, and many of great use in keeping down noxious insects. The 
braconids are distinguished from the ichueumonids b}' the venation of the 
anterior wings, which lack the cross-vein known as the second recurrent nervure. 
On examining the wing of Cryptus, for instance, (see Fig. 29) there is seen just 
below the areolet (or little pentagonal cell) a cross-vein, but if the wing of a 
Bracon (see Fig. 35) is examined it will readily be seen that there is no trace of 
a corresponding cross-vein. In the braconids also (except in one small section) 
the sec(md and third segments of the abdomen are rigidly connected, instead of 
being flexibly jointed. They are separated into five divisions, which are further 
divided into sub-families. 

Cyclostomi. — In this division the clypeus (or portion of face ju^t above the 
mouth) is emarginate, thus forming a semi-circular opening above the mandibles 
or jaws. There are nine sub-families, but the majority of the species are con- 
tained in the genera Bracon and Rhogas. 



70 




Via. 35. 



The larger species of Bracon ai"e usually black, with bright red abdomen, 

dark, smoky wings, and a long ovipositor. They 
jnay be seen upon dead trees, and are largely para- 
sitic upon the larvae ot beetles which infest the 
trees. The larva of the Bracon spins a tough oval 
cocoon, perfectly flat above and below. Such 
cocoons can frequently be found under the bark of 
maple, cedar, etc., in the burrows of the beetles 
upon which the parasites preyed. The smaller 
species are reddish or yellowish, and infest 
dipterous and other larvae. Fig. 35 shows Bracon 
charus which is said to be a parasite of Chrysoho- 
thris femovata, the flat-headed apple tree-borer. 

The species of Rhogas difler from Bracon in 
having the ovipositor short, the wings transparent, 
and especially in having the first segments of the 
abdomen carinate. R. intei-medius is a medium 
sized yellow species which I have frequently bred 
from a handsome caterpillar (Acronyda sp.) 

Many larva? live in one caterpillar, which dies from the attack when it is about 
full grown. The victims may frequently be seen extended on stems of grass, appar- 
ently at rest, but on closer examination are found to be stiff" and hard, and per- 
haps riddled with minute holes from which a score or more of the flies have 
issued. 

Ortptogastres. — The species included in this division are easily recognized 
by the form of the abdomen which, instead of consisting of several segments, 
with sutures (or joints) between them, seems to be in one piece. This shield-like 
abdomen, however, consists of the first three segments welded together. It con- 
ceals the ventral segments, and thus gives the name to the division, which con- 
tains the two .sub-families, Sigalphinae and Cheloninse. 

Fig. 36 shows very clearly the male and female of Sigalphus curculionis, 
which is one of the parasites of the 
plum-curculio. 

Areolarii. — In this division 
the distinguishing feature is in the 
venation of the wing, in which the 
second subraarginal is minute, form- 
ing a small triangular areolet, or often 
imperfect. There are two subfamilies 
as in the preceding division. The 
first includes the well-known genera 
Apanteles and Microgaster ; each con- 
taining many species, which, though 
small, are of great benefit in holding 
lepidopterous larvse in check. Mr. Howard (in Scudder's Butterflies of the United 
States and Canada) mentions no less than sixteen species of Apanteles as para- 
sites of butterflies. 

PoLYMORi'Hi. — This division contains several subfamilies, and includes some 
large s|>ecies, such as Helcon, but it is almost impossible without illustrations to 
give any satisfactory idea of the numerous genera. Fig. 37 shows, greatly enlarged, 
Macrocentrius delicatus, a parasite of the Codling moth. 




71 



ExoDONTES. — This division is v^ery poorly represented in Canada, or at 

least ill collections. The species are 
small, but may be distinf,'uished by an 
examination of the mouth parts ; the 
mandibles have the tips turned outward 
(as the name of division indicates), and 
oannot therefore be used for biting. 

Flexiventres. — This division con- 
tains species which differ from all the 
other braconids in having the segments 
of the abdomen freely articulated, so 
thai, it can be bent under the thorax. 
There is only one sub-family, the Aphid- 
iinse, and the species are very small, yet 
they are of great economic importance, 
as they are parasites of various species 
of aphides, or plant-lice. The larva 
feeds inside the aphis, which becomes 
swollen, and finally is found fixed to 
the plant on which it has been feeding, 
a mere dead shell from which the tiny 
parasitic fly has escaped. The grain 
aphis is said to be kept in check by one 
species, which alone must save an 
immense sum to our farmers. 

Chalcidid/e. — Here we have an- 
other very extensive family ; the species 
differing greatly in structure and in habits. They are always small, but 
frequently are very brilliant in appearance, glittering wdth bright tints and 
metallic lustres. It will only be possible to glance at a few of the forms, as the 
great diversity of structure which obtains among them, and their minuteness 
make their study and identification difficult except for one who can devote much 
time to it. The wings have scarcely any traces of venation, except the vein 
aloncj the front edge. 

Leucospis afinis is our largest species ; a black and yellow fly about one- 
fourth of an inch long, with its ovipositor curved up over the abdomen in a 
curious manner. It is frequently found on golden-rod, and is a parasite of bees. 




Fig. 37. 





\ 



Fig. 39. 



Fig. 38. 



Smicra and Chalchis contain species remarkable for the development of the 
hind legs. Fig. 38 shows Smicra maHc^, which is a parasite of the Cecropia 
caterpillar, and Fig. 39 gives Chalcis Jiavipea which attacks the larva of the 
cotton moth. 



72 




The genus Torymus contains a number of species, which may be bred from 
ditFerent ^alls. Tlie females have the al)domen flattened ovate, and sometimes 
prolonged to an acute point ; the abdomen of the males is very small, and the 
insects are black. A not uncommon species is T. gigantea, which is bred from 
the large globular galls produced on stems of golden-rod bj^ a fly (Trypeta solid- 
aginis), about the size of a house fly, with mottled wings. 

The closely allied genus Isosoma contains species which depart from the para- 
sitic habits of the majority of the family, and become themselves noxious insects. 

Isosoma horde i (Fig. 40) is the well-known 
Joint-worm of wheat and barley straw, 
making gall-like swellings at the joints, 
in which sevei'al cells may be found, each 
containing a little grub. 

The sub-family Pteromalinre contains, 
amid a great complex of tribes and genera, 
a correspondingly great number of species. 
The tj'pical genus, Pteromalus, alone con- 
tains more than 30 species, of which some 
are well-known parasites of butterflies. 
P. puparum is recorded as bred from 
eleven species of butterfly, and is a com- 
mon destro3^er of the chrysalids of the 
cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapai) and 
of Vanessa antiopa. I have counted 
Fig. 40. more than 450 flies from one pupa of the 

latter, and sometimes scarcelj^ an unin- 
fested chrysalid can be found. The species of Tetrastichus are also frequently 
parasites of butterflies, while T. esurus (Fig. 42) has been bred from the cotton moth. 
The genus Tricliogramma (which constitutes a sub-family) also has similar habits, 
and T. rtiinutum (Fig. 41) is a parasite of our 
large Milkweed Butterfly (Danais archijjpus). 

PROCTOTRUPID.E. — This family has been but 
meagrely investigated in Canada, although the 
species are numerous, and often of interesting 
structure. They are not so varied in coloring as 
the Chalcididffi, to which they are closely related, 
but are usually brown or black. Many of them 
are wingless, living among low herbage and moss, 
and some of the genera consist of species so 
minute that they live and mature in the eggs of 

other insects. 1 have found clusters of moths' esfgrs from each of which, instead of 

a young caterpillar, has issued a perfect winged 
fly (Teleas orgyicti.) Those of Scelio infest, I 
believe, the eggs of grasshoppers or crickets. 

Pelecinid^. — This family is a ver}^ easy one 
to study, as it contains only one species, Pelecinus 
polyturator, the shape of which is so diflerent 
from all other hymenoptera that it can be quickly 
recognized. This fine insect is. of a glossy black, 
with shoi-t wings, containing few veins. The male 
has a club-shaped abdomen, but the female has hers 
greatly elongated — about five times the length of 
her head and thorax — her total lenyth is about two inches. The females are 



.^'^^^'"^ 





7.S 



not unconnnon, and generally Hy near the <rr()un(l, Imt tlieir habits are otherwise 
\n\known. I have taken tlieni as far eastwjii-d as Nova Scotia, l)ut I do not know 
how far westward their range extends. The male is exceedingly rare, and I have 
only seen one specimen that was captured in Ontario. 

Although this review of the great complex of insects embraced in thf Para- 
sitica has been a very rapid and incomplete one, I hope that it has at least given 
some idea of their great number, their diversity of structure and their economic 
importance. We see that e(:fg, larva and pupa are alike subject t(j their attacks, and 
that scarcely any form of insect defence appears to be sufficient to prevent their 
attacks. The grub gnawing his hidden burrow in the tree, and the scale insect 
adhering firmly to the twig, alike have their parasitic foes diti'ering in size and 
method of attack. 

It will be observed further that the value of any species in destroying 
obnoxious forms does not depend upon its size or strength. The greatest benefits 
are often effected by atoms so minute as almost to escape our search, but which 
by their numbers work wholesale destruction to their victims. The tiny fiy that 
destroys a cluster of eggs is a greater helper than the larger one that might later 
destroy the brood of caterpillars, because in the latter case a certain amount of 
depredation is committed before the labours of the parasite are fulfilled. The 
diminutive devourers of aphides are of unknown value, as plant-lice increa.se so 
enormously by rapidly succeeding generations that if it were not for such pro- 
vidential safeguards they would swarm everywhere working devastation. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE ELM. 

BY F. B. CAULFIELD, MONTREAL. 

First are insects injurious to the trunk. , 

1. The Common Elm-tree Borer, Saferda tridentata, Oliv, Order Coleop- 
tera, I'amily CerambycidiB. — A very destructive insect, boring in the inner bark 
and the surface of the wood of elm trees. Fitch states that the eggs are deposited 
in June and that the young larv;e nearly complete their growth before winter, 
and soon after warm weather arrives in spring they pass into the pupa state. 
Packard, who has found the larva in abundance in spring in Providence, under 
the bark of old dead elms, describes it Jis follows : — " White, sub-cylin<lrical, a 
little fiattened, with the lateral fold of the body rather prominent ; end of the 
body flattened, obtuse, and nearly as wide at the end as at the first abdominal 
ring. The head is one-half as wide as the first prothoracic ring, being rather 
large. The prothoracic segment, or that next to the head, is transversely oblong, 
being about twice as Vjroad as long ; there is a pale dorsal corneous transversely 
oblong shield, being about two-thirds as long as wide, and nearly as long as the 
four succeeding segments ; this is smooth, except on the posterior half, which is 
rough, with the front edge irregular and not extending far down the sides. Fine 
hairs arise from the front edge and sides of the plate, and similar hairs are 
scattered over the body and especially around the end. On the upj)er side of 
each segment is a transversely olilong ovate roughened area, with the front edge 
slightly convex, and behind slightly arcuate. On the under side of each segment 
are similar rough horny plates, ])ut arcuate in front, with the hinder edge 
straififht. 



74 



It differs from the larva af Saperda vestita, Say, in the shorter body, which 
is broader, more hairy, with the tip of the abdomen flatter and more hairy. The 
prothoracic segment is broader and flatter, and the rough portion of the dorsal 
plates is larger and less transversely ovate." 

These destructive grubs by tunnelling and undermining, loosen large portions 
of the bark, stopping the flow of sap, weakening and finally killing the tree. 

The perfect insect is a flat-bodied beetle, measuring from four to six-tenths 
of an inch in length. It is of a rather dark brown colour above, with a grayish 
tinge caused by a coat of very short downy hairs. The under surface blueish 
gray. The basal joints of the antennse are blackish brown, the remainder paler. 
A line of orange encircles each eye, and a stripe of the same colour runs from the 
antennse to the hind margin of the thorax, and is continued along the edge of the 
wing-covers where they are bent down over the sides of the body, getting 
narrower gradually until it reaches the tip. From this border, three branches or 
teeth run obliquely towards the inner edge of the wing-covers, the middle one 
being the longest. There are six small black spots on the thorax, two on top just 
behind the antennse, and two on each side below the orange stripe, and at each 
angle of the stripes on the wing-covers, there is a small dark patch or spot. 

Any trees known to be attacked by borers should be cut down in the fall or 
during the winter, and used for firewood, care being taken not to leave any ex- 
posed during the summer ; particularly in June and July, as at this time most of 
our borers deposit their eggs. It follows, therefore, that no freshly cut, or fallen 
trees, or branches should be left lying about, and if cordwood is piled, it should 
be covered, as the borers will surely find all newly felled wood if left exposed, 
and where such carelessness is permitted, will congregate and multiply year after 
year. 

2. The Lateral Elm Borer, Saperda lateralis, Fab, Order Coleoptera, Family 
Cerambycidse. — This beetle very closely resembles the preceding species, and its 
habits appear to be the same ; it differs somewhat in markings, as the orange 
border on the wing-covers wants the three teeth running towards the inner mar- 
gin. It bores in the inner bark of the elm, appearing in June, but seems to be 
less common than Saperda tridentata. 

3. The Six-banded Dryobius, Dryohius sexfasciatus, Say, Order Coleoptera, 
Family Cerambycidse. — According to Dr. Fitch, the larva of this species is similar 
to that of Saperda tridentata, and is found along with it ; it is, however, larger 
than that species. 

The perfect insect is a black beetle measuring from three-fourths to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length. The general colour is black, the thorax deeply 
margined with yellow, and each wing-cover is ornamented with four oblique 
bands of the same colour ; the scutel, as entomologists name the little triangular 
piece at the base of the wing-covers, is also yellow. The antennse are reddish 
brown, the legs reddish, the thighs being dilated or swollen, the abdomen is banded 
with yellow. I do not find this species on the Society's list of Canadian beetles, 
but think I have seen it recorded by a Canadian entomologist. 

4. The Short-lined Dularius, Diolarias brevilineiLS, Say, Order Coleoptera, 
Family Cerambycidte. — This is a large black longicorn beetle, with dark blue wing- 
covers, not covering the whole of the abdomen ; a rounded thorax, flattened above 
and the thighs very much swollen. " The antennse are about two-thirds the 
length of the body, flattened towards the end, and somewhat serrate. The body 
above is velvety black, and brown black beneath. The head is black and coarsely 
punctured, and the prothorax is covered with short, dense, black hairs, like velvet. 
The wing-covers are Prussian blue in colour, bent, corrugated, with an interrupted 
ridge just outside the middle of each cover. They are covered with fine black 



75 



hairs, bent over. There is a pair of parallel short honey-yellow lines in the 
middle of each winc^-cover, witli a third one a little in front, niakin<f in all six 
streaks. Thi; letj;s and feet are black. It is a little over eight-tenths of an inch 
in length." (Packard). 

Bores in elm trees. Mr. George Hunt has observed this species inserting its 
eggs in the crevices of the bark. Occurs in Ontario and Quebec, but apparently 
is not abundant. 

5. The Red-headkd Clytus, Neodytus erj/f/n'ocephfdus Fab, Order Coleop- 
tera. Family Cerambycid;e. — This pretty little beetle bores in the elm and also in 
hickory, etc. " It is about one-third ot an inch long, and hardly one-tenth of an 
inch wide, the thorax being very cylindrical and as wide as the wing-covers. 
The colour is a rusty red, the head being of a lighter red, whence the name 
erythrocephalus, from two Greek words signifying " red-head." The antenna3 are 
about one-liall as long as the body ; the elytra have four narrow yellow bands 
across them, and the legs are long and slender, especially the hinder pair, which 
are almost twice as long as the body. This beetle is exceedinfifly quick in its 
movements, and is difficult to capture as it runs swiftly, and take to flight in- 
stantly, if disturbed." (Harrington). This species has been taken on hickory by 
Mr. W. H. Harrington and has been bred from that tree by Drs. Leconte and Horn. 
It has been found under the bark of an old sugar maple by Mr. G. Hunt, and 
bred from oak by ]^r. Riley. It has been tound boring in dead elms in Michigan 
by Hubbard, and I have myself found it at Montreal on a fallen red oak. so that 
it appeai-s to infest various kinds of forest trees. 

At least two species of bark-beetles are known to infest the elm. The 
Scolytidiv, to which family they belong, are all of very small size. The female 
drives a long gallery between the bark and the wood, depositing an egg at inter- 
vals as she progresses ; each larva when hatched drives a tunnel at almost aright 
angle to the main gallery, and when its transformations are completed, cuts a hole 
thi'ough the bark, through which it escapes. A tree infested by these insects, 
looks as if it had been riddled with shot, and the surface of the wood is scored in 
all directions with their burrows, loosening the bark and destroying the tree. 

(). The Elm B.vrk-borer, Fhl<£otribus llminaris, Harris, Order Cojeoptera, 
Family ScolytidcU. — According to Dr. Harris this little beetle " is of a dark-brown 
colour ; the thorax is punctured, and the wing-covers are marked with deeply 
punctured furrows, and beset with short hairs. It does not average one-tenth of 
an inch in length." 

7. The Black Elm Bark-borer, Hylesinus opactilus, Leconte, Order Coleop- 
tera, Family Scolytida3. — This is a stoutly built pitchy-black beetle found under 
the dry bark of elm and ash trees. Both these species are given in the Society's 
list of Canadian beetles. 

8. According to Packard, The Snowy Tree Cricket, CEcanthus niveus, Ser- 
ville, deposits its eggs in the corky bark of the elm in the Southern States. The 

perfect insect. Fig. 43, is a slightly formed pale green cricket, 
with ivory white wings ; the 
female, Fij;. 44, with a lonij; ovi- 
positor. Very common in Ontario 
and Quebec, as far eust as Mon- 
treal, ^"'e- ^^■ 

Second are insects injuring the leaves. 

9. The Antiopa Butterfly, Vanessa antioi^a, Linne, 
Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidte. — Every one who has 
Fig 43. walked through the woods in early spring, must have noticed a 

large dark-colored buttertiy, that dashing up when approached, after circling 





76 



around for a few moments, now fluttering, and anon gliding on motionless wing,^ 
settles down a^ain in some sheltered spot where it sits opening and closing its 
wings, enjoying the balmy air and bright sunshine that once again awakens 
nature from her death-like sleep, to renewed life and activity. This is the well- 
known Antiopa butterfly, the " Camberwell Beauty " of the English entomologists. 
Antiopa passes the winter in any convenient shelter that it can find. Dr. Harris 
tells us that he has found it sticking to the rafters of a barn, and in the crevices 
of walls and stone heaps, huddling together in great numbers. It also hibernates 
on the ground, clinging to the under surface of stones in dr}- situations. The 
female deposits her eggs in a cluster around a twig of elm, willow or poplar ; and 
until nearly full grown, the caterpillars keep together. The mature larva is black, 
thickly dotted with white giving it a grayish appearance. On top of the back is a 
row of eight brick-red spots, and the body is armed with a number of strong branch- 
ing spines. The first brood of caterpillars appears in June, the second in August, 
and the butterflies from the last brood hibernate. The butterfly is dark maroon 
brown on the upper side of the wings, with a broad border of yellow, thickly 
dotted with brown ; on the inner side of this border there is a band of black, in 
which is set a row of blue spots ; the front edge of the wings is marked with fine 
yellow lines and two spots of the same colour. A variety is occasionally met with, 
in which the yellow border is unusually broad, and the dark band with the blue 
spots is wanting. 

If numerous enough to be troublesome, these caterpillars may be killed by 
shaking them ofi" the branch on which they are congregated, and crushing them. 
This should be done while they are small, as when nearly full grown, they scatter 
over the trees and wander about in search of a suitable place in which to undergo 
their transformations. 

10. The Interrogation Butterfly, Grapta interrogationis, Fah, Order 
Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidre. — This is a dimorphic species, the hibernating 
form being known as Fahricii, the other as Umhrosa. Fig. 45 represents G. 

progne, a closely allied species. 

\ / ^^^^^ Farther to the south there are about four 

^^^^^^^^\w/ ^^^^^^^Kl broods in a season, but with us only two, 

^^j^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^P^^ and while the last brood gives the pale form 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ which hibernates, the other broods are more 

^PS^^^^^H^^^^^N^ or less mixed, Fahricii has the upper surface 

^n^^HB^H^^^P fulvous, spotted with black and clouded with 

SH^^V V ^^^^B warm brown ; on the hind wings the brown pre- 

M^K ^Wr^^ dominates, the lighter colour being restricted 

^ . to a patch on the upper angle, and a row of 

'*'■ ■ spots a little inside the outer edge ; the edges 

of all the wings are light purplish blue. The front margin of the fore wings is 

convex, the tip cut squarely off", the outer margin concave. Hind wings tailed. 

Under surface marbled and clouded with various shades of brown and purple, and 

with an interrupted C. in the middle Urnhvosa has the upper surface of the hind 

wings almost entirely black, the submarginal row of spots being absent, the fore 

wings are not so falcate, and the tail on the hind wings is shorter. 

" The young larv;e are whitish yellow, somewhat marked with brown, head 
black. After the first moult their colour is black, more or less specked with white, 
and they begin to be clothed with short spines, all black except tho.se on the 
eighth and tenth segments which are whitish. After the second moult they be- 
gin to assume the type they retain to maturity. The spines are in seven rows, 
fleshy at base, slender and many-branching at extremity ; the dorsal and first 



77 



lateral on joint 3 are black, on joints 2, 4, and 1 1 russet, the rest yellow ; the 
second laterals l)lack throui^hout, the lowest row greenish , head bilob(;d, black, 
with short black spines on vertices. After the third moult the larv;e vary great- 
ly both in colour of body and spines. Some are black, finely specked with yellow- 
ish ; others are yellow-brown, specked with yellow tubercles; others gray-brown 
with indistinct reddish lines between the spines on the dorsal and two lateral 
rows, and much tuberculated ; others are black with fulvous stripes and profusely 
covered with yellowish tuberculated spots and points. The spines vary from 
black to fulvous and green and yellow. (French). Feeds on elm, basswood, hop, 
nettle and false nettle. 

Grapta comma, Harris, closely resembles the. preceding species but is 
smaller, and the wings are not so decidedly falcate, Food ))lants the same. 

11. The Spring Canker Worm, Anisopteryx vernata, Yeck, Order Lepidop- 
tera, Family Phal;vnida>. — Late in autuian when the leaves have fallen and the 
insect tribes have almost entirely disappeared, this fragile looking moth. Fig. 46, 

may be seen flying slowly through the de- 
serted woods. " The fore wings of the male 
are ash-coloured and semitransparent, with a 
broken whitish band crossing the wings near 
the outer margin, and three interrupted 
brownish lines between that and the base. 
There is an oblique black dash near the tip 
of the fore wings and a nearly continuous 
The hind wings are plain, pale ash-coloured, or 




black 



The females of both species are 




Fig. 47. 



very light gray, with a dusky dot about the middle of each." (Saunders.) 

A second species, A j)oinetaria, Fig. 47, very closely resembles vernata, but 
the wings are less transparent and are a little darker in colour, and the hind 
wings are generally crossed by a white band, 
wingless. The eggs are deposited in masses, 
generally in crevices in the bark. The larvae 
vary in colour from greenish yellow to gray 
and dark brown. When fully grown they 
leave the trees by creeping down or else lower 
themselves by means of a silken thread and 
enter the ground to change to chrysalis. The 
moths generally emerge late in the fall, but some individuals do not appear until 
spring. To prevent the females creeping up the trees, strips of canvass or stiff 
paper, covered with tar or printers' ink, should be applied to the tree, renewing 
the covering from time to time to keep it soft and sticky, and as the moths may 
deposit their eggs below the band care must be taken to leave no crevices through 
which the young caterpillars might pass. 

Canker worms are widely distributed, occurring in Canada as far east as 
Montreal at least. They feed on many kinds of leaves, and where precautionarj 
measures are not adopted often prove exceedingly injurious. 

12. The November Moth, Epirrita dUutata, Hubn, Order Lepidoptera, 
family PhaljBnida). — This moth, like the Canker worm, Hies late in autumn and 
would be easily mistaken for that insect. The body and wings are pale ash 
gray, the fore wings with eight wavy black lines and double row of black dots 
next the margin. Fringe whitish. Hind wings with four faint wavy lines. 
Wings expand about an inch and a <[uarter. Although generally not common in 
this neighbourhood, it is occasionally quite abundant. 



78 



The following insects are also known to feed on the elm : 



Colcoptera. — Galeruca calmariensis, Linn ; Chrysomela scalaris, Leconte ; Monocpstu caryli, Say ; Grap- 
todera chalybea, 111 ; Cotalpa lanigerai Linn ; Magdalis armicollis. Say. 

Hymenoptcra. — Tremex columba, Linn ; Cinibex Americana, Leach. 

Hemiptcra.—Co\oy>hA uhnicola, Fitch ; Eriosoma Rileyi, Thomas ; Schizoneura Americana, Riley ; 
Callipterus ulmicola, Thomas. 

Lepidoptera.—V&^\\\o turnus, Linn ; Ceratomia quadricornis, Harris ; Hyphantria textor, Harris \. 
Telea polyphemus, Hubn ; Hyperchiria io. Fab ; Halisidota caryse, Harris ; Orgyia nova, Fitch ; Orgyia 
leucostigma, Abb and Smith ; Datanaministra, Drury ; Tolype velleda, StoU ; Edema albifrons, ^Valk ; 
Clisiocaui pa Americana, Harris ; Clisiocampa' sylvatica, Harris; Apatela vinnula, Grote ; Apatela occi- 
rl.itit'olis rlr.ito • A nafftla m.irnln, (liien! Anatt"!;! nlmi. Harris: Parai)hia uninunctaria. Haw : Metanema 



Mr. A. F. Winn informs me that Pyrameis atalanta, Linn, feeds readily on 
elm in confinement and that he has seen Grapta j-albitm ovipositing on it. 



THE ENTOMOLOGY OF SHAKESPEARE. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Some time ago, in a list of books upon Shakespeare and his works, I noticed 
that there was one upon the Entomology of Shakespeare, i'he book was beyond 
my reach. It occurred to me that it would be an interesting study to examine 
for myself and find out what particulars the great moralist and prince of poets- 
had gathered concerning insects from the folk-lore of his day and liis own obser- 
tion, and to what account in his plays he had turned the knowledge he had gained. 
Accordingly, as leisure was afforded me, I read over the plays carefully and noted 
down the allusions to insects that I discovered. I found that the plays containeil 
at least 168 references to insects, viz. : — To honey-bees, 18 ; humble-bees, 5 ; 
wasps, 8 ; ants, 3 ; stinging-insect undesignated, 1 ; butterfiies, 6 ; moths and their 
larvge, 24 ; beetles and their larvae, 11 ; gnats, 10 ; fleas, 6 ; brize-flies, 2 ; bots, 1 ; 
blow-flies, l<i; flies, 22; sheep-tick, 1; louse, 8; cricket, 4; locust, 1; grasshop- 
per, 1 ; spiders, 17 ; scorpions, 3. Grouped according to orders these would give : 
Hymenoptera, 35; Lepidoptera, 80; Diptera, 58; Coleoptera, 11; Hemiptera, 
7 ; Orthoptera, 6 ; Arachnida, 20. The references which I discovered are thus 
distributed : The highest numbers are in Troilus and Cressida, 11 notices refer- 
ring to 9 species ; Romeo and Juliet, 11 notices referring to 8 species ; and 2nd Part 
of K. Henry VI., 10 notices referring to 6 species. Midsummer Night's Dream, 
K. Henry V., Cymbeline, and King Lear have 8 notices each ; 1st Part of K. 
Henry IV. and Hamlet have 7 each; The Tempest, 2nd Part of K. Henry IV., 
Coriolanus, Antony and Cleopatra, Titus Andronicus and Othello have each 6 
notices; The Winters Tale has 5; The Merchant of Venice, Taming of the Shrew ; 
3rd Part of K. Henry VI., and Pericles Prince of Tyre have 4 each ; The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona, Love's Labour's Lost, King John and 1st Part of K. Henry 
VI. have 3 each ; Merry Wives of Windsor, Comedy of Error's, Macbeth, King 
Richard II. and Julius Cfesar have 2 each ; Measure for Measure, As you like it. 
All's well that ends well. King Richard HI., King Henry VIII. and Timon of 
Athens have each a solitary reference ; and in Much ado about nothing I could 
find none. The number of species mentioned is over 30. We will take them 
according to orders. 



79 



Hymenoptera. — Shakespeare's ideas of the honey-bee seem to have been 
somewhat confused, lie was misled probably by the old-workl learning newly 
revived in his day; and, in liis allusions to thu " mar^nanimous leaders, the man- 
ners and eMi])loyments, the tribes anil battles of the racer," he seems to have fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of A'ir^j^il (Georgics, IJook IV.), or of writers who were 
acquainted with Virgil. His Archbishop of Canterbury in King Henry V. speaks 
of the head of the hive as a " King." The pas.sage in which this occurs is very 
fine ; and I am tempted to give it in its entirety. 



-So work the honey-bee? ; 



Creatures, tliat, by a rule in nature, teacli 

The act of order to a jjcopled kingdom. 

They have a kinp, and officers of .sorts : 

Where some, like magistrates, correct at hfime : 

Others, like merchants, venture trade abroad ; 

Other-", like soldiers, arniei in their slings 

Make boot upon the summer's velvet buds ; 

Which pillage they with merry march bring home 

To the tent-royal of their emperor : 

Who, busied in his majesty, surveys 

The singing masons building roofs of gold ; 

The civil citizens kneading up the honey ; 

The poor mechanic porters crowding in 

Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate ; 

The sad ey'd justice, with his surly hum, 

Delivering o'er to executor's pale 

The lazy yawning drone. 

Act I. sc. 1. 

It would seem too that the strange story told by Virgil — how Aristaeus, son 

of Cyrene, sacrificed cattle and left the carcases exposed till, " wondrous to relate, 

bees through all the belly hum amidst the putrid bowels of the cattle, pour forth 

with fermenting juices from the burst sides, and in immense clouds roll along, 

then swarm together on a top of a tree and hang down from the bending boughs " 

(Georgics, Bk. IV.) — had left an impres.sion upon his mind, for he puts in the 

mouth of King Henry IV., who is lamenting the behaviour of Prince Henry of 

Monmouth, the words : 

'Tis seldom when the bee doth leave the comb 
In the dead carrion. 

Act IV., sc. 4. 

His observations of the bees however were, in many points, cqrrect. He 
noticed that they " gather'd honey from the weed " (Henry V., Act IV., sc. 1) ; 
that they took " toll from ever}^ flower " (2nd Part K. Henry IV., Act IV., sc. 4) ; 
that ■' drones " rob the hives (Pericles, Prince of T3're, Act II., sc. 1 ; Merchant of 
Venice, Act II., sc. 5 ; 2nd Part K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 1) ; that the wasps 
steal the honey and kills the bees (Two Gent, of Verona, Act I., sc. 2, and Titus 
Andronicus, Act II., sc. 3) ; that the swarm deprived of its leader becomes vindic- 
tive: 

The commons like an angry hive of bees 
That want their leader, scatter up and down 
And care not who they sting in his revenge. 

2nd' Part K. Henry VI., Act III., sc. 2. 

With the methods pursued by the bee-masters of his day he was acquainted. 
Bolingbroke says : 

-like the bee tolling from every flower the virtuous sweets. 



Our thighs pack'd with wax, our mouths with honey 
We bring it to the hive ; and like the bees 
Are murder'd for our ]iains. 

2nd Part K. Henry IV., Act IV., sc. 4. 



And Talliot in 1st Part of K. Henry VI., Act I., sc. 5 : 

So bees with smoke and doves with noisome stench 
Are from their hives and houses driven away. 

The "Red-hipped humble-bee" of Shakespeare is Boinbus lapidarius. This 



80 



species makes its nest very commonly under stone-piles by the road-side. It is a 
handsome and courageous insect ; and Nick Bottom the Weaver gave the fairy 
Cobweb no light task when he bade him : 

Monsieur Cobweb : good monsieur, get your weapons in your hand ; and kill me a red-hipped 
humble-bee on the top of a thistle ; and good monsieur, bring me the honey-bag. 

Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV., sc. 1. 

It is to be hoped that Oberon interposed in behalf of the bee, for 

Full merrily the humble-bee doth sing 
Till he hath lost his honey and his sting ; 
And being once subdued in armed tail 
Sweet honey and sweet notes together fail. 

Ibid, Act v., sc. 2. 

Other passages in which bees are mentioned are The Tempest, Act I., sc. 2, 
and Act V., sc. 1 ; Midsummer Night's Dream, Act III., sc. 1, Love's labour's lost, 
Act III., sc. 1 ; All's well that ends well. Act IV., sc. 5 ; Comedy of Errors, Act 
II., sc. 1 ; 2nd Part K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 2 ; Troiliis and Cressida, Act 1, sc. 
3, Act II., sc. 2, and Act V., sc. 2 ; Cymbeline, Act III., sc. 2 ; and Titus Androni- 
cus, Act IV., sc. 1. 

Shakespeare's allusions to the Wasp {Vespa vulgaris) convey the ideas of: 

(1) Petulance — Tempest, Act V., sc. 1 : 

Mar's hot minion is returned again 

Her waspish -headed son has broke his arrows. 

See also Winter's Tale, Act I., sc. 2 ; 1st Part K, Henry IV., Act I., sc. 3 ; 
and Julius Caesar, Act IV., sc, 3. 

(2) Injustice — Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act I., sc. 2 : 

O hateful hands to tear such loving words 
Injurious wasps ! to feed on such sweet honey, 
And kill the bees that yield it, with your stings. 

(3) Vengeance — Titus Andronicus, Act II., sc. 3 : 

When you have the honej' you desire 

Let not this wasp outlive, us both to sting. 

In the 3rd Part of K. Henry VI., Act II., sc. 6, it is said of the defeated 
Lancastrians : 

For though they cannot greatly sting to hurt. 
Yet Icok to have them buz to offend thine ears. 

The commonest species of English ants is Formica rufa. This probably is the 
species mentioned in 1st Part of K. Henry IV., Act I., sc. 3 by Hotspur : 

Why, look you, I am whipp'd and scourg'd with rods. 
Nettled and stung with pismires. 

Among the "skimble-skamble stufi"" that angered Hotspur was Glendower's 
talk of " the moldwarp and the ant " (lb. Act III., sc. 1). The ant also is men- 
tioned in King Lear, Act II., sc. 4. 

Lepidoptera. — To butterflies there are but few references in Shakespeare, 
but the few shew that the great dramatist had closely observed these beautiful 
objects. He knew of their metamorphoses, and says : 

There is a difference between a grub and a butterfly, yet your butterfly was but a grub. 

Coriolanus, Act V., sc. 5. 

In his choice of an adjective to describe their wings he could not have found 
a more appropriate word than he has in 

Men like butterflies 



Shew not their mealy wings, but to the summer. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act III., sc. 3. 



81 



There is a charming suggestion of the shape of the butterfly's wings in Mid- 
summer Night's Dream, Act LI., sc. 1, where Titania bitls the fairies: 

-IMuck the wings from painted butterflieH 



To fan the moon-beams from the Hleei)ing eyeH. 

(of the strange being with whom she is enamouied). 

An adjective thiit Shakespeare applies on two occasions to the butterllv is 
^'gilded": 

And laugh at gilded hutterfliea. 

King Lear, Act V., hc. 2. 
I saw him inn after a gilded butterfly. 

Coriolanus, Act I., hc. 8. 

What particuhxr species hc is alluding to in these passages we cannot tell — 
probably to one of the Fritilhiries, and possibly to the " High Brown " (Arf/ynnii 
ad'ippe). In connection with this iiisecD Munis writes: — "It has been well 
observed that all the best and hiohest enjoyments of man are those which, com- 
ing as they do direct from the bounteous hand of the Omnipotent himself, are 
not purchasable with money or any other human commodity. Every aspect under 
which nature is viewed throws light upon this remaik and gilds it witli tlie 
unmistakable lustre of truth." The under side of the hind-wings of Adippe are 
gorgeous with their large silver spangles and their rusty red spots. The combi- 
nation of these as the insect tiutters by certainly gives the idea of gildin». Other 
adjectives used by Shakespeare in relation to butterflies are " painted " (as above), 
and "summer" (Coriolanus, Act IV., sc. 6), both appropriate enough. 

To moths and their laryaj we find many allusions. The canker-worm 
especially afforded the poet many apt and beautiful comparisons. Several of these 
refer to love. Who is not familiar with the words of Viola in Twelfth Nicrht 
telling of the effect of unrequited love upon health : 

-She never told her love 



But let concealment, like a worm i' the bud 
Feed on her damask cheek. 

Act II., sc. 4. 

There is wisdom quaintly expressed in the advice given by the suspicious 
Laertes to his sister : 

The chariest maid is prodigal enough. 

If .she unmask her beauty to the moon : 

Virtue itself 'scapes not calumnious strokes : ' 

The canker galls the infants of the spring, 

Too oft before their buttons bo disclosed ; 

And in the morn and liquid dew of youth 

Contagious blastments are most imminent. 

Hamlet, Act I., sc. 3. 

In the Two Gentlemen of Verona we have a playful conversation upon the 
effect of love upon the understanding : 

Valentine. — Love is your master, for he masters you : 

And he that is so yoked by a fool, 

Methinks should not be chronicled for wise. 

Proteus. — Yet writers say. As in the sweetest bud 

The eating canker dwells, so eating love 

Inhabits in the finest wits of all. 

Valentine. — And writers say. As the most forward bud 

Is eaten by the ciwikerere it blow. 

Even so by love the young and tender wit 

Is turn'd to folly ; blasting in the bud, 

Losing his verdure even in the prime, 

And all the fair effects of future ho|^es. * 

In another passage beautiful and pathetic " grief " is the canker. The unhappy 
Constance .speaks of her little son Arthur, who is in the toils of his wicked uncle 
John : 

But now will canker sorrow eat my bud 
And chase the native beauty from his cheek. 

King John, Act III,, sc. 4. 
6 (EN.) 



82 



In the 2nd Part of K. Henry VI. (Act I., sc. 2) the canker is " ambition." The 
Duke of Gloster, replying to his wife, says : 

O Nell, sweet Nell, if thou dost love thy lord. 
Banish the canker of ambitious thoughts. 

In another part of the same plaj- (Act III., sc. 1) it is disappointment. The 
unfortunate Henry exclaims, when ill news comes from France : 

Thus are my blossoms bListed in the bud 
And caterpillars eat my leaves away. 

In Hamlet it is overwrought feeling. The gentle Ophelia, mourning for the 

strange behaviour of her lover, says (Act III., sc. 1): 

And I, of ladies most deject and wretched, 
That suck'd the honey ot his music vows, 
Now see that noble and most sovereign reason, 
Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune and harsh 
That unmatched form and feature of blown youth. 
Blasted with ecstasy. 

And in Romeo and Juliet it is death : 

Two such opposed foes encamp them still 
In man as well as herbs, grace and rude will ; 
And, where the worser is predominant, 
Full soon the canker death eats up the plant. 

Other passages in which reference to the canker is made are Midsummer 
Night's Dream, Act III , sc. 2 ; 2nd Part of K. Henry IV., Act II., sc. 2, and Act 
IV., sc. 4; 1st Part of K. Hemy VI., Act II., sc. 5 ; Coriolauus, Act IV., sc. 6 : 
Romeo and Juliet, Act I., sc. 1. 

In England the larva of one of the plume moths, Pterophortis rhododactylus y 
feeds in the buds of the rose. There is a variety of small moths that infest the 
blossoms, leaves and young shoots of the Queen of Flowers. Among them are : 

Geosiktrina. Tortricina. Tinkina, 



Larnpronia quadriptinctclla. 
Colophora gryphiptnntUa. 



Articlea badiata. Antithcsia ochroJ eucana, 

" derivata. Pardia tripunctana. 

Cideria psiitacata. Spilonota roborana. 

fulvata. " rosHColana. 

Uedya pa uptra n a . 
Crffsia Bcrgmanniana. 

" holminna. 
Pcronca rariajana. 

Of larvfe that feed upon the flower-buds of the apple, one of the most destruc- 
tive is that of the Figure of Eight Moth (Diloha ceruleocephcda), one of the Bom- 
byces. This insect is so destructive that it was called by Linnaeus, the " Pest of 
Pomona." The larvse of the Winter Moth (Cheimatohia brumata) are also very 
injurious. Immediately after they are hatched they make their way to the 
unopened buds and burrow in them, concealing themselves from sight. The 
Green Pug {Eiqnthecia redangidata) is another objectionable insect: — "The 
larva feeding in the young buds of the apple-trees, devouring the stameus and 
pistils, and protecting itself by tying together the petals " (Stainton's Manual, 
Vol. II., p. 92). By the caterpillars of a tiny moth Hyponomeuta padeilus, 
belonging to the Tineina, the apple-trees are not unfrequently entirely stripped 
of their foliage. Besides the insects already named, at least 15 species, belonging 
to the groups Tortricina and Tineina, infest tiie English orchards. 

In King Richard II., by a striking metaphor England is represented as a 
disordered garden, over-run with caterpillars (Act III , sc. 4). Twice the word 
" caterpillar" is used by Shakespeare as one of contempt ; in 1st Part of K. Henry 
IV., Act II., sc. 2, and in 2nd Part of K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 4. 

I find the word "moth" used three times: In the Mervlia'nt of Venice, 
" Thus has the candle singed the moth," Act II., sc. 9 ; in Othello where Desde- 



83 



luona speaks of herself as a " moth of peace," Act I., sc. '] ; and in CoHolanuSy 
" You would bo anoth<n' Penelope, yet they say all the yarn she spun, in Ul3^sses' 
absence, did but till Ithaca full of moths." Act I., sc. 4, The reference in this last 
passage is probably to the tapestry moth. Tinea tapetzella. 

DiPTERA. — The most numeious of Shakespeare'>s entomologiciil allusions are 
to the two-winged tlies. As a titting image of littleness and meanness he makes 
use of the gnat, as where Simonides says that princes who are not given to hos- 
pitality : 

Are like to piiats whicli make a sound, but killed. 
Are wondered at. 

Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Act II., sc. 3. 

And where Biron mocking at the love-sick King of Navarre : 

me, with what strict patience have I sat 
To see a king transformed to a gnat. 

Love's labour's lost. Act IV., sc. 3. 

But the diminutive is used with much feeling and affection, where Imogen, 
speaking of the departure of her banished lord, says : 

1 would have broke my eye-strings ; crack 'd them, but 
To look upon him ; till the diminution 

Of space had pointed him sharp as my needle, 
Nay, foUow'd him, till he had melted from 
The smallness of a gnat to air. 

"Cymbeline," Act I., sc. 4. 

There is knowledge both of human nature and of natural history, in the re- 
buke which Antipholus of Syracuse administered to Dromio of Syracuse. 

Because that I familiarly sometimes 

Do use you for my fool, and chat with you, 

Your sauciness will jest upon my love, 

And make a common of my serious hours. 

When the sun shines, let foolish gnats make sport, 

But creep in crannies, when he hides his beams. 

Comedy of Errors, Act II., sc. 2. 

The Flea (PiUex Irritans) is .spoken of in at any rate seven passages : — "Henry 
v.," Act II., sc. 3, and Act III., sc. 7 ; "Merry Wives of Windsor," Act IV.," .sc. 
2 ; " Twelfth Night," Act III., sc. 4; " All's Well that Ends Well," Act IV., sc. 3 ; 
"Taming the Shrew," xict V., sc. 3, and 1st Part K. Henry IV., Act II., sc. 1 ; 
always in a trifling sense. 

Shakespeare's allusions to the breeze-fly or gad-flj' of the ox {Tahanus 
hovinii:^) are forcible. In Troilus and Cressida Nestor, replying to Agamemnon, 
to illustrate the difference between " valour's show" and " valour's worth," says 
that in Fortune's 

ray and brightness 

The herd hath more annoyance by the brize 

Than by tlie tiger ; but when the splitting wind 

Makes Hexible the knees of knotted oaks, 

And flies Hee under sh.ade, why then the thing of courage 

As rous'd with rage, with rage doth sympathize. 

Act I., sc. 3. 

And in Antony and Cleopatra, Scarus cries out against the Egyptian Queen 
who was hastening from the fight off' Actium : 

Yon ribald-rid n.-vg of Egypt 

The brize upon her like a cow in June 
Hoists sails and flies. 

Of the many allusions to flies made by Shakespeare, some are used in a 
slighting and contemptuous sen.se, as when Timon of Athens calls his false friends 

Most smiling, smooth, detested i)ara8ites, 
Courteous destroyers, affable wolves, meek bears, 
You fools of fortune, trencher friends, time's Hies. 

Act III., sc. 6. 



84 



Or when La Pucelle says of the dead Talbot, whom Sir W. Lucy had en- 
quired for under many sounding titles : 

Here is a silly, stately style indeed ! 

The Turk, that two and fifty kingdoms hath, 

Writes not so tedious a style as this. — 

Him. that thou magnifiest, with all these titles. 

Stinking, and tly-blown, lies here at our feet. 

1st Tart of K. Henry VI., Act IV., sc. 7. 

Occasionally the references are made vindictively, as when lago exclaims : 

" Call upon her father, 

Rouse him ; make after him, poison his delight, 
I'roi.laim him on the streets, incense her kinsmen, 
And though he in a fertile climate dwells. 
Plague him with flies." 

Othello, Act I, sc. 1. 

At one time the fecundity of flies in hot weather, affords the poet an apt 
simile to denote the fickle populace: 

Impairing Henry, strength'ning, mis-proud York, 
The common people swarm like summer-flies; 
And whither fly the gnats but to the sun ? 
And who shines now, but Henry's enemies ? 

3rd Fart of K. Henry VI., Act II., sc. 6. 

At another it serves to indicate excessive conceit. Biron says of " figures 
fantastical :" 

These summer flies 

Have blown me full of maggot ostentation. 

Love's Labour's Lost, Act V., sc. 2. 

Often the allusion has a tragic ring, as when poor blinded Gloster cries in 

his despair : 

As flies to wanton boys are we to the gods ; 
They kill us for their sport. 

King Lear, Act IV., sc. 1. 

And when, in Cymbeline Sicilius Leonatus, addressing Jupiter, says : 

No more thou thunder-master show 
Thy spite on mortal flies. 

Act v., sc. 4. 

AmoncT the references to flies are two that show how closely Shakespeare 
had observed these insects. In K. Henry V., Act V., sc. l,he places in the mouth 
of the Duke of Burgundy the words : 

Like flies at Bartholomew-tide, blind, though 
They have their eyes ; and then they will -endure handling. 
Which before would not abide looking on. 

St. Barfch'blemew's day comes on the 24th of August ; under the old style it 
would be September 4th, when the flies in the cool English autumn would be 
growino- dull and sluggish. But an allusion shewing more close attention even 
than that is found in Othello, Act IV., sc. 2. 

0, ay, as summer flies are in the shambles. 

That quicken even in blowing. 

It is not every one who knows that the flesh-fly, Sarcophaga carnaria is 
ovo-viviparous , but Shakespeare knew it. 

The sheep-tick, Melophagus ovinus is mentioned once in the plays. 

I would rather be a tick in a »heep than such a valiant ignorance. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act III., sc. 3. 

Other references to flies will be found in The Tempest, Act III., sc. 2 ; As 
You Like It, Act IV., sc. 1 ; Winter's Tale, Act IV, sc. 3 ; King John, Act IV., 
sc. 1 ; 2nd Part K. Henry IV., Act III., sc. 1 ; 2nd Part of K. Henry VI., Act I., 
sc. 2 ; Troilus and Cressida, Act H., sc. 'S ; Antony and Cleopatra, Act II., sc. 2 
and Act III., sc. 2 ; Cymbeline, Act IV., sc. 2 ; Titus Andronicus, Act III., sc. 2, 
and Act V., sc. 2 ; Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Act IV., sc. 1, and Act IV., sc. 4 ; 



85 



King Lear, Act IV., sc. 6 ; Romeo and Juliet, Act II., sc. 3, and Act II., sc. 4 ; 
Hamlet, Act II., so. 2, Act IV., sc. 3, Act V.. se. 1, and Act V., sc. 2, and Titus 
Andronicus, Act IV., sc. 1. 

CoLEi.PTEHA. — Shakespeare's iillusions to beetles are very fine and telling. 
What can be more so than this : 

Ere to black Hecate's Ruininons 
The shanl-lMirne heetle with his (ln>u-.'*y hum 
Hath rung night's yawning i^eal, there shall be done 
A deed of dreadful note. 

Macbeth, Act III., sc. 4. 

The expression " shard-borne," is not quite correct. The elytra of the beetle 
are uplifted during llight, it is true ; but the -^auzy wings that ply beneath them 
are the sustaining and propelling instruments. What particular species of beetle 
(if any), Shakespeare had in his mind when he penned these words we cannot 
tell. The Dor-beetle, Geotriipes stercorariios, is a striking object, and flies in the 
dusk, and may have attracted his attention. 

Scarcely less beautiful than the reference given above, is that to Lampyns 
noctiluca : 

The glow-worm shews the matin to be near 
And 'gins to pale his ineffectual fire. 

Ibid, Act I, sc 1. 

Another fine passage is found in Measure for Measure, Act III., sc. 1. 

Dar'st thou die ? 

The sense of death is most in apprehension ; 
And the poor beetle, that we tread upi>n, 
In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great 
As when a giant dies. 

Here, of course, the intention is not to give an increased idea of the pams of 
the beetle, but to make us think less of the death-throes of the giants— the giant 
suffers as little as the beetle. 

What a conception of depth is conveyed to us in the words : 

How fearful 

And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low ! 

The crows and choughs that wing the midway air 

Show scarce so gross as beetles. 

King Lear, Act IV., sc. 6 • 

By Caliban in The Tempest, Act I., sc. 2, and by the fairies in Midsummer 
Night's Dream, beetles are spoken of as things to be dreaded. 

In the 2nd Part of King Henry IV., Act IT., sc. 4, there is a very curious 
metaphor : 

His face is Lucifer's privy kitchen. 

Where he doth nothing but roast malt-worms. 

The malt-worms are the larva3 of Tetiehrio vwlitm^ and Tenehrio ohscurus. 

Other references to beetles will be found in Midsummer Night's Dream Ack 
III, sc. 1 ; Taming of the Shrew, Act IV., sc. 1 ; Antony and Cleopatra, Act 111., 
sc. 2 ; and Cymbeline, Act III., sc. 3. 

Hemiptera.— In the Merry Wives of Windsor, Act I., sc. 1, is an amivsing 
play upon the word " luce." Slender exalting Robert Shallow, " Justice of 
the Peace and coravi," and " cust-alorum" and "ratolorum," and " armigero, says: 

All his successors, gone before him, have done 't ; and .all his ancestors that come after him, may ; 

they may give the dozen white luces in their coat. 

To which Sir Hugh Evans, the Welsh chaplain replies : 

The dozen white louses do become an old coat well, it agrees well passant ; it is a familiar beast to 

man, and signifies — love. 

The passage shews that Shakespeare had not forgotten his early escapade, 
and angry slur upon Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote : 

• If lousy is lucy, as some folks miscall it, 

Then Lucy is lousy whatever befall it. 



86 



The " luce" is, of course, the fleur-de-lis, or flower-de-luce, and the "coat," 
Robert Shallow's coat of arras. In the association of- the " familiar beast," with 
" love," we are reminded of the " lousy and lecherous" of one of our modern 
ballad-writers. 

Shakespeare makes at least eight allusions to the louse. One of them con- 
veys the strongest exi)ression of contempt that can possibly be imagined : " I 
care not to be the louse of a lazar." {i. e. of a man afflicted with loathsome 
diseases). Troilus and Cressida, Act V., sc. 1. 

Orthoptera. — " Shall we be merry ?" asks Prince Henry in 1st Part of K. 
Henry IV., Act II., sc. 4. " As merry as crickets," answers Poins. The cheerful 
note of the cricket (Acheta domestica), produced by the rubbing together of the 
notched edges of the insect's upper wings, must have been a familiar sound to 
Shakespeare. When all is quiet around the hearth the note arises in many an 
English dwelling. But a very slight noise will startle the insect, and cause a 
cessation of its music. So the little Mamillius in a Winter's Tale, says that he 
will tell his story .so softly, that " yon crickets shall not hear it," Act II., sc. 1. 

Amongst the equipments of Queen Mab is a " whip of cricket bone." Romeo 
and Juliet, Act I., sc. 4. The " winter cricket" is spoken of in the Taming of the 
Shrew, Act IV., sc. 3. 

I find but one allusion to locusts — that made by lago when speaking of 
Othello and his countrymen. 

These Moors are changeable in their wills:— fill thy purse with money ; the food that to him now 
is as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida. — Othello, Act 1, sc. 3. 

The species mentioned here is doubtless CEdipoda migratorius, which often 
visits Morocco, and is used for food. 

The grasshopper is mentioned in Romeo and Juliet Act I., sc. 4, where the 
cover of Queen Mab's wagon is said to be made of the wings of grasshoppers. 

Arachxida. — In the Merchant of Venice we have an instance of the skill 
with which the great poet could draw, even from the work of a disgusting insect, 
a fitting illustration to enhance the attractions of an admired lady. 

Here, in her hair, 



The painter plays the spider, and hath woven 
A golden mesh, to entrap the hearts of men, 
Faster than gnats in cobwebs. 

Act III., sc. 2. 

A different kind of weaving is spoken of in the 2nd Part of K. Henry VI., 
Act III., sc. 1 : 

Mj' brain more busy than the labouring spider 
Weaves tedious snares to trap mine enemies. 

And in Othello, Act II., sc. 1, where lago says to himself, 

With as little a web as this 

Will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. 

And yet again in K. Henry VIII , Act, I., sc. 1, where it is said of Wolsey : 



Spider-like 



Out of his self-drawing web, he gives us note 
The force of his own merit makes his way. 

With wonderful effect Shakespeare makes use of the Spider in shewing the 
power of imagination. 

There may be in the cup 
A spider stef p'd, and one may drink, depart, 
And yet partake no venom ; for hia knowledge 
Is not infected : but if one present 
The abhorr'd ingredient to his eye, make known 
How he hath drank, he cracks his gorge, his sides, 
With violent hefts : — I have drunk and seen the spider. 

Winter's Tale, Act II., sc. 1. 



87 



In Troilus and Cressida, Act V., so. 2, is a reference to Arachne. Arachne, 
accordinj:^ to the ancients, was tlie daughter of Idinun, a Lydiaii. She was a 
skilful spinner, and contended with Pallas. Defeated and chagrined, she lianged 
herself, and was turned into a spider. 

In King John, Act IV., sc. 3, Hubert suspected of murdering Prince Arthur, 

is told that 

The smallest thread, 
That ever spider twisted from her womb. 
Will serve to strangle thee. 

Other passages referring to spiders may be found in Mid.sunnner Night's 
Dream, Act II., sc. 3 ; King Richard 11., Act III, sc. 2 ; King Richard III., Act 
I., sc. 2, and Act IL, sc. 4; Cymbeline, Act IV., sc. 2 ; King Lear, Act IV., sc. 6 ; 
Romeo and Juliet, Act I. sc. 4, and Act II., sc. 6. 

Scorpions are spoken of in Macbeth, Act III.,'sc. 4 ; 2n<I Part of K. Henry 
VI., Act III., sc. 2 ; and Cymbeline, Act V., sc. 5. 

It is evident that Shakespeare, in his walks around Stratford and on the 
pleasant banks of Avon, had found food for reflection in the appearances and habits 
of the commoner insect tribes. His were the observing eye and the contempla- 
tive mind ; and with marvellous power he turned the knowledge of insect-life that 
he acquired to account, for the instruction and amusement of the men of his own 
day, and of after generations. He was one wdio could find 

Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

And we are happy in that he has, in so many instances, interpreted these 
tongues, translated these books, written down the sermons and pointed out the 
ofood for us. 



Enemies of the Grain Aphis.— Prof. H. Gannan, Entomologist and Botan- 
ist of the Kentucky Agricultural Expernnent Station, in a paper on the grain 
louse (Siphonophora avenoe) has the following to say about its natural enemies : 

The helplessness of plant lice makes them the prey of many pred'aceous and 
parasitic insects. A visit to infested wheat Helds in June showed great numbers 
of these present among the lice. Undoubted!}' the injury to grain was 
very much lessened by the work of these friends of ours, yet, as we have shown, 
lice still exist in the fields, and the}' are liable again to assume destructive 
numbers. 

Chief among the enemies of the grain louse are certain small, dark-coloured, 
four-wanrjed flies, which belong to the same order as the common honev bee. 
These little fiie.s deposit their eggs in the Ijodies of the plant lice, placing a single 
efjfj in each louse, and from the eur^s come small fjrubs which live in the interior of 
their host, finally emerging after its death as egg-laying flies. CIrain lice infested 
with these grubs become swollen, assume a brown colour, and by some means are 
fastened to the plants, where they remain as empty skins after the parasite 
emerges. 

Small two-winged flies, about five-sixteenths of an inch long, with brassy 
brown thorax, and with the abdomen striped crosswise with black and yellow, 
also do good service in destroying the lice. They scatter their eggs among the 
colonies, and from these hatch greenish larvae, which destroy the lice by seizing 
them and sucking their juices. 

The lady bugs in both larval and adult stages devour the lice bodily. Several 
species of these beetles were common in the fields, but the most conspicuous from 



88 



size and abundance, was the nine-spotted lady bug ( Coccinella 9-notata). It 
may be recognized by the arrangement of the nine black spots on the brown 
wing covers — four on each side, the ninth just behind the thorax and overlying 
the middle line. It is very nearly a half sphere in shape. The other species are 
like it in general shape, but differ in details of colour and markings. A small list 
of other insects which do more or less good in destroying the aphides could be 
given, but this will suffice to give an idea of the more abundant and useful of our 
insect friends. 

Birds have been thought to destroy the lice, but I have seen no evidence of 
their doing so. Most birds depend on larger insects, and it is only occasionally 
that the small species, such as warblers, eat plant lice of any kind. Excepting 
the Maryland yellow-throat, birds of this family rarely occur in our grain fields, 
so that we can hope nothing from their help. The English sparrow, with its 
clumsy beak and grain-eating propensity, certainly does no good in this direction. 



Experiments with Arsenites. — In the Bulletin of the Iowa Agricultural 
Experiment Station for August, 1890, Prof. Gillette gives an elaborate and inter- 
esting account of a series of experiments that he carried out for the purpose of 
testin g the use of aisenites in the warfare against noxious insects. 

" Paris green, he says, was brought into prominence as an insecticide for the 
lirst time in this country in 1869, and London purple in 1877. Arsenious acid 
(white arsenic) was successfully used for the destruction of the Canker-worm as 
early as 1875 and is still frequently recommended for the destruction of insects. 
During these years the arsenites have arisen to the first rank as insect destroyers. 
They have been largely experimented Avith by entomologists and widely used by 
farmers and fruit-growers, and yet there is much difference of opinion as to the 
proportions in which each may by safely applied to different plants for the des- 
truction of insects. In fact a serious obstacle in the way of a more free and 
successful use of the arsenites has been their liability to injure tender foliage, 
even when applied very dilute. In the experiments of the past two seasons, 
herein reported, I have given much attention to the finding of some method of 
applying these poisons so as to prevent injury to foliage without lessening their 
effectiveness in destroying insect life, and the success met with in this direction 
has been most gratifying. I also give ttie results of experiments to determine rela- 
tive injuries to foliage from applications of the arsenites when freshly mixed and 
when allowed to stand a few days before being applied; to show the effect upon foli- 
^o^ by adding paste or soap to arsenical mixtures ; to show the effects of sun, dew 
and rain upon foliage treated with arsenical mixtures ; to show whether or not 
it is practical and safe, so far as injury to the plant is concerned, to mix the ar- 
senites with insecticides that kill by external contact ; and to show the effects of 
combining the arsenites with fungicides." 

<-> . _ O _ _, _^ ,_____^ 

After giving a detailed account of his various experiments, he arrives at the 
following conclusions: — ;-;;; - 

" 1. The oldest leaves are most susceptible to injury from arsenical applica- 
tions. They often turn yellow and drop without shelving the burnt spotted 
appearance* 

3. Dews, and probably direct sunlight, increase the injuries done by the 
arsenites to foliage. 

* I have put in italics thi)se conclusions that seem to me to be well proven from the experiments here 
reported. Concerning the others there is some doubt, and further experiments are necessary to determine 
positively the facts. 



89 



5. Leaves kept 'perfectly dry can harcUi/ be injured by the arse)iites, even 
tuhen they are applied very abundantly. 

4>. Applications niadc in the beat of the day and in the ljn;^dit sunlipfht do 
not injure foliage more tluin when applied in the cool of the day. 

.'>. The only effect of a heavy rain or dasJting shower following an applica- 
tion of one of the arsenites is to lessen the injury to fol'inge. 

6. Leaves sufFering from a fungous disease are more susceptible to injury 
than are healthy leaves. 

7. When freshly mixed and applied, London purple i.s most and ivhite 
arsenic -is least injurious to foliage. 

8. White arsenic in solution should not be used upon foliage without first 
adding liijie, Bordeaux mixture or some other substance to prevent its injurious 
efects upon foliage. 

9. White arsenic, if olloiued to stand many days in water before being 
applied, ivill do far greater harm to foliage than if applied as soon as mixed 

10. Lime added to London purple or Paris green in water greatly lessens 
the injury that these poisons tvoitld otherwise do to foliage. 

11. Lime added to a mtxture of white arsenic in water will greatly in- 
crease the injury that this poison tuould otherwise do to foliage. If the arsenic 
is all in solution, the lime tvitl then lessen the injury, as in the case of London 
purple or Paris green. 

1.2, London purple (Paris green and white arsenic have not yet been 
tried) can be used, at least, eight or ten times as strong without injury to foliage 
if applied in common Bordeaux nfiixtiire instead of ivater. 

13. The arsenites cannot by any ordinary method be successfully mixed in 
a kerosene emulsion. 

14. The arsenites mix readily in resin compounds and do not seem to be 
more injurious to foliage than as ordinarily applied in water. 

15. The arsenites in strong soapy mixtures do consiilerably rriore damage 
to foliage than when applied in water only. 

16. The arsenites mi.\ readily in carbonate of copper solution and do not 
seem to do more harm than when applied in water only. 

17. London purple in sulphate of copper solution does vastly more harm 
than tvhen applied in water only. 



Honey Bees and Arsenicals used as Sprays. — Mr. H. O. Kni.schke, of 
Juneau county, Wi.sconsin, in the American Garden for January, 18it0, p. 57, 
warms prospective sprayers that the first man caught applying arsenic to trees in 
full bloom will be prosecuted — reasoning that the spraying of such trees will result 
in the storage by the bees of poisoned honpy, the consumption of which will be 
dangerous. 

In our Report for last 3'ear, (1889, page 87) we quoted from Insect Life an 
account from Prof. Webster of the spraying of fruit trees without any ill results 
to either bees or honey. " The prevailing belief," .says Insect Life, " is, however, 
the other way, and cases are on record where serious destruction of bees has 
resulted from spra5nng. In the case of the apple, paiticularly, the apjilication 
should not be made until the bloom has begun to fall, when no injury will be 



90 



likely to result. It was because of tbe possibility of danger that in the beginning 
we were very slow to recommend the wholesale spraying of orchards with the 
ar>;enical mixtures, but experience has shown here, as in other cases, judicious 
and cautious use is attended only with benefit, and that the possible harm is re- 
duced to such a minimum as to almost justify its being left out of consideration." 



Ant Hills and Slugs. — I have resorted to many expedients to get rid of 
the ant hills that disfigure mj lawn and sometimes seriously injure plants and 
shrubs, and have finally succeeded in conquering them. I first hive them, — 
break up the nest pretty thoroughl}^ and if it is near the roots of a plant draw as 
much of the debris as possible a little way from it and turn over it a large plant 
jar. The ants will promptly appropriate the jar, remove their larva) to it, and 
fill it with pellets of earth. I then drench this with kerosene emulsion reduced 
to a strength of 2 to 3 per cent., which will kill every ant thoroughl}^ drenched 
with it. It is more destructive to them than pure kerosene, which does not 
adhere to them. In this way I have thoroughly conquered the ants. 

The rose slug and the currant worm I keep completely under by use of 
hellebore, a tablespoonful to a gallon of water, and forcing it violently among the 
foliage with a hydropult. Commencing in the spring before I can find a slug or a 
worm, and repeating the drenching once a week for three or four week.s, I can 
destroy them completely before they do any damage. On one hundred roses I 
was able this spring to find only two slugs, while the foliage of some common 
sorts I did not spray was completely destroyed. — [M. C. Read, Hudson, Ohio, 
n Insect Life. 

Good Insectivorous Birds. — The following birds are to be classed among 
the most helpful kinds in the general warfare against insects: Robins, for cut 
and other earth worms. Swallows, night-hawks and purple martins, for moth 
catchers. Pewees, for striped cucumber bugs. Wood thrushes and wrens, for 
cut worms. Cat birds, for tent caterpillars. Meadow larks, crows and wood- 
peckers, for wireworms. Blue-thi'oated buntings, for canker worms. Black, red- 
winged birds, jays, pigeons, doves, and chippies — strawberry pests. Quail, for 
chinch bugs and locusts. Whip-poor-wills, for moths. Hawks, all night birds, owls, 
tanagers, black-winged summer red birds, etc. — curculios. There may also be 
mentioned the following insect pest destroyers : Indigo birds, nut crackers, fly 
catchers, chimney swifts, chipping and song sparrows, black birds, mocking birds 
and orioles. 

There is little doubt that for every bird which is injurious to fruit that is 
killed, there are a hundred killed that are beneficial. Of course the whole life of 
the bird must be considered, for very many are fruit eaters The only question 
is, does the bird, on the whole, do most damage or good ? 

The man who indiscriminately kills the birds in his orchard and bei-ry patch 
is not fit to live, and he will surely lose more than he will gain even from a 
financial point of view. — Prairie Farmer. 



RESIST.A.NCE TO COLD BY A CATERPILLAR. — Mr. Otto Dugger, St. Anthcny 
Park, Minn., gives in Insect Life the following instance of resistance to extreme 
cold by a caterpillar of the Dusky S[)ilosoma {S. fuliginosa, Linn) : — "December 
3, 1889. Found to-day in a little depression of the soil a clear cake of ice, and 



91 



imbedded in it the larva of the above species. By means of a hot iron I separated 
a cube of ice with the inclosed larva, and took it to my office. The caterpillar 
was entirely and solidly inclosed by the ic»v, no air-spaces couhl be detected 
amonu; the hair. How long the caterpillar had been inclosed I could not say. 
Left the cube of ice in front (jf my window, where the temperature sunk for two 
days to 11' below zero. Later the weather moderated, and durini,'theday a little 
ice would melt near the caterpillar, but never exposing it to the air. After being 
inclosed for fourteen days, I carefully melted the ice and removed the caterpillar 
to a piece of blotting paper. In less than thirty minutes the larva was crawling 
about, not injured in the least. Yet, to escape further experimentation, it has 
shown good sense and spun up, and transformed into a pupa, healthy to all 
appearances." 



Saw-fly Borer in Wheat. — Prof. J. H. Comstock, Entomologist, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y., describes a new saw-fly working in wheat, known as 
Cephus pygmajus, order Hymenoptera, of the family Tenthredinidae as follows 

An insect destructive to wheat, but previously unknown in this country, has 
appeared in considerable numbers on the Cornell University farm. I do not 
know of its occurrence anywhere else in this State ; but as it is extremely abun- 
dant here, it is doubtless spread over a considerable area. It was first oUserved 
in this locality two years ago by one of our students, the late Mr. S. H. Grossman 
while making an investigation of wheat insects. Mr. Grossman's studies, how- 
ever, w^ere sadly terminated before he had carried his investigations of this 
species very far ; and it has fallen to me to continue the work begun by him. 

On examining the stalks of wheat at harvest time by splitting them through- 
out their length, it was found that some of them had been tunnelled by an insect 
larva. This larva had eaten a passage through each of the joints so that it could 
pass f reel J' from one end of the cavity of the straw to the other. In addition to 
tunnelling the joints they had also fed more or less on the inner surface of the 
straw between the joints ; and, scattered throughout the entire length of the cav- 
ity of the straw, except the smaller part near the head, were to be seen yellowish 
particles, the excrement of the insect. 

If infested straws be examined a week or ten days before the ripening of the 
wheat, the cause of this injury can be found at work within them. It is at that 
time a yellowish, milky-white worm, varying in size from 1-5 inch (5 mm.) to h 
inch (12 nun.) in length. The smaller ones may not have bored through a single 
joint ; while the larger ones will have tunnelled all of them, except, perhaps, the 
one next to the ground. 

As the grain becomes ripe the larva works its way towards the ground, and 
at the time of the harvest the greater number of them have penetrated to the root. 
Here in the lowest part of the cavity of the straw they make preparations for 
j)assing the winter, and even for their escape from the straw the following year. 
This last is done by cutting the straw circularly on the inside, nearly severing it 
a short distance, varying from one-half inch to one inch from the ground. If the 
wheat were growing wild, the winter winds would cause the stalk to break otfat 
this ])oint, and thus the insect after it hail reached the a<lult stage in the following 
year could easily escape ; while but for this cut, it would be very liable to be 
imprisoned within the straw. But under ordinary circumstances the straw is 
cut by the reaper before it is broken off at this point, and conserpiently that 
breaking off does not occur. If, however, there is a strong wind just before the 
harvest and after the straws have been cut in this manner by the insects, they 



92 



are very liable to break off ; the lodging of the grain may, therefore, be largely 
due to the injuries of this insect. In one field just before the harvest I observed 
a large number of isolated straws lying in a horizontal position ; there was not 
the general breaking down of the grain characteristic of wind and rain ; but 
distributed through the grain that was standing there was a large number of 
isolated straws that were lodged. A careful examination showed that this 
breaking down of the grain, in 45 per cent, of the cases, was directly due to the 
injuries of this insect. In many cases the straws had been broken off a consider- 
able distance above the ground, and before the larva had made the characteristic 
circular cut near the root. An examination of these straws showed that the 
larva liad eaten all, or nearly all, of the softer inner part of the straw for a short 
distance, thus making a weak place which was easily broken. As a rule, how- 
ever, the larva obtains a greater part of its nourishment by tunnelling the joints 
of the straw and docs not eat enough of the straw in any place to cause it to 
break until it makes the circular cut near the ground described above. 

After the circular cut has been made, the larva fills the cavity of the straw 
just below it for a .short distance with a plug of borings. Between this plug and 
the lower end of the cavity of the straw there is a place measurmg about one- 
half inch in length (10 mm. to 15 mm.) It is here that the insect passes the 
winter. Immediately after cutting the straw and making this plug the larva 
makes a cocoon by lining the walls of this space with a layer of silk. This layer 
is thin but very firm and more or less ])archment-like ; it can, however, be broken 
with slight difficulty, being somewhat brittle. 

Within this cocoon, which remains in the stubble after the grain is cut, the 
insect passes the winter, in the larval state. It changes to a pupa during March 
or April ; and sometime during the month of May the adult insect appears. 

The exact date of the appearance of the insect depends upon the nature of 
the weather. This year from pupce collected on tlie 23rd of April and brought 
into the Insectary, the adults emerged from the 8th to the 10th of May ; while 
the insects left in the fields were ten days later in emerging. 

The adult insect is a four-winged fly belonging to the order Hymenoptera, 
the order that includes the bees, wasps and ants ; and it is a member of the family 
Tenthredinidae of this order, a family comprising the insects commonly known 
as saw-flies. This popular name refei's to the fact that in this family the female 
insects are furnished with a more or less saw-like organ. This arises near the 
caudal end of the body, and is the ovipositor. By means of it the insects are 
able to make incisions in the tissues of plants for the reception of their eggs. 

In the Canadian Entomologist, 1890, p. 40, Mr. Harrington records the 
occurrence of this insect at Ottawa, Ont., and also at Buffalo, N. Y. 



The Habits of a Ground-Hornet. — Stizus speciosus is the largest native 
groand-hornet, and its formidable appearance and great activity generally secure 
it undisputed possession of the square rod where it happens to alight. It is from 
an inch to an inch and one half in length ; the head and thorax are brown and 
the abdomen is black with six irregular yellow blotches. These markings are 
discernible as it flies swiftly about its business and give it a particularly tiger 
like appearance. It seems to be afraid of nothing, and if you walk near its 
burrow it flies with a menacing buzz in circles about you, and its brown, black 
and yellow bod}^ gleams in the sunlight. 

In constructing its burrows it usually selects a country road side or a dry 
barren hill, where a freedom from roots makes digging less laborious. 



93 



On the hill back of Richmond villafre, on Staten Island, I have seen them 
tarrying heavy harvest tiies to these burrows, several of which are du*; there 
nearly t'veiy summer. The task of carryinf^ so i^reat a burden as a Cicada is a 
particularly laborious one, and they do nottly very fast when thus heavily laden. 
Sometimes they drag the harvcst-liies a distance along the ground, aiul sometimes 
they resort to an ingenious method to Htially get them to their burrows. 

In August, 1889, I observed a Stizus carrying a Cicada and Hying slowly up 
a hill side. It lit at the base of a black birch on the liill top, and (lragg(!<l the 
harvest-tly, holding the smooth dorsal surface to the bark, to the topmost braiiches 
finally disappearing among the leaves. I did not see it leave the tree, for I was 
unable to command a view on all sides at the same time, and then there was a 
neighboring birch whose branches interlocked with the one where the hornet was. 
I .satisfied myself that it did leave, by climbing up and violently .shaking the 
branches and tree top, Stizus employs this method of transporting the heavy 
Cicada ; it climbs the tree with the insect, and then flies from the branches, the 
excessive weight gradually bringing it to the ground again but neajer to its 
burrow. 

Professor Morse, in his annual address before the American Association in 
1887, notices the following : — Dr. Thomas Meehan describes a hornet that was 
gifted with great intelligence. He saw this insect struggling with a large locust 
in unsuccessful attempts to fly away with it. After several fruitless efforts to 
fly up from the ground with his victim, he finally dragged it fully thirty feet to 
a tree, to the top of which he laboriously ascended, still clinging to his burden, 
and having attained this elevated position he flew off in a horizontal direction 
with the locust." 

Commenting upon this, Mr. C. G. Rockwood, jr., in Science for August 10th, 
1887, gives an account of a large insect evidently of the wasj) family, that carried 
a Cicada for a distance of twenty feet up a maple tree and then flew away with 
it as described above. 

Wishing to ascertain the relative weights of these insects, I had dried speci- 
mens, including pins, weighed in a druggist's .scales. Cicada tibicen weighed 
thirteen grains and Stizus sjxciosus seven and one half. — W. T. Davis, Tompkins- 
ville, Staten Island, N. Y. 



EXPERIMENTS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF CHINCH BUGS. 

BY PROF. F. H. SNOW, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LAWRENCE. 

These experiments have been continued through the two seasons of 1889 
and 1890 and have been remarkably successful. As entomologist to the Kan.sas 
State Board of Agriculture I had prepared an article for the annual meeting of 
that Board in January, 1889, stating what was known at that time upon the 
subject, and calling attention to the investigations of Professors Forbes, Burrill 
and Lugger. In June, 1889, a letter was received from Dr. J. T Curtiss, of 
D wight, Morris County, Kansas, announcing that one of the diseases mentioned 
in the article (Entomoplithora) was raging in various fields in that region, and 
stating that in many places in fields of oats and wheat the ground was fairly 
white with the dead bugs. Some of these dead bugs were at once obtained and 
experiments were begun in the entomological laboratory of the University. It 
was found that living healthy bugs, when placed in the same jar with the dead 



94 



bugs from Morris County, were sickened and killed within ten days. A Lawrence 
newspaper reporter learning of this fact published the statement that any 
farmers who were troubled by chinch-bugs might easily destroy them from their 
entire farms by sending to me for some diseased bugs. This announcement was 
published all over the country, and in a few days I received applications from 
Agricultural Experiment Stations and farmers in nine different States, praying 
for a few " diseased and deceased " bugs with which to inoculate the destroying 
pests with a fatal disease. Some fifty packages were sent out during the season 
of 1889, and the results were in the main highly favorable. It was my belief 
that sick bugs would prove more serviceable in the dissemination of disease than 
dead bugs. I accordingly sent out a circular letter with each package, instruct- 
ing the receiver to place the dead bugs in a jar for 48 hours, with from ten to 
twenty times as many live bugs from the field. In this way the disease would 
be communicated to the live bugs in the jar. These sick bugs being deposited 
in diflerent portions of the field of experiment would communicate the disease 
more thoroughly while moviuQ- about among the healthy bugs by which they 
would be surrounded. This belief was corroborated by the results. This disease 
was successfully introduced from my laboratory into the States of Missouri, 
Nebraska, Indiana, Ohio and Minnesota, and into various counties of the State 
of Kansas. A report of my observations and experiments in 1889 has been 
published in the transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, vol. XI I., pp. 
34-37, also in the report of the proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Kansas 
State Board of Agriculture in January, 1890. 

The next point to be attained was the preservation of the disease through 
the winter, in order that it might be under my control and be available for use 
in the season of 1890. To accomplish this result, T placed fresh healthy bugs in 
the infection jar late in November 1889, and was pleased to note that they con- 
tracted disease and died in the same way as in the earlier part of the season. I 
was not able to obtain fresh material for the purpose of testing the vitality of the 
disease germs in the spring of 1890, until the month of April, and then only a 
limited supply of live bugs could be secured. I quote the following from my 
laboratory notes : 

April 10 : twenty-five chinch-bug.s that had hibernated in the field were put in the infection jars» 
They were supplied with young wlieat plants. The bugs appeared lively and healthy. 

April 16 : some of the bugs were dead and all appeared stupid. 

April 20 : all of the bugs were dead. 

One week later, a new supply of fourteen bugs was put into the jar ; they were supplied with growing 
wheat. They ran substantially the same course as the first twenty-five. Some had died at the end of the 
first week and all were dead by the end of the thirteenth day. 

The chinch-biig seemed to have been verj'- generally exterminated in Kansas 
in 1889, and only three applications for diseased bugs were received in 1890 up to 
the middle of July. On account of the limited amount of infection material on 
hand, I required each applicant to send me a box of live bugs, which I placed in 
the infection jars, returning in a few days a portion of the sick bugs to the 
sender. The three applicants above noted reported the complete success of the 
experiments. I give the following letter from Mr. M. F. Mattocks, of Wauneta, 
Chautauqua County, Kansas : 

Wauneta, Kansas, July 7, 1890. 

Dear Sib :— I received from you a few days since, a box of diseased chinch-bugs. I treated them 
according to instructions, and I have watched them closely, and find that they have conveyed the disease 
almost all over my farm, and bugs are dying at a rapid rate. I have not found any dead bugs on farms 
adjoining me. I here enclose you a box of healthy bugs that I gathered 1\ miles from my place ; I do 
not think they are diseased. Vqurs, M. V. Mattocks. 



95 



I also quote the followinp^ clipping from the Cedar Vale (Chautauqua Co.) 
Star : 

Infkcting Cm.NCH-Bi'ns.— There is in> loiii^'nr any need of having our cropn destroyed \>y cliiiu h-lnigH. 
A remedy that is sure as death and costs nutliing, has lieen disctivered and is noed in this coiintiy with 
complete Micec-<s. .\[r. M.F. Mattocks, living' a niilo and :i half east of SVauneta, on the Jl. 1'. ^loner 
farm, is entich'd to the credit of demons! ratinj,' in this part, tiie efiicivncy of the rtniedy. He was ahi ut to 
lose his corn cro]) liy the bngs tliat were swarming into it from tlie stubble. He sent to Chancellor V. H. 
Snow, of the Stale University at Lawrence, and from him received a V)ox containing a half dozen 
diseivsed hugs. With them he exterminated a forty acre field full of the jiests. Tiiey have died by the 
millions, in fact, they have about all died from the infection of those six bugs. A little cirodar of 
instnictions, which he followed out, canu- with them. The six bugs were placed in a bottle witii three 
or four hundred from the field, and were left tog((ther thirty-six hours and, then turn* d loose, both the 
living ones and the deail, in the field. Devastation followed, and Mr. Mattocks will be troubled no more 
with chinch-bugs this year. If your crop is in danger y(.u can save it by tlie same means of getting 
the diseased bugs in your field. It will cost you nothing and is a dead sure remedy. He has been 
sending dead and infected bugs to others in the country and to Prof. Snow, whose ttupply was running 
down. 

I personally visited Mr. Mattocks's farm and verified the above statements. 

The difficulty of obtaining enough live bugs to e.xperiment with in the 
laboratory led to the sending out of the following advertisement, which was sent 
out to twenty prominent papers with requests for its publication : 

WANTED ! CHINCH-BUGS ! 

Prof. F. H. .Snow, of the University of Kansas, is in great need of some live and healthy chinch-bugS 
with which to carry on his experiments in chinch-bug infection. Anyone who will send a small lot of bugs 
to Prof. Snow, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, will confer a favor on the investigator, and, it 
is hoped, on the farmers of Kansas. 

This request for live bugs was given wide circulation and resulted in keeping 
the laboratory fairly well supplied with material for experiment. 

Before the close of the season of 1890, it became evident that there were at 
least three diseases at work in our infection jars, the " white fungus " (Ento- 
mophthora or Empusa), a bacterial disease (Micrococcus), and a fungus considered 
by 13r. Roland Thaxter to be Isaria or perhaps more properly Trichoderma. 

The following report which describes the bugs as " collecting in clusters " 
points to the bacterial disease as the cause of destruction : 

PiQU.A, Woodson Co., Kansas, 7th December, 1890. 
De.\k Sir.— Since writing you from Humboldt, Ks., the 6th inst., I have made the happy discovery 
that the germs of contagious diseases sent me were vital. On Sunday last ui)on examination of the millet 
field I found millions of dead bugs. They were collected in cluster.^;. My idea is that dampness facili- 
tates the spread of the contagion. The first distribution of disea-^ed bugs two days after 1 received the 
package by mail apparently produced no results. A part of them were retained in the infection jar 
(quart Mason fruit jar) ; half a pint of bugs were collected from the field ; three days later a foul stench 
was found to emanate from the jar, and a part of the bugs in it were dead. On July 3rd I took advant;vge 
of the cool damp evening and took a few buckets of cold water and sprinkled the edge of the millet and 
distributed more infected bugs. On the Oth I found millions of dead hugs. I think the night and sprinkl- 
ing the millet caused the disease to spread. We have had no rain in this neighborhood since June 17th, 
if I remember correctly. The depredations of chinch-bugs are always more serious in dry, hot weather. 
You have conferred a lasting benefit on the farming interests of the United States, the value of which can- 
not be e.stimated in dollars and cents. It was estimated that during one of the visitation years of this 
insect the damage in the Mississippi valley amounted to ten millions of dollars. I have no doubt that by 
a proper manipulation of the contagious disease in the hands of intelligent persons it will prove an effective 
remedy. I think the contagion should be introduced among them early to prevent the migration of the 
young brood. In my case t received it too late. Karly sown millet presents a favorable place to infect 
the bugs, as they seem to collect in the shade and die. Hoping that when the next Legislature meets 
an appreciative jniblic will buitably reward you for your beneficient discovery, I am gratefully yours, 

W. Jr. MrCORMICK. 

The field experiments were api)arontly equally .successful in the months of 
July, August antl September. The following August field-report is in.serted as a 
fair sample of the manner in which the farmers themselves regard these experi- 
ments : 

Flouenck, Marion Co., Kansas, November Ist, 1890 

De.\u Silt.— On the 20th of August (I think it was) I wrote to you to send me some infected chinch 

bugs, and on the 30th of the same month you sent me a small lot of infected bugs, I suppi 'e about 

thirty in all. T then put with these about twenty times as many healthy ones and kti.t thun f. rty- 

eiglit hours, and then dei)osited them in and through my field— I have about 55 acres unuer cultivation. 



96 



At the time I wrote for bugs my place was all in corn and a very large crop of chinch bugs. I am safe in 
saying that there were more bugt< on my farm than on any two farms with the same amount of land under 
cultivation. At the time of sending to you for bugs I told two of my neighbors of my intention, and 
they laughed at the idea, nevertheless I sent. When I put them in my field it had rained fully a half 
day, and after noon I cummenced to place them about in different places in my field. 1 noticed no change 
in "the bugs for three days, it being cold. On the fourth and fifth days the weather was more warm, and it 
was then that the destruction of the enemy commenced with great satistaction to myself and great surprise 
to mylaughing neighbors. One of my neighbors, Mr. George Winchester, said that there ought to be a sub- 
scription rai^^ed and donated to me. I told him not to me but to you the praise belonged. I think that 
it took about eight days after the five from the time that I placed them in my field before they were all 
destroyed. The fifth day after I put out the diseased bugs I noticed that a great many bugs were flying 
away from my place. I cannot say if the disease spread in this way or not, or if it spread at all. Three 
or four persons said they would come and procure of me some of the dead bugs, but no one came. This 
much I can say, with me this experiment has been a complete success. It has done me a great deal of good. 
I cannot give it a money value, but am satii^fied that had it not been for the infected 1 ugs obtained of you 
that I would have lost twentj'-seven acres of wheat and eight acres of rye, and when I wrote to you for 
bu{;s 1 then contemplated jiutting out considerable wheat, and I was at that time considerably troubled 
ab.iut thi' bugs in my corn, thinking that if I put out any wheat at all it would be destroyed by bugs ; but 
tliaiiks to you my wheat is now safe from bugs, at least those that were on my place before sowing my 
wheat. I only wish that I had written to you sooner than this. I will send by express one bottle of 
bugs that I gathered after they commenced to die. Respectfully yours, John Knoble. 

The following report from R. L. Stangaard is inserted as being of a more 
scientifically circumstantial character than most of the other reports : 

Florence, Kan., Aug. 22nd, 1890. 

Dear Sir. — In reply to your favor of July 27th, I would saj' that infected bugs were applied, after 
they were kept with live ones about forty-two hours. Most of the bugs mixed were dead when taken out 
of tlie box. They were applied in seven different hills, being put into every ninth hill. I marked every 
hill with a number so as to be better able to watch the progress. P^xamined after forty-eight hours ap- 
plication with the following results : — No. 1, mostly dead. No. 2, bugs mostly alive, seemingly very rest- 
less. No. H, bugs seem to be sick. No. 4 bugs mostly dead. On hills around this one bugs seem to be 
restless. No. 5, not examined. On hills around it the bugs seem to be sick. Examination eight days 
after application with the following results :— No. 3, bugs seemingly in a dying condition. On the hills 
around it the bugs seem to be well with exception of one hill where they seem to be dying and some dead. 
No. 1, not a live bug in the hill. No. 5, apparently dying, also dying in the hills around this. No. 6, bugs 
dying in hill. No. 7, apparently not dying. On August 16th, twelve days after application, I found the 
bugs to be dying and dead all through the field— twelve acres. On August 20th, I again found the bugs 
to be dying rajiidly. A field being fortj' rods distant had sure marks of bugs in a dying condition. What I 
mean by bugs being in a dj'ing condition is this : they lay on their backs, almost motionless, and others 
lay in same position, moving limbs violently. This remedy was applied on A. G. Rosiere's farm on Bruno 
creek, Marion Co., Kansas, being nine miles east and three miles south of Marion. Thanking you for your 
avors, I remain, yours truly, K. L. Stangaard. 

The laboratory experiments have been continued through the season. Of 
the three diseases identified, that produced by the Trichoderma appears to be 
less fatal than the other two, as is indicated by the following laboratory notes : 

September 28th, dead chinch-bugs .showing no signs of fungus externally were taken from the in- 
fection jars and crushed on a glass slide in distilled water. Oval hyphal bodies of a fungus (Trichoderma) 
were found in considerable number. These were put under a bell jar. 

September 29th, some of the hyphal bodies had put out slender mj'celial growths ; others in im- 
mense numbers were multiplying by division. 

October 1st, the hyphal bodies were still multiplying by division. The mycelial growths had become 
much longer and in some instances had variously branched. 

October 3rd, a dead chinch-bug taken from an infected field was crushed on a glass slide in distilled 
water. Both round and oval hyphal bodies were found in considerable numbers. The sewere put under a 
bell jar to prevent dying. 

October 4th, both round and oval hyphal bodies were multiplying by division and were putting out 
mycelial growths. 

October 5th, fresh chinch-bugs from an uninfected field were immersed in the liquid containing the 
above fungi and were put in a new jar with young corn plants. 

October 16th, many of the bugs were dead ; the otherj apjiarently lively. The dead bugs were found 
to contain hyphal bodies similar to th.me with which they were infected. A live chinch-bug from the same 
jar was crushed and found to contain round hyphal bodies; but these refused to germinate. 

November 5th, not all of the bugs are yet dead. The few remaining are apparently lively. 

The following is a summary of the results of the field experiments in the 
season of 18U0 : 

Number of boxes of diseased bugs sent out, 38. Seven of these lots were 
either not received, or received and not used. Reports were received fi-om 26 of 



97 



the 31 remaining cases. Of these 26 reports, .S were unfavorable, 19 favorable, 
and 4 doubtful, concerniiiij: the success of the t'xperinicnt. These doubtful cases 
are not to be looked upon as unfavorable, but more evidence is needed to transfer 
them to the list of favorable re})orts. These IK out of 20 reports, or 7:i per cent., 
were decidedly favorable. The experiments will be continued during the season 
of 1891. 

In ]iresenting this paper I wish to acknowledge the invaluable aid continu- 
ally receivetl duriug the progress of the work from my assistants, Messrs. W. C. 
Stevens and V. L. Kellogg. 



BOOK NOTICES. 
Butterflies of North America. Third Series — Pari X. By W. H. Edwards. 

The last part of Mr. Edwards's superb work has just come to hand. It is of 
exceptional beauty and interest. Special attention has been lately called to the 
American species of the genus Argynnis, by the publication of Mr. H. J. Elwes's 
"Revision of the genus Argynnis." (Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1889. Part IV.) 
and Mr. Edwards's " Notes " thereon ('Can. Ent. XII. p. 82.) The present number 
contains plates and descriptions of three species of this genus, the validity of 
two of which has been questioned by Mr. Elwes. Plate I. illustrates the com- 
plete life history of A. Alcestii^ by which it is shown that not only is it distinct 
in the imago state from both Aphrodite and Cipris but also in its preparatory 
stages. 

Plate II. Argynnis Adiante (male and female). This is a local Californian 
species of which Mr. Elwes had only male specimens taken many years ago — from 
what material he had he was inclined to regard it as merely a variety of either Zerene 
or Monticola. It appears, however, that it is not such a rare species as he 
supposed, and Mr. Edwards had ample material to show that this species is valid. 
The male is figured from Dr. Boisduval's actual type. Dr. Behr, the well-known 
San Francisco lepidopterist, writes of it that it is common in its season at the 
proper locality, and further that unlike many Californian Argynnides it is very 
constant. On the same plate as ^. Adiante is figured another interesting species A. 
Atoasa (n. sp.) the male of which has been in Mr. Edwards's collection for twenty 
years; but the female was only discovered in 1889. From the figure it appears 
to be very di.stinct from anything we have in our fauna. 

Plate III. shows Satyrodes Canthus in great detail. The text of this plate 
is very complete. Mr. Edwards has adopted Mr. Scudder's genus for this species 
but believes the name Eurydice does not belong to it. — J. F. 



The Cave Fauna of North America, with renuirks on the Anatomy of the 
Brain and Origin of the Blind Species. By A. S. Packard, M.D. Vol. IV. : 
First Memoir — National Academy of Sciences. 4to., pp. 156. 

The author of this admirable volume is everywhere known throughout the 
scientific world from his numerous works, especially on entomology, and has 
obtained a deservedly high reputation in Europe as well as in America. This 
reputation will, we are confident, be, if possible, enhanced by the elaborate mono- 
graph before us. It contains many original observations of cave animals, .some 
careful scientific investigations, and a very interesting chapter of pliilosop.iic 

7 (EN.) 



98 



considerations. It is also fully illustrated by a map of the Mammoth Cave in 
Kentucky, a number of wood cuts and a series of twenty-seven beautiful litho- 
graphs, nearly all of them drawn by the author himself. The work begins with 
a description of the ^lammoth Cave and others in the neighbourhood, and gives 
lists of the various animals found within them ; an account of the Wyandotte 
and other cave.s in Indiana, Clinton's Cave in Utah, and one in Colorado ; a 
discussion of the geological age of the caves and their inhabitants, the mode of 
colonization and the source of their food-supply. The second chapter describes 
the vegetable life of the caves, which is naturally of the most meagre description. 
Then follows a systematic description and list of the invertebrate animals found 
in North American caves, among which spideis are the most numerous. Insects 
are represented by eight species of Thysanura, four of Orthoptera, two of 
Platyptera, ten of Coleoptera and nine of Diptera — a by no means extensive 
list, but one that includes some very curious and interesting forms. The beetles 
of the genus AiiophtJtahnus are especially remarkable and attractive to the 
ordinary entomologist. Lists are also given of the European and North American 
cave animals, and of the blind, eyeless creatures which do not live in caves, and 
which, strange to say, almost equal in number their cavernous relatives. The 
next chapter gives a careful account of the anatomy of the brain and eyes (when 
partly developed) of certain blind Arthropods. The chief interest of the work 
culminates in the final chapter where the author discusses the origin of the cave 
species as bearing upon the theory of evolution. We have not space for any 
abstract of his views, which are well-deserving of study, but must refer the 
reader who desires fresh evidence on the subject of evolution to the work itself. 
We entirely agree with the author in his closing words : " In the case of too many 
naturalists the do^ma or creed of natural selection has tied their hands, obscured 
their vision, and prevented their seeking by observation and experiment to 
discover, so far as human intelligence can do so, the tangible, genuine, efficient 
factors of organic evolution." — c. J. s. b. 



American Spiders and their Spinning Work. A natural history of the Orb- 
weaving Spiders of the United States, with special regard to their Industry 
and Habits. By Henry C. McCook, D.D. Vol. I. Published by the Author, 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1889. 4to., pp. 372. 

The author of this sumptuous volume is so well known from his valuable 
and interesting works on the natural history of various kinds of ants, and his 
charming little book " The Tenants of an old Farm," that any productions of his 
pen are looked forward to with lively anticipation and keen interest. We are 
quite sure that no one of the subscribers to this, his latest and greatest work, 
has been in the least degree disappointed by this first volume of the jironiised 
three. Though spiders are not insects, we have no doubt that every entomolo- 
gist, and indeed every lover of natural history in any of its departments, will 
deeply enjoy the perusal of this volume. We cannot give a better idea of its 
contents than by mentioning the subjects treated of. They are, first, the general 
classification, structure and spinning organs of spiders ; the construction and 
armature of Orbweavers' snares ; the characteristic forms and varieties of snares ; 
unbcaded orbs and spring snares ; the engineering and mechanical skill and 
intelligence of spiders ; their modes of procuring food and habits in feeding ; 
their fangs and poison bags ; their modes of nest making and its development in 
various tribes ; and finally the " genesis of snares." All these different subjects 
are fully illustrated with moie tlian three hundred and fifty wood cuts. The 
second volume is to treat of the mating and maternal instincts, the life of the 



99 



youngf, the distribution of species, etc. ; and the third will be devoted to descrip- 
tions of the orbweaviui,' fauna of the United States, with coloured illustrations 
of a number of species. The whole will form one of the most complete works 
of the kind in the English language. Entomologists will need to luivc long 
purses if they wish to possess all the literatui-e of the day, and to procure for 
themselves such costly and beautiful books as Seudder's and Edwards's Butter- 
flies and McCook's Spiders. We trust that all who can possibly afford it will aid 
the authors in their self-.sacrificing enterprises by subscribing for their books, but 
those who cannot do so should use their influence with their local Scientiflc 
Societies and Public Libraries and induce those in charge to purchase these 
valuable works for the general benefit. We are glad to .say that the Public 
Library in Toronto and our Entomological Society have set a good example in 
this respect and rendered these works available for many of our readers. — C. J. s. B 



Report on Insect and Fungus Pests. No. L By Henry Tryon, Assistant 
Curator of the Queensland Museum. Published by the Department of 
Agriculture, Brisbane, Australia, 1889. 1 Vol., 8vo., pp. 238. 

We have perused with great interest this first work that we have seen on 
the Economic Entomology of Australia. Some of the pests referred to are very 
familiar to us here, for instance, the Codling Moth and the Woolly Aphis of the 
apple tree, while others are species closely allied to those which are very destructive 
with us. The report takes up different fruits, vegetables and field crops that 
are most commonly cultivated in the colony, and describes the insects which 
especially attack them ; as far as possible the life history of each pest is given 
and remedies are suggested. The work is very carefully and thoroughly done, and 
will, no doubt, be of great value to the fruit growers and farmers in that part of 
the world. Its usefulness would of course be greatly enhanced by illustrations o. 
the insects treated of, but evidently there were difficulties in the way of procuring 
these that could not at first be overcome. Future reports will doul)tle.ss be made 
popular in this way. The author deserves much credit for the valuable book he 
has produced. We trust that the Queensland Government will give nim all the 
assistance and encouragement possible in the prosecution of his studies in prac- 
tical entomology, and enable him to continue a work that is of the utmost 
economic importance. — C.J. s. B. 



The Butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon. By Lionel de Niceville, 
Calcutta. Vol.3. 12-^503 pp. (i pi. 1890. 8o. 

Some three years or more ago, we noticed a work on the above subject by 
Marshall and de Niceville, of which two volumes had been published, the last by 
de Nicdville alone. A third volume of over 500 compact pages has just come 
to hand, the most notable thing about which, at least to a dweller in temperate 
regions, is that it is wholly concerned with the Lycaenida', of which eight^'-two 
genera and over four hundred species are described. Such wealth in these pigmies 
among butterflies is a striking fact. The author, however, bo^'ond the generic 
collocation has made no attemi)t to cla.ssify this immen.se assemblage, contenting 
himself with only distinguishing certain groups of <,'enera by the name of one 
of the included genera, as the " Thecla group," etc., which groups are character- 
ised in a general Imt not formal way in the body of the work. These agree 
tolerably well with the groups Doherty had previously characterised from the 
egg alone, but are about twice as numerous and are established mainly upon the 



100 



structural features of the imago. This is better than Distant's artificial divisions 
but there is plainly an open field here for investigation, and one which there is 
apparently no need for great delay in occupying, since (excepting the egg) the 
early stages of Lycaeninae appear to offer less service to the systeniatist than in 
any other group of butterflies. 

What will surprise one in this volume, is the very considerable addition to 
our knowledge of the early stages of the Lycaeninae, for excepting the Hesperidae 
this group is in general the least known of butterflies. Yet something is 
recorded of no less than thirty-four genera, much of it new, and in many a good 
deal of interesting history is related. This is a great improvement on the 
preceding volumes. One particular case, that of the pomegranate butterflies, whose 
history was briefly and partially given by Westwood, seems valuable enough 
to reprint for the benefit of American readers ; and another, Curetis thetis, may 
well be mentioned here : — " The twelfth segment [of the larva] bears two most 
extraordinary structures, which consist of two diverging, cylindrical, rigid pillars, 
arising from the subdorsal region and of a pale green color. When the insect 
is touched or alarmed, from each pillar is everted a deep maroon tentacle as long 
as the rigid ])illar, bearing at its end long parti-coloured hairs, the basal third of 
each hair being black, the upper two-thirds white. The maroon tentacle with 
its long hairs spread out like a circular fan or rosette is whirled round with great 
rapidity in a plane parallel to the body, its use being almost certainly to frighten 
away its enemies, as this larva, as far as I am aware, is not attended by protecting 
ants and lacks the honey-gland on the eleventh segment present in so many 
lycsenid larvae which are affected by ants." 

Ants have been found attendant upon half a dozen genera, and in many 
cases they have been identified by Dr. A. Forel, of Switzerland. At least a dozen 
species are concerned, and they are about equally divided between the Formicidse 
and Myrmicidae. 

Spalgis, it appears, is another instance of a carnivorous lycaenid comparable 
to our Feniseca, the larva associating with and feeding upon the " mealy bug " 
of the planters, a species of Dactylopius. De Nic^ville in no wa}' favours 
Edwards's belief that Feniseca belongs to the Lemoniinas, and adds nothing, as 
we had hoped he might be able to do, to Holland's suggestions that Liphyra, too, 
might be carnivorous, though he points out that the two genera differ in their 
perfect state in the number of subcostal nervules, and are therefore not so closely 
allied as Dr. Holland thought. 

The seasonal dimorphism of many Indian Lycoenidae is well brought out, the 
dry and wet season taking the place of our spring and summer ; indeed, it occurs 
in no less than eighteen genera, and this will be a revelation to many, and seems 
to bid fair to renovate the study of tropical butterflies. But while in India 
proper " the seasonal forms seem to be chiefly restricted to two, a wet and a 
dry," in tlie Himalayan district of Sikkim " the dry season form which occurs 
at the end of the year differs somewhat from the dry season form which occurs 
in the spring, so that with regard to some species there may be said to be three 
forms — a spring, a wet season, and a winter form." Sexual dimorphism on the 
contrary is very rare among tropical Lycaenidae, de Nicdville stating that he 
does not know positively of any case, though he suspects it in a species of 
Zephyrus. On the authority of Doherty (a native of Cincinnati by the way, 
working most industriously in the east), he credits half a dozen or more species 
as mimicking others of the same or neighboring groups of Lycaenidae. Much 
attention is also paid to the secondary sexual characteristics so far as their gross 
appearances are concerned, and they are noted in no less than nineteen genera. 



101 



Finally, we may call attention to the very interesting general chapter on the 
LyciBniila3 at the beginning of the volume, which is of more than usual interest 
and rather exceptional in a work of this kind. The work itself must serve a 
very useful purpose ; its execution is remarkably even and shows great skill and 
balance on the part of the author. There are half a dozen plates like tho.se of 
the former volumes and executed by the same parties, excepting that two of 
them are chromo-lithographs, but we could wish that some plates of the early 
stages might have been added, and the direct purposes of the book for the Indian 
student would have been served by others giving structural details. — s. H. s. 



Manual of Injurious Insects and Methods of Prevention. By Eleanor 
A, Ormerod. Second Edition. 1890, 

The enlarged and thoroughly revised edition of Miss Ormerod's Manual of 
Injurious Insects which has lately appeared, is a work of such importance to all 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, that it is thought well to place a notice of it in 
our Annual Report so that, such of our readers who have not seen it may know 
of its publication. We feel confident that a perusal of this work would well re- 
pay all those engaged in the cultivation of farm, orchard or garden crops. The 
study of economic entomology has made great progress during the decade which 
has elapsed since the appearance of the first edition of Miss Ormerod's Manual in 
1881, and this progress is to a large measure due to the unceasing labours of this 
talented lady. Her annual reports are eagerly looked for by thousands of farmers 
in Great Britain and by scientific students in all parts of the w^orld. They give 
H concise account of the in.sect attacks which have occurred in the British Isles 
during the year which has followed the issue of the previous report. A feature 
of these reports is their practical nature, every attention being given to the best, 
not the largest number of, remedies for each insect mentioTied. This character is 
also very manifest, as might have been expected, in this more important work of 
Miss Ormerod's. There is no writer upon the practical science of combating the 
ravages of insects wiiich attack crops, in Australia, India, South Africa, the 
United States, Canada, or elsewhere, who does not quote her opinion as the high- 
est authority upon any subject which she has written about. This is due to the 
careful and thoroucjh manner in which all of her investisjations are carried out. 
In the last number of " Insect Life " issued by the United States Department of 
Agriculture and edited by the highest living authorities upon economic entomo- 
logy, the following complimentary notice of this work appears : — " On account of 
its convenient size, admirable arranrjement, plain lan<;uage, and abundant illus- 
tration, it is almost a model of what such a work should be. " — " Miss 
<Jrmerod's work cannot be too highly commended." 

Now the merits above enumerated are just the points which render this work 
.so valuable, for it is perfectly intelligible to anyone who can read, and thus 
becomes almost indispensable to every farmer, gardener, or fruit grower, who 
would carry on his work in the most successful manner. Nor is this the case in 
England alone, where the work was written, for so many of the actual insects 
treated are common as agricultuial pests both in Europe and in North America, 
and moreover the general principles recommended for the prevention of injury 
are applicable all the world over. Besides this from the fact that most of our 
most injurious insects are imported species, we know not at what moment any of 
those so well treated of in this work, may not appear in our midst as a serious 
tax upon our cultivated crops. The difierent kinds of attacks are arranged 
alphabetically under the three headings, Food Crops, Forest Trees, and Fruit. 
-Some new attacks not mentioned in the first edition and which appeared sub- 



102 



sequently to its issue, are now. paid particular attention to, amongst these are the 
Hessian Fly, Stem Eel-worms and the Wheat Bulb-fly. The information concern- 
ing all the attacks treated of in both editions^ has been largely augmented and 
the special subjects of Wireworms, Turnii)-dea-beetle, Mustard Beetle, and Hop 
Aphis are entered on at length. 

Special attention has been given to the presentation of the latest developments 
in the way of preventive measures. Attention is drawn to the use of chemical 
manures which are highly beneficial as plant-stimtdants (but by no means so to 
vegetable-feeding grubs and maggots), and the many kinds of agricultural imple- 
ments, by which the soil can be more completely broken up on the surface, or the 
surface more thoroughly buried down than was formerly the case, these are of 
great assistance to us. As an Appendix to the Manual is given a short and 
copiously illustrated " Introduction to Entomology," where, in the plainest 
possible language, the structure and changes of insects are described, and illustra- 
tions and definitions of the various natural orders into which they are classified 
are given, so as to " enable the observer of a crop attack to tell at least what kind 
of insect is before him," and also " in the list of the orders of insects, notes are 
given of the most observable of the characteristic points br which the insects 
composing these different orders may be distinguished from each other." 

A glossary of terms and a full index render this work very complete. It 
contains 410 pages, and is illustrated with 155 excellent figures, many of them 
from the authoress's own pencil. The frontispiece is a portrait of the authoress 
which has been prefixed by desire of many friends and will be of interest to many 
in this country who have not had the pleasure of meeting Miss Ormerod. The 
manual is well printed, neatly bound in cloth, and the small price at which it is 
published (SI. 25) brings it within the reach of all. 

There are many articles in the manual which are of interest to Canadian 
readers as they describe insects which also occur here — amongst these the follow- 
ing may be mentioned : 

The Bean Weevil (Bruchus granariiis). — Treating the seed with a solution 
of sulphate of copper and carbolic acid are recommended, also soaking the seed 
beans for some time before they are sown, or dropping them for one minute into 
boiling water. 

The Cabbage Aphis (Aphis hrassicce). — In garden cultivation drenching the 
infested plant with soap-suds is practicable, syringing with an infusion of tobacco 
in lime-water has been found useful and dusting with caustic lime and soot are 
stated to be very effective in getting rid of the aphis. 

The Small White Cabbage Butterfly (Pleris rapce). — The greatest confi- 
dence seems to be placed in .strengthening the plant, so as to enable it to outgrow 
the attacks of the caterpillars. In this country this is insufiicient and undoubtedly 
the best remedy is pyrethrum powder reduced with 4 times its weight of 
common flour or finely sifted lime and then dusted over the plants. 

Cabbage Fly {Anthoinyia brassiccc). — The use of barn-yard manure imme- 
diately before a cabbage crop seems to induce attack, also the continuous culti- 
vation of cabbajjes on the same ground. The value of lime and ashes are 
emphasized by the experience of correspondents. 

Carrot Fly (Psila roscr). — This is an uncommon insect in Canada ; but is 
found here and is liable at any time to develop in numbers. The remedies suggested 
consist chiefly of, careful cultivation of the soil so as to induce a vigorous growth, 
care at the time of thinnirif; the rows and the use of obnoxious materials to deter 
the females from egg-laying. 



lO:] 



Stem P^klwoum {Ti/lenchun dcvastatrlx). — "Clover sickness " and "Tulip, 
root " in oats are caused by small nematode worms. We have not so far observed 
these in Canada, but they have been studied in the United States and we should 
be on our guard, Some points in the life-history of the species are f^iven in re- 
gard to which some common-sense remedies are suggested, such as not ])lanting 
a crop liable to attack upon infested ground. It is shown that several plants are 
injured by the worms and tliat they can survive the operation of digestion in 
animals fed on infested fodder. It is the san)es])ecies which causes stem-sickness 
in clover and " tulip-root " in oats. Grain Aphis Siphunophoragranarin, Kirby. 
Early maturing varieties of grain are recommended. The full life-history of this 
insect is still unknown. 

Daddy Longi.eqs (Tipulcc). — These troublesome insects are treated at some 
length. Amongst measures to be taken to lesson the quantity of eggs laid, are 
mowing down coarse vegetation in places suitable for the females to lay eggs, and 
feeding sheep on infested pastures. Draining of low land and the use of quick- 
acting fertilisers are suggested. 

Hessian Fly (Cecidomyia destructor). — This well known pest has been 
specially studied by Miss Ormerod. The chief remedies are burning infested 
stubble and screenings, the selection of varieties least attacked, and the use of 
special fertilisers in the spring to strengthen injured plants. 

Wheat Midge {Cecidomyi'i tritici) — Deep plowing directly after harvest 
and the destruction of screenings seem to be the best remedies. 

Thrips {Thi'ips cerealium). — Deep ploughing and clean farming are thought 
to be the best remedies. 

Wikeworms (larvie of the Click Beetles). — " Wire worms ma}' perhaps be said 
to do the greatest amount of mischief of any of our farm pests ; they destroy root 
grain and fodder crops." So Miss Ormerod begins her article and it is almost as 
true for some parts of Canada. Great stress is laid on the preparation of the land 
before a crop liable to attack. Autumn feeding with sheep and the use of gas- 
lime and salt are highly spoken of. Sir Richard Keene writes " If tlie lea is 
broken for oats (our general crop) it is sure to be attacked more or less by wire- 
worms ; I top-dress with 4 cwt. agricultui'al salt, 2 cwt, superphosphate and 
sometimes 1 cwt. nitrate of soda. I have never known this to fail if ap[»lied in 
time. If the lea is broken in autumn, to have green crops in the folfowing year, 
I have the land worked as much as possible and apply 8 tons hot lime to the 
statute acre ; lime as hot as possible. I always sow the seed with a liberal dress- 
ing of farmyard dung, for such crops as mangold, turnip, cabbage, carrot, and 
parsnip, and I use the following dressing of artificial : — 2 cwt. best bone meal, 1 
cwt. nitrate of soda, and 3 cwt. common salt. I find the plants are soon forced 
up beyond the reach of damage. 

Hop Aphis (Fhorodon humidi). — This is another insect which sometimes 
does enormous injury in Europe, and which has received particular attention from 
both the authoress and Prof. Riley whose studies have supplied important links in 
the life-chain of this insect. The remedies most to be relied on are the treatment 
of plum trees early in the season to destroy the first brood of aphis and after- 
wards " washing or spraying the hop plants when they are foun<l to be infested. 

Red Spider {Tctranychus telarias). — This is another of the dire enemies of 
the hop as well as many other plants. Washes containing sulphur or kerosene 
are suggested. 

Mangold or Beet Fly (Anthoniyia befce). — The remedy most spoken of is 
high cultivation ; but the benefits of a kerosene emulsion are suggested by the 
experience of one of the correspondents quoted. 



104 



Onion Fly (Anthomyia ceparum) — The remedies offered for this well-known 
pest are careful preparation of ground which has not borne onions the previous 
year, growing them in trenches so that the bulb may be kept covered, the re- 
moval of diseased bulbs, and the treatment of infested plants with what is 
practically a kerosene emulsion or simply with soap suds. 

Slugs. — These troublesome mollusks are not insects but are treated in the 
manual because so frequently sent in by people who suppose they are. Gas-lime, 
lime, and salt if applied frequently at short intervals are sure remedies. 

The Diamond-back Moth {Plutella omciferarum). — This insect frequently 
so injurious to cabbages in this country is spoken of as an occasional pest of 
turnips. A dry dressing of gas-lime, one bushel ; lime from the kiln, one bushel ; 
sulphur, 6 pounds ; and soot, 10 lbs., was found useful. 

In Part II. " Forest Trees and the Insects that injure them," theie are no 
insects which actually injure our forest trees in Canada although the general 
principles of prevention and remed}^ give valuable suggestions. 

In Part III. " Fruit Crops and Insects that injure them," we find many too 
well known enemies of the orchardist. 

The Woolly Aphis (Schizoneura lanigera). — Of the many remedies given 
it seems to us that the treatment of the stem inhabiting form with soap-washes 
or kerosene emulsion will be the most effective, and the latter is probably the 
best remedy for the root inhabiting form which is so difficult to reach. 

Apple Aphis {Aphis mali). — Syringing with soft-soap and other washes is 
recommended. 

Codling Moth (Carpoccq^sa pomonella). — Scraping, banding, and washing 
the trees, form the chief remedies. Spraying with Paris green. This is the first 
mention of this now universally used American remedy. Up to last year Paris 
green as an insecticide was unknown in England. Now however at' Miss 
Ormerod's suggestion it has been tried and has proved so successful that there is 
no doubt that it will rise rapidly in public favour. Probably some from careless- 
ness or recklessness, in not following the instructions closely, will put on the 
washes too strong and injure the foliage ; but the benefits which will follow its 
adoption will be so enormous that Miss Ormerod will speedily be recognised as a 
public benefactor by thousands of the ignorant educated people in Great Britain 
who " did not know that grubs and creeping things were of any interest to them." 

Mussel Scale (Mytilaspis pomorum). — This is our familiar oyster-shell 
bark louse. The usual soap washes in spring and the mechanical removal of the 
scales are recommended. 

Gooseberry Saw-fly {Nematus ribesii, Curtis). — Great stress is laid on the 
value of removing the surface soil from beneath bushes which have been infested 
by the larvae. Mention is made of some mixtures containing soot or sulphur. 
We are surprised to find that " white hellebore " is not mentioned. 

Shot Borer " Pear Blight " {Xyleborus dispar). — A most complete article 
is given on this insect which has been very injurious in our Maritime Provinces 
for some years ; preventive remedies in the shape of washes to prevent the females 
from laying eggs are ^dven. 

Mottled Umber Moth {hyhcrnia defoliaria). — This moth is interesting to 
us from the fact that it has been taken on three occasions in Vancouver Island 
by Rev. George W. Taylor — whether indigenous or introduced is uncertain. 

Tills is one of several moths which have been very injurious for many years 
in England but which have been successfully treated during the past season with 
Paris green. A long article detailing the experiments of the Evesham Fruit 
Conference with Paris green, under Miss Ormerod's guidance, <^ive3 an account of 
the successful introduction of Paris green into England as an insecticide. J. f. 



105 



The Russian Parasite of the Hessian Fly. — Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod, 
the eminent consulting entomologist of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
in a communication to the Mark Lane Express, thus refers to the discovery of 
this parasite : — 

" It is announced in the United States that Professor C. V. Riley, the well- 
known entomologist to the United States Department of Agriculture, has intro- 
duced into that country living specimens of Semiotellus nigripes, a Russian 
parasite of the Hessian tiy, in order to acclimatize it. By its aid ho hopes to 
practically exterminate the pests in that country. Curiously enough he obtained 
this parasite from England, and it is said that (piite a number have been reared 
for the purpose. If this is the case, there should be no difficulty in the way of 
adopting the same means of getting rid of the Hessian tiy in this country, and 
it would be interesting to have Miss E. A. Ormerod's opinion on the subject." 

My opinion is that, quite certainly, it would be worse than useless (in this 
country) to make any such attempt. In the United States of America things 
are on a very different footing. There are differences in temperature, conditions 
of climate, and also of area of cropping, and other agricultural arrangements 
which must affect this question. Likewise there are special arrangements at the 
Government experimental stations for rearing insects, and skilled Government 
entomologists who can trustworthily examine the collections before they are 
turned loose on the conntry. 

The parasite fly (the Semiotellus nigripes) is only about one! line long, and 
without the help of a magnifying glass and some technical knowledge it would 
be impossible for any but skilled entomologists to be certain whether many pests 
were not included amongst the parasites which they set free. Also it is to be 
remembered for the most part insects pair, lay eggs, and die very shortly after 
they make their appearance from the chrysalids, but even supposing these 
minute creatures lived on awhile, where are they to be taken to ? 

We do not know what corn is infested until attack is thoroughly set up, for 
the most part till the mischief is so advanced that the time for action of the 
parasite is past ; and at a vast expense the intended destroyers would in many 
cases be carried where there was nothing to destroy. 

This work of rearing could not be done on a broad scale — that is, by collec- 
tions from the threshing machine by farmers — and the payment to a staff* of 
collectors, rearers, and distributors would involve enormous outlay. 

The present plan of destroying the Hessian fly chrysalids in the fine 
screenings is much the safest, and also has, for this country, the stated approval 
of Prof. Riley himself. It is easily done, costs scarcely anything, and causes no 
loss; and thus, though we destroy the parasites (of which there are several 
kinds), we also quite certainly destroy the pest. 



8 (EN.) 



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